Photo of Professor Josie Billington

Professor Josie Billington BA (Hons.), PGCE, MA, PhD

Academic support and feedback hours: Wednesday, 9-11am. NB. My academic support and feedback hours will take place via the Teams ‘English Academic Support and Feedback’ site. English

Publications

2021

An analysis of the reading habits of autistic adults compared to neurotypical adults and implications for future interventions (Journal article)

Chapple, M., Williams, S., Billington, J., Davis, P., & Corcoran, R. (2021). An analysis of the reading habits of autistic adults compared to neurotypical adults and implications for future interventions. RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, 115. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104003

DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104003

Overcoming the Double Empathy Problem Within Pairs of Autistic and Non-autistic Adults Through the Contemplation of Serious Literature (Journal article)

Chapple, M., Davis, P., Billington, J., Myrick, J. A., Ruddock, C., & Corcoran, R. (n.d.). Overcoming the Double Empathy Problem Within Pairs of Autistic and Non-autistic Adults Through the Contemplation of Serious Literature. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708375

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708375

The Mental Health Impact of Restricted Access to Arts and Culture (Report)

Billington, J., Balabanova, E., Worsley, J., & Watkins, M. (n.d.). The Mental Health Impact of Restricted Access to Arts and Culture: Heseltine Institute Policy Briefs: Responding to Covid-19 in the Liverpool City Region (PB40).

The Life Rooms at The Liverpool Playhouse Theatre: Preliminary evaluation of the pilot (Report)

Solnick, S., Povall, S., Billington, J., Ross-Williams, R., & Rotheram, C. (n.d.). The Life Rooms at The Liverpool Playhouse Theatre: Preliminary evaluation of the pilot: The Life Rooms at The Liverpool Playhouse Theatre: Preliminary evaluation of the pilot. Retrieved from https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/

2020

‘A bolt is shot back somewhere in the breast’ (Matthew Arnold, ‘The Buried Life’): A methodology for literary reading (Chapter)

Billington, J., & Davis, P. (2020). ‘A bolt is shot back somewhere in the breast’ (Matthew Arnold, ‘The Buried Life’): A methodology for literary reading. In The Edinburgh History of Reading. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a 'Real-World' Shared Reading Intervention for Preschool Children and Their Families: A Randomised Controlled Trial (Journal article)

Lingwood, J., Billington, J., & Rowland, C. (2020). Evaluating the Effectiveness of a 'Real-World' Shared Reading Intervention for Preschool Children and Their Families: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Research in Reading. doi:10.1111/1467-9817.12301

DOI: 10.1111/1467-9817.12301

Barriers and solutions to participation in family-based education interventions (Journal article)

Lingwood, J., Levy, R., Billington, J., & Rowland, C. (2020). Barriers and solutions to participation in family-based education interventions. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 23(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13645579.2019.1645377

DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2019.1645377

Reading (Chapter)

Davis, P., & Billington, J. (2020). Reading. In P. Crawford, B. Brown, & A. Charise (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Health Humanities (pp. 282-287). London: Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.routledge.com/

Inner Voices: Literary Realism and Psychoanalysis (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2020). Inner Voices: Literary Realism and Psychoanalysis. In J. Ros Velasco (Ed.), The Faces of Depression in Literature. New York: Peter Lang.

2019

The Victorian Novel: Laying the Foundations for ‘Bibliotherapy’ (Chapter)

Farrington, G., Davis, P., & Billington, J. (2019). The Victorian Novel: Laying the Foundations for ‘Bibliotherapy’. In J. Billington (Ed.), Reading and Mental Health (pp. 47-68). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_4

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_4

Comfort in a Whirlwind: Literature and Distress in General Practice (Chapter)

Dowrick, C. (2019). Comfort in a Whirlwind: Literature and Distress in General Practice. In J. Billington (Ed.), Reading and Mental Health (pp. 15-30). Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_2

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_2

Correction to: Quantitative Methods (Book)

