Hardwick Group



I. Aldous, L. J. Hardwick, Chem. Commun., (2018) accepted, DOI

Rechargeable Multi-Valent Metal-Air Batteries: A Review of Research and Current Challenges in Secondary Multivalent Metal-Oxygen Batteries  
L. J. Hardwick, C. Ponce de Leon
Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev.
, 2 (2018), 62, 134–149 DOI

Time-resolved SERS study of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Non-Aqueous Lithium-Oxygen Cells
P. Radjenovic, L.J. Hardwick
Faraday Discuss., 206 (2018) 379-392 DOI

Structure and Dynamics of Ionic Liquids: A General Discussion
M. Addicoat, R. Atkin, J. N. C. Lopes, M. C. Gomes, M. Firestone, R. Gardas, S. Halstead, C. Hardacre, L. J. Hardwick, J. Holbrey, P. Hunt, V. Ivaništšev, J. Jacquemin, R. Jones, B. Kirchner, R. Lynden-Bell, D. MacFarlane, G. Marlair, H. Medhi, M. Mezger, A. Pádua, I. Pantenburg, S. Perkin, J. E. S. J. Reid, M. Rutland, S. Saha, K. Shimizu, J. M. Slattery, M. Swadźba-Kwaśny, S. Tiwari, S. Tsuzuki, B. Uralcan, A. van den Bruinhorst, M. Watanabe and J. Wishart
Faraday Discuss., 206 (2018), 291- 337 DOI

Electrochemistry: General Discussion
A. Abbott,  L. Aldous,  N. Borisenko,  S. Coles,  O. Fontaine,  J. D. G. Garcia,  R. Gardas,  O. Hammond,  L. J. Hardwick,  P. Haumesser,  F. Hausen,  C. Horwood,  J. Jacquemin,  R. Jones,  E. Jónsson,  A. Lahiri,  D. MacFarlane,  G. Marlair,  B. May,  H. Medhi,  V. H. Paschoal,  J. E. S. J. Reid,  T. Schoetz,  K. Tamura,  M. L. Thomas,  S. Tiwari,  B. Uralcan,  A. van den Bruinhorst,  M. Watanabe  and  J. Wishart 
Faraday Discuss., 206 (2018), 405- 426 DOI


Analytical SERS: General Dicussion
H. Aitchison,  J. Aizpurua,  H. Arnolds,  J. Baumberg,  S. Bell,  A. Bonifacio,  R. Chikkaraddy,  P. Dawson,  B. de Nijs,  V. Deckert,  I. Delfino,  G. Di Martino,  O. Eremina,  K. Faulds,  A. Fountain,  S. Gawinkowski,  M. Gomez Castano,  R. Goodacre,  J. Gracie,  D. Graham,  J. Guicheteau,  L. Hardwick,  M. Hardy,  C. Heck,  L. Jamieson,  M. Kamp,  A. Keeler,  C. Kuttner,  J. Langer,  S. Mahajan,  N. M. Sabanés,  K. Murakoshi,  M. Porter,  G. Schatz,  S. Schlücker,  Z. Tian,  A. Tripathi,  R. Van Duyne  and  P. Vikesland  
Faraday Discuss., 205 (2017), 561- 600 DOI

Template-free Synthesis of Nitrogen doped Carbon Materials from an Organic Ionic Dye (Murexide) For Supercapacitor Application
M. Serwar, U. Ali Rana, H. M. Siddiqi, S. Ud-Din Khan, F. A. Ahmed Ali, A. Al-Fatesh, A. Adomkevicius, J. A. Coca-Clemente, L. Cabo-Fernandez, F. Braga and L. J. Hardwick
RSC Adv.,
7 (2017), 54626- 54637 DOI

In Situ Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Oxygen Reduction Products in Nonaqueous Metal–Oxygen Batteries
Padmanabhan Vivek, N.G. Berry, J. Zou, R. J. Nichols, L. J. Hardwick
J. Phys.Chem. C
, 121  (2017) 19657-19667 DOI

In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of the Lithiation and Sodiation of Antimony Microparticles
N.E. Drewett, I.M. Aldous, J. Zou, L.J. Hardwick
Electrochim. Acta., 
(2017) 247 (2017) 296-305, DOI

