Professor Saye Khoo MB,BS, MRCP, DTM&H, FRCP, MD, Diploma in Epidemiology

Professor(Clin, Hcc) Pharmacology & Therapeutics

    Research

    My Research Interests

    My research centres on the therapeutics of Infectious diseases. I am particularly interested in

    1 the pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs at their site of action, To study this, we use highly sensitive LC-MS/MS measurement of drug in plasma, body fluids (CSF, genital secretions, breast milk, urine), cells and tissues. Our externally accredited Bioanalytical Facility undertakes drug measurement to GCP standards

    2 how (and why) drug exposure differs between individuals. This includes studies of special populations such as pregnant women, children, people with liver or organ dysfunction, extremes of body size and ages, and pharmacogenetic influences on drug exposure

    3 drug-drug interactions involving HIV, hepatitis C and TB drugs. We have been involved in many clinical studies, and together with my colleague Professor David Back, have developed widely utilised prescribing support tools for iOS and Android smartphones (HIV iCharts; hep iCharts) and web-based resources eg HIV Drug interactions website and Hepatitis Drug Interactions website.

    4 Antiretroviral deployment in sub-Saharan Africa, including interactions between HIV and TB therapy, non-communicable disease, pediatric therapy, perinatal transmission of HIV

    5 the pharmacology of antiretroviral use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP)

    6 quality of prescribing, medication error and long term adherence to antiviral therapy

    This programme of work vitally depends on external collaborations, which we always welcome. We work particularly closely with colleagues at St Stephen's AIDS Trust, Imperial College/ St Mary's Hospital, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, Infectious Diseases Institute, Makarere University, the Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Unit in Blantyre, and Magee Women's Research Institute.

    Research Group Membership

    Research Grants

    New Branched Polymers Excipients and Emulsions for Enhanced Drug Delivery

    ENGINEERING & PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH COUNCIL (EPSRC)

    July 2018 - June 2022

    VIrTUAL - Vulnerable populatIon TUberculosis AntiretroviraL

    EDCTP (NETHERLANDS)

    February 2018 - January 2023

    A prospective, observational study to examine the effects of ageing on the clinical outcomes of people living with HIV in England and Ireland (POPPY)

    JANSSEN-CILAG LIMITED (UK)

    January 2017 - December 2019

    The time to protection and adherence requirements of Raltegravir with or without 3TC in protection from HIV-1 infection (R-PREP)

    MERCK SHARP & DOHME LTD (UK)

    July 2017 - June 2020

    Two-month Regimens Using Novel Combinations to Augment Treatment Effectiveness for drug-sensitive Tuberculosis (TRUNCATE)

    NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE)

    September 2020 - August 2022

    An open-label, multi-centre, randomised, switch study to evaluate the virological efficacy over 96 weeks of 2-drug therapy with DTG/RPV FDC in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected subjects virologically suppressed with NNRTIs resistance mutation K103N (WISARD)

    NEAT ID FOUNDATION (BELGIUM)

    November 2018 - October 2023

    Assessing druGs for COVID19 In early cLinical phase Expeditiously

    MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC), RIDGEBACK BIOTHERAPEUTICS (USA), WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    May 2020 - January 2023

    Liverpool COVID-19 Drug Interactions

    MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC)

    June 2020 - June 2021

    A randomised, controlled, open-label, phase II-III trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of regimens containing bedaquiline and pretomanid (PA-824) for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB-PRACTECAL)

    MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES NEDERLAND (ARTSEN ZONDER GRENZEN) (NETHERLANDS)

    February 2020 - February 2025

    COVID-19 Drug Interactions Research Programme

    ABBVIE LTD (UK), GILEAD SCIENCES EUROPE LTD (UK), MERCK & CO., INC. (USA), NOVARTIS INTERNATIONAL AG (SWITZERLAND)

    March 2020 - March 2022

    Assessing druGs for COVID19 In early cLinical phase Expeditiously (AGILE)

    GLAXOSMITHKLINE (UK)

    January 2021 - December 2022

    Novel mechanisms contributing to failure of dolutegravir-containing cART in clinical practice

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) (USA)

    August 2019 - July 2021

    A feasibility study to assess the effects of antiretroviral intensification with cenicriviroc for the management of HIV-associated cognitive impairment

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    November 2016 - July 2018

    Dolutegravir in Pregnant HIV mothers and Neonates (DolPHIN2)

    UNITAID (SWITZERLAND)

    December 2016 - July 2022

    Computational models for the prediction of PK in special populations

    UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL BASEL (SWITZERLAND)

    January 2017 - January 2020

    The Central Nervous System Effects of Two Different HIV-Integrase Inhibitor (INI) Containing Antiretroviral Regimens. ‘The CNS Integrase Inhibitor Study’

    VIIV HEALTHCARE LIMITED (UK)

    November 2016 - October 2017

    Cancer Drug Interactions Research Programme

    ABBVIE LTD (UK), BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB PHARMACEUTICALS LTD (UK), GILEAD SCIENCES EUROPE LTD (UK), IPSEN INNOVATION (FRANCE), RADBOUD UNIVERSITY (NETHERLANDS)

    January 2017 - December 2026

    Co-morbidity in relation to AIDS (COBRA)

    RADBOUD UNIVERSITY (NETHERLANDS)

    October 2016 - April 2019

    Assessment of TMC-278LA

    MAGEE-WOMENS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AND FOUNDATION (MWRIF) (USA)

    January 2012 - March 2017

    Development of a urine-based point-of-care test for adherence to antiretroviral drugs

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) (USA)

    December 2015 - November 2021

    St Stephens Aids Trust - SSAT trials

    ST STEPHEN'S AIDS TRUST (UK)

    April 2010 - March 2020

    Paediatric European Network Treatment AIDS Laboratory Network: PENTA LAB NET

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    May 2008 - July 2012

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for HIV Protease Inhibitors.