Billington, J., Corcoran, R., Watkins, M., Steenberg, M., Christiansen, C., Ladegaard, N., & Kuiken, D. (2019). Correction to: Quantitative Methods. Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_22

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_22

Introduction (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2019). Introduction. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 1-11). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_1

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_1

Linguistic Approaches (Chapter)

Lampropoulou, S., Koleva, K., Harvey, K., Brookes, G., & Davis, P. (2019). Linguistic Approaches. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 241-263). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_11

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_11

Qualitative Methodologies I: Using Established Qualitative Methods in Research on Reading and Health (Chapter)

Robinson, J., Billington, J., Gray, E., & Chapple, M. (2019). Qualitative Methodologies I: Using Established Qualitative Methods in Research on Reading and Health. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 155-190). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_9

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_9

Qualitative Methods II: Developing Innovative Qualitative Approaches in Research on Reading and Health (Chapter)

Billington, J., Davis, P., Farrington, G., Green, K., Magee, F., Steenberg, M., & Tangeraas, T. M. (2019). Qualitative Methods II: Developing Innovative Qualitative Approaches in Research on Reading and Health. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 191-240). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_10

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_10

Quantitative Methods (Chapter)

Billington, J., Corcoran, R., Watkins, M., Steenberg, M., Christiansen, C., Ladegaard, N., & Kuiken, D. (2019). Quantitative Methods. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 265-292). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_12

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_12

Reading and Mental Health (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2019). Reading and Mental Health (1 ed.). London: Palgrave. Retrieved from https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030217617

Reading in Prisons (Chapter)

McNay, A., Darby-Villis, C., Billington, J., & Walmsley, A. (2019). Reading in Prisons. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 111-133). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_7

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-21762-4_7

2018

Review Title, Review of 'For Better, For Worse: Marriage in Victorian Novels by Women' by Carolyn Lambert and Marion Shaw (eds), New York and London: Routledge, 2018, pp. 217. ISBN: 978-1-138-28564-4 (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2018). Review Title, Review of 'For Better, For Worse: Marriage in Victorian Novels by Women' by Carolyn Lambert and Marion Shaw (eds), New York and London: Routledge, 2018, pp. 217. ISBN: 978-1-138-28564-4. Gaskell Society Journal, 32.

Elizabeth Gaskell, Cranford (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2018). Elizabeth Gaskell, Cranford (First ed.). London: Pan Macmillan.

21st Century Oxford Authors Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Selected Writings (Scholarly edition)

Davis, P. (2018). 21st Century Oxford AuthorsElizabeth Barrett Browning: Selected Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reading and Chronic Pain (Chapter)

Billington, J., Jones, A., & Humphreys, A. L. (2018). Reading and Chronic Pain. In T. Stickler (Ed.), Arts, Health and Wellbeing: A Theoretical Enquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

2017

The Sonnet and the Student in the World (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2017). The Sonnet and the Student in the World. The Use of English, 69(1), 23-31.

Correspondence: Sitting and Reading as Two Routes to Community (Journal article)

McCown, D., & Billington, J. (2017). Correspondence: Sitting and Reading asTwo Routes to Community. Journal of Contemplative Inquiry, 4(1), 165-185.

Forget Me Not (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2017). Forget Me Not. The Reader.

A comparative study of cognitive behavioural therapy and shared reading for chronic pain. (Journal article)

Billington, J., Farrington, G., Lampropoulou, S., Lingwood, J., Jones, A., Ledson, J., . . . Humphreys, A. -L. (2017). A comparative study of cognitive behavioural therapy and shared reading for chronic pain.. BMJ Journal of Medical Humanities, 43(3), 155-165. doi:10.1136/medhum-2016-011047

DOI: 10.1136/medhum-2016-011047

Meanings of Pain, edited by Simon van Rysewyk. Springer International Publishing, 2016, 401 pages. (Book Review)

Billington, J., Jones, A., & Ledson, J. (n.d.). Meanings of Pain, edited by Simon van Rysewyk. Springer International Publishing, 2016, 401 pages.. BMJ Journal of Medical Humanities.