Shell Isolated Nanoparticles for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Studies in Lithium-Oxygen Cells
T.A. Galloway, L. Cabo-Fernandez, I.M. Aldous, F. Braga, L.J. Hardwick
Faraday Discuss., 
205  (2017) 469-490 DOI 

Na0.35MnO2 as an Ionic Conductor with Randomly Distributed Nano-sized Layers
A. Adomkevicius, L. Cabo-Fernandez, T.-H. Wu, T.-M. Ou, M.-G. Chen, Y. Andreev, C.-C. Hu and L.J. Hardwick
J. Mater. Chem. A.,
 5 (2017) 10021-10026 DOI


In Situ Study of Li Intercalation into Highly Crystalline Graphitic Flakes of Varying Thicknesses
J. Zou, C. Sole, N.E. Drewett, M. Velický, L.J. Hardwick
J. Phys. Chem. Lett.,7 (2016) 4291–4296 DOI

Three-dimensional Protonic Conductivity in Porous Organic Cage Solids
Ming Liu, Linjiang Chen, Scott Lewis, Samantha Y. Chong, Marc A. Little, Tom Hasell, Iain M. Aldous, Craig M. Brown, Martin W.Smith, Carole A. Morrison, Laurence J. Hardwick and Andrew I. Cooper
Nature Commun.,(2016) 12750 DOI

Batteries: Avoiding oxygen
Laurence J Hardwick
Nature Energy., 
1 (2016) 16115 DOI

Solvent-Mediated Control of the Electrochemical Discharge Products of Non-Aqueous Sodium-Oxygen Electrochemistry
I.M. Aldous, L.J. Hardwick
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,
55 (2016) 8254-8257 DOI  

Utilizing In Situ Electrochemical SHINERS for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Studies in Aprotic Electrolytes 
T. Galloway, L.J. Hardwick
J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 
7 (2016) 2119-2124 DOI  

Mechanistic Insight into the Superoxide Induced Ring Opening in Propylene Carbonate Based Electrolytes using In Situ Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy
Padmanabhan Vivek, N.G. Berry, G. Papageorgiou, R. J. Nichols, L. J. Hardwick
J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 138 (2016) 3745-3751 DOI 

In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon-Coated ZnFe2O4 Anode Material in Li-ion Batteries - Investigation of SEI Growth
Laura Cabo-Fernandez, Franziska Mueller, Stefano Passerini, and Laurence J. Hardwick
Chem. Commun.
52  (2016) 3970-3973 DOI

A Highly Active Nickel Electrocatalyst shows Excellent Selectivity for CO2 Reduction in Acidic Media
Gaia Neri, Iain M. Aldous, James J. Walsh, Laurence J. Hardwick and Alexander J. Cowan
Chem. Sci.,
7  (2016) 1521-1526  DOI


Scaling up “Nano” Li4Ti5O12 for High-Power Lithium-Ion Anodes Using Large Scale Flame Spray Pyrolysis
A.Birrozzi, M. Copley, J. von Zamory, M.Pasqualini, S. Calcaterra, F. Nobili, A. Di Cicco, H. Rajanti, M. Briceno, E. Bilbé, L. Cabo-Fernandez, L.J. Hardwick, D Bresser, S. Passerini
J. Electrochem. Soc.
, 162 (2015) A2331-A2338.DOI

The Role of Re-Aggregation on the Performance of Electrochemically Exfoliated Many-Layer Graphene for Li-Ion Batteries
C. Sole, N. Drewett, F. Liu, A. Abdelkader, I. Kinloch, L.J. Hardwick
J. Electroanal. Chem., 53 (2015) 35-41  DOI PDF

Charge Storage Mechanism of Activated Manganese Oxide Composites for Pseudocapacitors
T.-H. Wu, D. Hesp, V. Dhanak, C. Collins, F. Braga, L.J. Hardwick, C.-C. Hu
J. Mater. Chem. A, 3 (2015) 12786-12795 DOI PDF


Influence of Tetraalkylammonium Cation Chain Length on Gold and Glassy Carbon Electrode Interfaces for Alkali Metal–Oxygen Batteries
I.M. Aldous, L.J. Hardwick
J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 5 (2014) 3924–3930 DOI PDF ACS LiveSlidesTM

In Situ Raman Study of Lithium-Ion Intercalation into Microcrystalline Graphite
C. Sole, N. Drewett, L.J. Hardwick
Faraday Discuss., 172 (2014) 223-237 DOI PDF

