Photo of Prof Ric Williams

Prof Ric Williams BSc, MSc, PhD

Professor Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences

    Publications

    Selected Publications

    1. Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle: Principles and Mechanisms (Book - 2011)
    2. Decadal Evolution of Ocean Thermal Anomalies in the North Atlantic: The Effects of Ekman, Overturning, and Horizontal Transport (Journal article - 2014)
    3. Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Journal article - 2010)
    4. The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat-content change in the North Atlantic (Journal article - 2008)
    5. Sensitivity of climate to cumulative carbon emissions due to compensation of ocean heat and carbon uptake (Journal article - 2015)

    2020

    Sensitivity of climate mitigation signals to climate engineering choice and implementation (Journal article)

    Turner, K., Williams, R. G., Katavouta, A., & Beerling, D. J. (n.d.). Sensitivity of climate mitigation signals to climate engineering choice and implementation. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18859

    DOI: 10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18859

    Which Processes Sustain Biota in Open-Ocean Deep Chlorophyll Maxima? (Journal article)

    Rigby, S., Williams, R., Achterberg, E., & Tagliabue, A. (n.d.). Which Processes Sustain Biota in Open-Ocean Deep Chlorophyll Maxima?. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19351

    DOI: 10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19351

    Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models, and their comparison to CMIP5 models (Journal article)

    Arora, V., Katavouta, A., Williams, R., Jones, C., Brovkin, V., & Friedlingstein, P. (n.d.). Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models, and their comparison to CMIP5 models. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6124

    DOI: 10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6124

    Controls of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions: effects of physical feedbacks, heat uptake and saturation of radiative forcing (Journal article)

    Williams, R., Ceppi, P., & Katavouta, A. (n.d.). Controls of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions: effects of physical feedbacks, heat uptake and saturation of radiative forcing. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8433

    DOI: 10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8433

    2019

    Supplementary material to "Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models, and their comparison to CMIP5 models" (Journal article)

    Arora, V. K., Katavouta, A., Williams, R. G., Jones, C. D., Brovkin, V., Friedlingstein, P., . . . Ziehn, T. (n.d.). Supplementary material to "Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models, and their comparison to CMIP5 models". doi:10.5194/bg-2019-473-supplement

    DOI: 10.5194/bg-2019-473-supplement

    Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks Operating in the Climate System (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Katavouta, A., & Goodwin, P. (2019). Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks Operating in the Climate System. CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE REPORTS, 5(4), 282-295. doi:10.1007/s40641-019-00144-9

    DOI: 10.1007/s40641-019-00144-9

    Carbon emissions and surface warming (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (2019). Carbon emissions and surface warming. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/CBl-HncKC5c

    Paris or Bust (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (2019). Paris or Bust. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/0BF6f5bgA8w

    What happens to emitted carbon? (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (2019). What happens to emitted carbon?. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/B6uOvO1263g

    Internal Tides Drive Nutrient Fluxes Into the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum Over Mid-ocean Ridges (Journal article)

    Tuerena, R. E., Williams, R. G., Mahaffey, C., Vic, C., Green, J. A. M., Naveira-Garabato, A., . . . Sharples, J. (2019). Internal Tides Drive Nutrient Fluxes Into the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum Over Mid-ocean Ridges. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 33(8), 995-1009. doi:10.1029/2019GB006214

    DOI: 10.1029/2019GB006214

    The Effect of Ocean Ventilation on the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (Journal article)

    Katavouta, A., Williams, R. G., & Goodwin, P. (2019). The Effect of Ocean Ventilation on the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 32(16), 5085-5105. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0829.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0829.1

    Climate Sensitivity From Both Physical and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V. M., & Katavouta, A. (2019). Climate Sensitivity From Both Physical and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 46(13), 7554-7564. doi:10.1029/2019GL082887

    DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082887

    A sea change in our view of overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Lozier, M. S., Li, F., Bacon, S., Bahr, F., Bower, A. S., Cunningham, S. A., . . . Zhao, J. (2019). A sea change in our view of overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic. SCIENCE, 363(6426), 516-+. doi:10.1126/science.aau6592

    DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6592

    2018

    The RidgeMix Cruise (Media)

    Heath, A. E. (2018). The RidgeMix Cruise. [video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VXTqMgI6hg&feature=youtu.be

    The RidgeMix Cruise (Media)