The Connell Guide to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (Book)

Billington, J. (2017). The Connell Guide to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1 ed.). London: Connell Guides Publishing Ltd.

The Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical Humanities The Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical Humanities, edited by Anne Whitehead and Angela Woods (general editors) with Sarah Atkinson, Jane Macnaughton and Jennifer Richards (associate editors). Published by Edinburgh University Press, 2016. (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2017). The Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical HumanitiesThe Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical Humanities, edited by Anne Whitehead and Angela Woods (general editors) with Sarah Atkinson, Jane Macnaughton and Jennifer Richards (associate editors). Published by Edinburgh University Press, 2016.. Journal of Medical Humanities.

Margaret Oliphant, The Ladies Lindores Part VI (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2017). Margaret Oliphant, The Ladies Lindores Part VI (Vol. 24). London: Pickering and Chatto.

2016

A literature-based intervention for women prisoners: preliminary findings. (Journal article)

Billington, J., Longden, E., & Robinson, J. (2016). A literature-based intervention for women prisoners: preliminary findings.. International journal of prisoner health, 12(4), 230-243. doi:10.1108/ijph-09-2015-0031

DOI: 10.1108/ijph-09-2015-0031

On Not Concluding: Realist Prose as Practical Reason in Gaskell's Wives and Daughters (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2016). On Not Concluding: Realist Prose as Practical Reason in Gaskell's Wives and Daughters. The Gaskell Soceity Journal.

The Very Grief a Cure of the Disease (Journal article)

Davis, P., & Billington, J. (2016). The Very Grief a Cure of the Disease. Changing English, 23(4), 396-408. doi:10.1080/1358684x.2016.1194188

DOI: 10.1080/1358684x.2016.1194188

Is Literature Healthy? (Book)

Billington, J. (2016). Is Literature Healthy? (First ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://global.oup.com/

Making sense of mental health difficulties through live reading: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of being in a Reader Group (Journal article)

Gray, E., Kiemle, G., Davis, P., & Billington, J. (2016). Making sense of mental health difficulties through live reading: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of being in a Reader Group. ARTS & HEALTH, 8(3), 248-261. doi:10.1080/17533015.2015.1121883

DOI: 10.1080/17533015.2015.1121883

DONALD S. HAIR. Fresh Strange Music: Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Language. (Book Review)

Billington, J. (n.d.). DONALD S. HAIR. Fresh Strange Music: Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Language.. The Review of English Studies, hgw090. doi:10.1093/res/hgw090

DOI: 10.1093/res/hgw090

The Selected Works of Margaret Oliphant, Part VI Volume 24: The Ladies Lindores (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2016). The Selected Works of Margaret Oliphant, Part VI Volume 24: The Ladies Lindores (First ed.). London: Taylor and Francis. Retrieved from https://www.crcpress.com/

An evaluation of shared reading groups for adults living with dementia: preliminary findings (Journal article)

Longden, E., Davis, P., Carroll, J., Billington, J., & Kinderman, P. (2016). An evaluation of shared reading groups for adults living with dementia: preliminary findings. Journal of Public Mental Health, 15(2), 75-82. doi:10.1108/jpmh-06-2015-0023

DOI: 10.1108/jpmh-06-2015-0023

A Comparison of Shared Reading and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain (Report)

Billington, J., Farrington, G., Jones, A., Ledson, J., Lampropoulou, S., Humphreys, A. L., . . . Lingwood, J. (2016). A Comparison of Shared Reading and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Pain.