Characterization of Aluminum Doped Lithium-Manganese Rich Composites for Higher Rate Lithium-Ion Cathodes
M. Iftekhar, N.E. Drewett, A.R. Armstrong, D. Hesp, F. Braga, S. Ahmed, L.J. Hardwick
J. Electrochem. Soc., 161 (2014) A2109-A2116 DOI PDF

Electrochemical Performance of Laser Microstructured Nickel Oxyhydroxide Cathodes
A.R. Neale, Y. Jin, J. Ouyang, S. Hughes, D. Hesp, V. Dhanak, G. Dearden, S. Edwardson, L.J. Hardwick
J. Power Sources, 271 (2014) 42-47 DOI PDF


Important Parameters Affecting the Cell Voltage of Aqueous Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors
T.-H. Wu, Y.-H. Chu, C.-C. Hu, L.J. Hardwick
J. Power Sources, 242 (2013) 289-298 DOI PDF

Criteria Appointing the Highest Acceptable Cell Voltage of Asymmetric Supercapacitors
T.-H. Wu, Y.-H. Chu, C.-C. Hu, L.J. Hardwick
Electrochem. Commun., 27 (2013) 81-84 DOI PDF


Direct Detection of Discharge Products in Lithium-Oxygen Batteries by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy
M. Leskes, N. Drewett, L.J. Hardwick, P.G. Bruce, G.R. Goward, C.P. Grey
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51 (2012) 8560-8563 DOI PDF

Lithium Insertion into Anatase Nanotubes
V. Gentili, S. Brutti, L.J. Hardwick, A.R. Armstrong, S. Panero, B. Scrosati, P.G. Bruce
Chem. Mater, 24 (2012) 4468-4476 DOI PDF

The Pursuit of Rechargeable Non-Aqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes
L.J. Hardwick, P.G. Bruce
Curr. Opin Solid St. M., 16 (2012) 178-185 DOI PDF

Li-O2 and Li-S Batteries with High Energy Storage
P.G. Bruce, S.A. Freunberger, L.J. Hardwick, J.-M. Tarascon
Nature Mater., 11 (2012) 19-29 DOI PDF


The Lithium-Oxygen Battery with Ether-Based Electrolytes
S. Freunberger, Y. Chen, N. Drewett, L.J. Hardwick, F. Bardé, P.G. Bruce
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50 (2011) 8609-8613 DOI PDF

Oxygen Reactions in a Non-Aqueous Li+ Electrolyte
Z. Peng, S. Freunberger, L.J. Hardwick, Y. Chen, V. Giordani, F. Bardé, P. Novák, J.-M. Tarascon, D. Graham, P.G. Bruce
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50 (2011) 6351-6355 DOI PDF

Lithium-Air and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
P.G. Bruce, L.J. Hardwick, K.M. Abraham
MRS Bull., 36 (2011) 506-512 DOI PDF

Reactions in the Rechargeable Lithium-O2 Battery with Alkyl Carbonate Electrolytes
S. Freunberger, Y. Chen, Z. Peng, J. Griffin, L.J. Hardwick, F. Bardé, P. Novák, P.G. Bruce
J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 133 (2011) 8040-8047 DOI PDF

Activated Lithium-Metal-Oxides as Catalytic Electrodes for Li-O2 Cells
L. Trahey, C.S. Johnson, J.T. Vaughey, S.-H. Kang, L.J. Hardwick, S.A. Freunberger, P.G. Bruce, M.M. Thackeray
Electrochem. Solid-State Letts., 14 (2011) A64-A66 DOI


Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon
K. Persson, V.A. Sethuraman, L.J. Hardwick, Y. Hinuma, Y. Meng, A. Van Der Ven, V. Srinivasan, R. Kostecki, G. Ceder
J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 1 (2010) 1176-1180 DOI PDF

Lithium Intercalation into Mesoporous Anatase with an Ordered 3D Pore Structure
Y. Ren, L.J. Hardwick, P.G. Bruce
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 49 (2010) 2570-2574 DOI PDF

Surface Structural Disordering in Graphite upon Lithium Intercalation/Deintercalation
V.A. Sethuraman, L.J. Hardwick, V. Srinivasan, R. Kostecki
J. Power Sources, 195 (2010) 3655-3660 DOI PDF

