X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can provide both elemental and chemical state information on a wide range of sample types.

  • Surface sensitive – outermost 1 to 10 nm of sample being analysed
  • Elemental composition
  • Chemical state
  • Depth profile – non-destructive (angle resolved XPS) or destructive using gas cluster ion source
  • XPS imaging – lateral distribution of elements on a flat surface.

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