Place and Progress in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell (Chapter)

Scholl, L., & Morris, E. (n.d.). Place and Progress in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315600543

DOI: 10.4324/9781315600543

A literature-based intervention for people with chronic pain (Journal article)

Billington, J., Humphreys, A. L., Jones, A., & McDonnell, K. (2016). A literature-based intervention for people with chronic pain. ARTS & HEALTH, 8(1), 13-31. doi:10.1080/17533015.2014.957330

DOI: 10.1080/17533015.2014.957330

2015

“Shall I compare thee”: The neural basis of literary awareness, and its benefits to cognition (Journal article)

O'Sullivan, N., Davis, P., Billington, J., Gonzalez-Diaz, V., & Corcoran, R. (2015). “Shall I compare thee”: The neural basis of literary awareness, and its benefits to cognition. Cortex, 73, 144-157. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.08.014

DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.08.014

Scenes of Clerical Life (Book)

Eliot, G. (2015). Scenes of Clerical Life. T. A. Noble, & J. Billington (Eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shared Reading: assessing the intrinsic value of a literature-based health intervention (Journal article)

Longden, E., Davis, P., Billington, J., Lampropoulou, S., Farrington, G., Magee, F., . . . Corcoran, R. (2015). Shared Reading: assessing the intrinsic value of a literature-based health intervention. Medical Humanities, 41(02), 113-120. doi:10.1136/medhum-2015-010704

DOI: 10.1136/medhum-2015-010704

Gaskell's “rooted” prose realism (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2015). Gaskell's Rooted Prose Realism. In L. Scholl, E. Morris, & S. Gruver Moore (Eds.), Place and Progress in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell (pp. 159-173). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

Gaskell's 'Rooted' Prose Realism (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2015). Gaskell's 'Rooted' Prose Realism. In E. Morris, S. Gruver Moore, & L. Scholl (Eds.), Place, Progress and Personhood in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell (pp. 250pp). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Reading and Writing Short Fiction: Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2015). Reading and Writing Short Fiction: Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot. The Gaskell Journal, 29, 24-36.

2014

'Cultural Value: Assessing the intrinsic value of The Reader Organisation's Shared Reading Scheme' (Report)

Billington, J., Davis, P., Corcoran, R., Farrington, G., Lampropoulou, S., & Gonzalez-Diaz, V. (2014). 'Cultural Value: Assessing the intrinsic value of The Reader Organisation's Shared Reading Scheme'.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning; 21st Century Oxford Authors (Book)

Billington, J., & Davis, P. (Eds.) (2014). Elizabeth Barrett Browning; 21st Century Oxford Authors. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://global.oup.com/academic/product/elizabeth-barrett-browning-9780199602889

‘An Evaluation of a Literature-Based Intervention for People with Chronic Pain’ (Report)

Billington, J., Humphreys, A. L., & Jones, A. (2014). ‘An Evaluation of a Literature-Based Intervention for People with Chronic Pain’.

Connell Guide to Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre (Book)

Billington, J. (2014). Connell Guide to Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre (1 ed.). London: The Connell Guides.

Jane Eyre: Connell Guides (Book)

Billington, J. (2014). Jane Eyre: Connell Guides. J. Connell (Ed.), London: Short Books.

On Kinship: Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2014). On Kinship: Tolstoy's Anna Karenina. The Reader, 53, 68-71.

Review, Modernizing George Eliot: The Writer as Artist, Intellectual, Proto-Modernist (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2014). Review, Modernizing George Eliot: The Writer as Artist, Intellectual, Proto-Modernist. Modern Language Review, 109(2), 502.

2013

A literature-based intervention for older people living with dementia (Journal article)

Billington, J., Carroll, J., Davis, P., Healey, C., & Kinderman, P. (2013). A literature-based intervention for older people living with dementia. PERSPECTIVES IN PUBLIC HEALTH, 133(3), 165-173. doi:10.1177/1757913912470052

DOI: 10.1177/1757913912470052

Margaret Oliphant Novellas Vol 10 Selected Works of Margaret Oliphant ed. by Joanne Shattock and Elisabeth Jay (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2013). Margaret Oliphant Novellas Vol 10 Selected Works of Margaret Oliphant ed. by Joanne Shattock and Elisabeth Jay (1 ed.). London: Pickering & Chatto.

‘An Evaluation of a Pilot Study of a Literature-Based Intervention with Women in Prison’, (Report)

Billington, J., & Robinson, J. (2013). ‘An Evaluation of a Pilot Study of a Literature-Based Intervention with Women in Prison’,.