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphitic Carbon Thin Films
M. Marcinek, L.J. Hardwick, G.Z. Zukowska, R. Kostecki
Carbon, 48 (2010) 1552-1557 DOI PDF


Electrochemical Doping of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Double Layer Capacitors Studied by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy
P.W. Ruch, L.J. Hardwick, M. Hahn, A. Foelske, R. Kötz, A. Wokaun
Carbon, 47 (2009) 38-52 DOI PDF

FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y=0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte
L.J. Hardwick, J. Saint, I.T. Lucas, M. Doeff, R. Kostecki
J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) A120-A127 DOI


An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-Ion Cells
L.J. Hardwick, M. Marcinek, L. Beer, J. Kerr, R. Kostecki
J. Electrochem. Soc., 155 (2008) A442-A447 DOI

In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Insertion Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors: First Cycle Effects
L.J. Hardwick, P. Ruch, M. Hahn, W. Scheifele, R. Kötz, P. Novák
J. Phys. Chem. Solids., 69 (2008) 1232-1237 DOI PDF


Electrochemical Lithium Insertion into TiO2 Anatase Materials: An In Situ Raman Microscopy Investigation
L.J. Hardwick, M. Holzapfel, P. Novák, L. Dupont, E. Baudrin
Electrochim. Acta, 52 (2007) 5357-5367 DOI PDF

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries
M. Marcinek, L.J. Hardwick, T.J. Richardson, X. Song, R. Kostecki
J. Power Sources, 173 (2007) 965-971 DOI PDF

Behaviour of Highly Crystalline Graphitic Materials in Lithium-Ion Cells with Propylene Carbonate containing Electrolytes: An In Situ Raman and SEM Study
L.J. Hardwick, H. Buqa, M. Holzapfel, W. Scheifele, F. Krumeich, P. Novák
Electrochim. Acta, 52 (2007) 4884-4891 DOI PDF

Raman Study of Lithium Coordination in EMI-TFSI Additive Systems as Lithium-Ion Battery Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
L.J. Hardwick, M. Holzapfel, A. Wokaun, P. Novák
J. Raman Spectrosc., 38 (2007) 110-112 DOI PDF


Nano Silicon for Lithium-Ion Batteries
M. Holzapfel, H. Buqa, L.J. Hardwick, M. Hahn, F. Krumeich, A. Würsig, W. Scheifele, P. Novák, R. Kötz, C. Veit, F. Petrat
Electrochim. Acta, 52 (2006) 973-978 DOI PDF

Graphite Surface Disorder Detection using In Situ Raman Microscopy
L.J. Hardwick, H. Buqa, P. Novák
Solid State Ion., 177 (2006) 2801-2806 DOI PDF

An In Situ Raman Study of the Intercalation of Supercapacitor-Type Electrolyte into Microcrystalline Graphite
L.J. Hardwick, M. Hahn, P. Ruch, M. Holzapfel, W. Scheifele, H. Buqa, F. Krumeich, P. Novák, R. Kötz
Electrochim. Acta, 52 (2006) 675-680 DOI PDF

Surface Reactivity of Graphite Materials and their Surface Passivation during the First Electrochemical Lithium Insertion
M.E. Spahr, H. Buqa, A. Würsig, D. Goers, L.J. Hardwick, P. Novák, F. Krumeich, J. Dentzer, C. Vix-Guterl
J. Power Sources, 153 (2006) 300-311 DOI PDF


Behaviour of Highly Crystalline Graphites in Lithium-Ion Cells with Propylene Carbonate containing Electrolytes
H. Buqa, A. Würsig, D. Goers, L.J. Hardwick, M. Holzapfel, P. Novák, F. Krumeich, M.E. Spahr
J. Power Sources, 146 (2005) 134-141 DOI PDF

Advanced In Situ Characterization Methods Applied to Carbonaceous Materials
P. Novák, D. Goers, L. Hardwick, M. Holzapfel, W. Scheifele, J. Ufheil, A. Würsig
J. Power Sources, 146 (2005) 15-20 DOI PDF


Raman Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Heat-Treated Graphites for Lithium-Ion Batteries
D. Goers, H. Buqa, L. Hardwick, A. Würsig, P. Novák
Ionics, 9 (2003) 258-265 DOI PDF