Development of Liquid Argon TPC read-out technology for neutrino physics within the ARIADNE project

Student: Adam Lowe
Supervisor: Konstantinos Mavrokoridis

With its superior energy deposition, offering some of the best energy resolution compared to other neutrino detectors it is no surprise that next generation of Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment have chosen LAr technology for their far detector design. The upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) located within the US, which will be the biggest LAr neutrino experiment to date, will consist of four kilotonne LAr detector modules. One of these modules has been designated for new read-out technology which Liverpool’s ARIADNE program is a leading contender.

One drawback of TPC design over other detector types are the hundreds or even thousands of readout anodes/tracking pads required for event reconstruction; consequently, individual characterization of the equipment generates massive amounts of data and along with increasing the probability of black spots forming from breakages.

Electron multiplication within existing TPC technology (see CMS Experiment at CERN) generates light from decaying gas atoms which goes unused within current detector design, however, imaging this light can substitute for analogue voltage readout. It was from this idea that the ARgon ImAging DetectioN chambEr (ARIADNE) technology was developed and to date has achieved successful detection of cosmic muons and particles at the CERN beam line with imaging in three-dimensions.

LAr imaging technology has been successfully demonstrated on a 1 tonne scale with ARIADNE but scaling up towards a kilotonne size detector, such as DUNE, requires further optimizing and large-scale testing. Optimizing includes, but not limited to: the introduction of a new type of light intensifier, replacing the existing copper THGems with glass THGems, and making the switch to a full Timepix 3 Camera set up.

Looking beyond the current ARIADNE vessel, CERN has hosted large-scale cryogenic experiments thus has the facilities for the collaboration to conduct a 2 x 2 m2 active THGem area test, the largest to date. This test is an ideal stepping stone towards larger scales, allows us to study the engineering required at this size and also characterize the readout given increased TPC size with multiple THGems and Timepix cameras.