'Reading as a Participatory Art; An Alternative Mental Health Therapy' (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2013). 'Reading as a Participatory Art; An Alternative Mental Health Therapy'. Journal of Arts and Community, 5(1), 25-40.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning 21st Century Oxford Authors (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2013). Elizabeth Barrett Browning 21st Century Oxford Authors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Family and Kinship (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2013). Family and Kinship. In M. Harris (Ed.), George Eliot in Context (pp. 251-272). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Margaret Oliphant, Novellas (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2013). Margaret Oliphant, Novellas (Vol. 10). London: Taylor & Francis.

The Victorian Sonnet (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2013). The Victorian Sonnet. In J. John (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online (pp. n/a). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

What is Creative Reading (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2013). What is Creative Reading. Lapidus. Retrieved from http://www.lapidus.org.uk/

Willing Surrender: Thomas Hardy's 'At Castle Boterel' (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2013). Willing Surrender: Thomas Hardy's 'At Castle Boterel'. The Reader, 51, 67-70.

2012

Ashley Chantler, Michael Davis and Philip Shaw (eds), Literature and Authenticity, 1780-1900 (Ashgate 2011) Eleanor Courtemanche, The Invisible Hand and British Fiction, 1818-1860: Adam Smith, Political Economy and the Genre of Realism (Palgrave Macmillan 2011) (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2012). Ashley Chantler, Michael Davis and Philip Shaw (eds), Literature and Authenticity, 1780-1900 (Ashgate 2011)Eleanor Courtemanche, The Invisible Hand and British Fiction, 1818-1860: Adam Smith, Political Economy and the Genre of Realism (Palgrave Macmillan 2011). Gaskell Society Journal, 26, 118-20.

Get into Reading as an intervention for common mental health problems: exploring catalysts for change. (Journal article)

Dowrick, C., Billington, J., Robinson, J., Hamer, A., & Williams, C. (2012). Get into Reading as an intervention for common mental health problems: exploring catalysts for change.. Medical humanities, 38(1), 15-20. doi:10.1136/medhum-2011-010083

DOI: 10.1136/medhum-2011-010083

A Literature-Based Intervention for Older People Living with Dementia’, (Report)

Billington, J., Davis, P., Kinderman, P., Carroll, J., & Healey, C. (2012). A Literature-Based Intervention for Older People Living with Dementia’,.

An investigation into the therapeutic benefits of reading in relation to depression and well-being, (Report)

Billington, J., Dowrick, C., Robinson, J., & Hamer,, A. (2012). An investigation into the therapeutic benefits of reading in relation to depression and well-being,.

The Connell Guide to George Eliot's Middlemarch (Book)

Billington, J. (2012). The Connell Guide to George Eliot's Middlemarch (1 ed.). London: Connell Guides.

2011

Where does literary study happen? two case studies (Journal article)

Billington, J., & Sperlinger, T. (2011). Where does literary study happen? two case studies. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(5), 505-516. doi:10.1080/13562517.2011.570439

DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2011.570439

'Reading for Life': Prison Reading Groups in Practice and Theory (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2011). 'Reading for Life': Prison Reading Groups in Practice and Theory. Critical Survey, 23(3). doi:10.3167/cs.2011.230306

DOI: 10.3167/cs.2011.230306

Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Shakespeare: This is Living Art (Book)

Billington, J. (2011). Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Shakespeare: This is Living Art. London and New York: Continuum.

Realism's Concealed Realities (Journal article)

Billington, J., & Davis, P. (2011). Realism's Concealed Realities. Synthesis, 3. Retrieved from http://www.enl.uoa.gr/synthesis/authors.htm

Review, Mary Jean Corbett, Family Likenesses: Sex, Marriage and Incest from Jane Austen to Virginia Woolf (Cornell University Press, 2008) (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2011). Review, Mary Jean Corbett, Family Likenesses: Sex, Marriage and Incest from Jane Austen to Virginia Woolf (Cornell University Press, 2008). Journal of Victorian Culture, 275-279.