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    February 2000 - January 2003

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Programme - Christopher Moxon

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2008 - July 2009

    Protease inhibitors and drug disposition (PROCOM/FORTE Trial)

    MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC)

    October 1997 - December 2003

    Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria

    NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION (NIGERIA)

    November 2014 - October 2017

    Evaluating renal safety and novel biomarkers in Nigerian HIV infected patients exposed to Tenofovir

    RIVERS STATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (NIGERIA)

    January 2013 - September 2016

    Antiretroviral pharmacogenetics

    ZARQA UNIVERSITY (JORDAN)

    November 2014 - October 2017

    Pharmacogenetics of antimicrobial drug-induced liver injury.

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    October 2004 - April 2008

    Non-Attrition HAART nanoparticle therapies for HIV/AIDS Drug Delivery

    ENGINEERING & PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH COUNCIL (EPSRC)

    May 2009 - October 2012

    The Pharmacology of Nevirapine in Malawian Patients: Implications for Dosing and Understanding of Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    September 2006 - October 2009

    Pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic studies.

    MONUMENT TRUST (UK)

    August 2005 - April 2011

    TAILoR (TelmisArtan and InsuLin Resistance in HIV): A dose-ranging Phase II randomised open trial of telmistartan as a strategy for the reduction of insulin resistance in HIV-positive individuals on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (CART)

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    January 2012 - February 2020

    Evaluation of the steady state pharmakinectics of second line antiretroviral drugs when administered under different meal conditions in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

    INFECTIOUS DISEASES INSTITUTE (UGANDA)

    September 2010 - December 2011

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Programme - Peter MacPherson

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2009 - July 2010

    Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling to optimise treatments for HIV,TB and malaria

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    November 2008 - October 2012

    The Use of 'virtual' Inhibitory Quotients to Optimise HIV Treatment.

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    January 2003 - December 2009

    Model-based preclinical development of anti-tuberculosis drug combinations (preDICT-TB)

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    May 2012 - October 2017

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Programme - Laura Benjamin

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2009 - July 2010

    The pharmacology of HIV treatment failure.

    BRITISH SOCIETY FOR ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY (UK)

    October 2001 - December 2008

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PHD Programme - Derek Sloan

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2008 - July 2009

    Intracellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy in relation to human drug transporters.

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    March 2003 - March 2007

    Bioanalytical facility for drugs and small molecules

    ROYAL LIVERPOOL AND BROADGREEN UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS NHS TRUST (UK)

    July 2010 - June 2011

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Programme - Derek Sloan: Understanding mycobacterial persistence in sputum during treatment for tuberculosis

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2009 - July 2012

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Programme - Emma Wall

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    October 2009 - September 2010

    Wellcome Trust Clinical PHD Programme - Jamie Rylance

    WELLCOME TRUST (UK)

    August 2008 - July 2009

    The Liverpool HIV TDM registry - Studying influences upon plasma HIV drug exposure.

    DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE (UK) (DOH/DHSC/NIHR)

    September 2007 - August 2012

    Pharmacogenetic predictors of antiretroviral drugs pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and lactation

    OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY (OAU) (NIGERIA)

    September 2013 - September 2016

    Influx and efflux transporters: a possible pharmacological determinant of HIV treatment failure.

    AVERT (UK)

    September 2000 - August 2003

    PRe-exposure Option for reducing HIV in the UK: an open-label randomisation to immediate or Deferred daily Truvada for HIV negative gay men (PROUD)

    UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON (UK)

    October 2013 - January 2016

    Towards NanoMedicine Interventions for HIV/AIDS

    ENGINEERING & PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH COUNCIL (EPSRC)

    May 2012 - November 2016

    Computer-aided decision support for electronic prescribing, dispensing and health records of HIV positive patients

    LIVERPOOL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE (UK)

    September 2011 - February 2013

    Modulation of TB-HIV drug interaction by host genetic influences

    MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC)

    July 2010 - June 2013

    Modelling adherence, pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes in HIV therapy.

    ROYAL LIVERPOOL AND BROADGREEN UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS NHS TRUST (UK)

    September 2003 - September 2008

    Detection of minority strains of HIV harbouring drug resistance.

    ROYAL LIVERPOOL AND BROADGREEN UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS NHS TRUST (UK)

    October 2002 - September 2005

    Understanding cellular resistance - an important link to understanding virological resistance.

    AVERT (UK)

    September 2001 - August 2004

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Anti-HIV Drugs.

    MONUMENT TRUST (UK)

    October 1999 - September 2003

    Factors influencing drug absorption from small bowel.

    ROYAL LIVERPOOL AND BROADGREEN UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS NHS TRUST (UK)

    October 2006 - September 2008

    Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of Atripla with and without food in HIV-1 infected Ugandan adults.

    JOINT CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTRE (UGANDA)

    September 2010 - December 2012

    HIV-RT Inhibitor program

    PROSARIX LTD (UK)

    September 2010 - November 2010

    Combined CSF Biomarkers of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (HAND)

    BRITISH HIV ASSOCIATION (BHIVA) (UK)

    November 2011 - February 2014