Publication ethics

Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their ideas.

Publication of results is an integral and essential component of research. The University encourages all researchers to promote their work through timely and accurate publication of results as well as through other forms of dissemination.

 

Unethical publication practices include:

Fabrication

Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.

Falsification

Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

Plagiarism

Appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

Misrepresentation of data

Suppressing relevant findings; or knowingly, recklessly or by gross negligence presenting a flawed data interpretation.

Multiple submissions

Multiple submissions of the same manuscript to multiple journals at the same time

Overlapping publication

Publishing of a paper which overlaps substantially with one already published

Redundant (or ‘salami’) publications

Slicing of data from a large study, which could have been reported in a single paper, into different pieces and publishing them in two or more articles

Inappropriate authorship practices

Authorship is not appropriately assigned based on the author's contributions.

 

Resources on publication ethics

 

For further advice on publication ethics, please contact integrity@liverpool.ac.uk