2010

'Primary Sources and the MA student' (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2010). 'Primary Sources and the MA student'. In A. Maunder (Ed.), Teaching Nineteenth-Century Fiction (pp. 91-120). London: Palgrave.

Ask Me (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2010). Ask Me. The Reader, 38, 81-84.

Gaskell Timeline (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2010). Gaskell Timeline. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, & J. Todd (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd..

2009

How Can This Be Me? (Journal article)

Billington, J., Davis, P., & Morrison, B. (2009). How Can This Be Me?. The Reader, (36), 56-65.

Review, Penny Gay, Judith Johnston, and Catherine Waters (eds) Victorian Turns, NeoVictorian Returns: Essays on Fiction and Culture (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008), (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2009). Review, Penny Gay, Judith Johnston, and Catherine Waters (eds) Victorian Turns, NeoVictorian Returns: Essays on Fiction and Culture (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008),. George Eliot Review, 40, 67-69.

2008

Eliot's Middlemarch (Book)

Billington, J. (2008). Eliot's Middlemarch. London and New York: Continuum Press.

Review, George Eliot and the Discourses of Medievalism (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2008). Review, George Eliot and the Discourses of Medievalism. Nineteenth-Century Contexts: an interdisciplinary journal, 30(2), 192-193.

2007

'A Place to Stand and Love In: EBB's Sonnets from the Portuguese' (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2007). 'A Place to Stand and Love In: EBB's Sonnets from the Portuguese'. The Reader, (27), 25-30.

Review, Martin Willis and Catherine Wynne (eds), Victorian Literary Mesmerism (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2006), (Book Review)

Billington, J. (2007). Review, Martin Willis and Catherine Wynne (eds), Victorian Literary Mesmerism (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2006),. Unknown Journal, 123-125.

Sylvia's Lovers (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2007). Sylvia's Lovers. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, & J. Todd (Eds.), The Literay Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.

Wives and Daughters (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2007). Wives and Daughters. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, & J. Todd (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company.

2006

Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, Vol 10, Collected Works of Elizabeth Gaskell, ed. by Joanne Shattock (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2006). Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, Vol 10, Collected Works of Elizabeth Gaskell, ed. by Joanne Shattock (1 ed.). London: Pickering & Chatto.

'Tolstoy: On Life's Verge' (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2006). 'Tolstoy: On Life's Verge'. The Reader, (22), 33-39.

Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters (Book)

Billington, J. (Ed.) (2006). Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters (Vol. 10). London: Pickering and Chatto.

Wives and Daughters (Book)

Gaskell, E. (2006). Wives and Daughters (Vol. 10). J. Shattock (Ed.), London: Pickering and Chatto.

2005

'Why Read Mrs Gaskell Today' (Journal article)

Billington, J. (2005). 'Why Read Mrs Gaskell Today'. The Reader, (17), 21-26.

2004

Cousin Phillis (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2004). Cousin Phillis. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5812

2003

The Life of Charlotte Bronte (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2003). The Life of Charlotte Bronte. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=353

2002

Faithful Realism: Elizabeth Gaskell and Leo Tolstoy: A Comparative Study (Book)

Billington, J. (2002). Faithful Realism: Elizabeth Gaskell and Leo Tolstoy: A Comparative Study. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.

Ruth (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2002). Ruth. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The LIterary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=2276

2001

Cranford (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2001). Cranford. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5808

Elizabeth Gaskell (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2001). Elizabeth Gaskell. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1699

Elizabeth Gaskell's 'The Life of Charlotte Bronte' (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2001). Elizabeth Gaskell's 'The Life of Charlotte Bronte'. In M. Jolly (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Life Writing (Vol. 1, pp. 355-356). London & Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.

Mary Barton (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2001). Mary Barton. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=3725

North and South (Chapter)

Billington, J. (2001). North and South. In R. Clark, E. Elliott, J. Todd, & R. Clark (Eds.), The Literary Encyclopedia (pp. n/a). n/a: The Literary Dictionary Company Ltd.. Retrieved from http://www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=3238