    Heath, A. E., Sharples, J., & Williams, R. (2018). The RidgeMix Cruise. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VXTqMgI6hg&feature=youtu.be

    Reconciling Atmospheric and Oceanic Views of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (Journal article)

    Katavouta, A., Williams, R. G., Goodwin, P., & Roussenov, V. (2018). Reconciling Atmospheric and Oceanic Views of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 45(12), 6205-6214. doi:10.1029/2018GL077849

    DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077849

    Pathways to 1.5 degrees C and 2 degrees C warming based on observational and geological constraints (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Katavouta, A., Roussenov, V. M., Foster, G. L., Rohling, E. J., & Williams, R. G. (2018). Pathways to 1.5 degrees C and 2 degrees C warming based on observational and geological constraints. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 11(2), 102-+. doi:10.1038/s41561-017-0054-8

    DOI: 10.1038/s41561-017-0054-8

    Sensitivity of Global Warming to Carbon Emissions: Effects of Heat and Carbon Uptake in a Suite of Earth System Models (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., Goodwin, P., Resplandy, L., & Bopp, L. (2017). Sensitivity of Global Warming to Carbon Emissions: Effects of Heat and Carbon Uptake in a Suite of Earth System Models. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 30(23), 9343-9363. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0468.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0468.1

    2017

    Drivers of Continued Surface Warming After Cessation of Carbon Emissions (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., Frolicher, T. L., & Goodwin, P. (2017). Drivers of Continued Surface Warming After Cessation of Carbon Emissions. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 44(20), 10633-10642. doi:10.1002/2017GL075080

    DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075080

    Coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model GFDL ESM2M annual mean global surface warming response dataset (1000 year simulation) (Other)

    Roussenov, V., Goodwin, P., Froelicher, T., & Williams, R. G. (2017). Coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model GFDL ESM2M annual mean global surface warming response dataset (1000 year simulation). Liverpool: British Oceanographic Data Centre - Natural Environment Research Council. Retrieved from doi:10.5285/5c390f2a-68c9-46f0-e053-6c86abc0233d

    Variations in the difference between mean sea level measured either side of Cape Hatteras and their relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (Journal article)

    Woodworth, P. L., Maqueda, M. A. M., Gehrels, W. R., Roussenov, V. M., Williams, R. G., & Hughes, C. W. (2017). Variations in the difference between mean sea level measured either side of Cape Hatteras and their relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 49(7-8), 2451-2469. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3464-1

    DOI: 10.1007/s00382-016-3464-1

    OVERTURNING IN THE SUBPOLAR NORTH ATLANTIC PROGRAM A New International Ocean Observing System (Journal article)

    Lozier, M. S., Bacon, S., Bower, A. S., Cunningham, S. A., de Jong, M. F., de Steur, L., . . . Zika, J. D. (2017). OVERTURNING IN THE SUBPOLAR NORTH ATLANTIC PROGRAM A New International Ocean Observing System. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 98(4), 737-752. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0057.1

    DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0057.1

    The impact of Southern Ocean residual upwelling on atmospheric CO2 on centennial and millennial timescales (Journal article)

    Lauderdale, J. M., Williams, R. G., Munday, D. R., & Marshall, D. P. (2017). The impact of Southern Ocean residual upwelling on atmospheric CO2 on centennial and millennial timescales. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 48(5-6), 1611-1631. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3163-y

    DOI: 10.1007/s00382-016-3163-y

    2016

    Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes (Journal article)

    Lauderdale, J. M., Dutkiewicz, S., Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (n.d.). Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. doi:10.1002/2016GB005500

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GB005500

    Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 1: Personal Perspective (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (n.d.). Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 1: Personal Perspective. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=je_wqNSc3Hs

    Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 2: Historical Perspective (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (n.d.). Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 2: Historical Perspective. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbzf4SgbZao

    Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 3: Future Perspective? (Media)

    Heath, A. E., & Williams, R. (n.d.). Sea Level: A Liverpool View, Part 3: Future Perspective?. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8ZpARgVlFI

    Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes (Journal article)

    Lauderdale, J. M., Dutkiewicz, S., Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (2016). Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 30(7), 983-999. doi:10.1002/2016GB005400

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GB005400

    A framework to understand the transient climate response to emissions (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Goodwin, P., Roussenov, V. M., & Bopp, L. (2016). A framework to understand the transient climate response to emissions. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 11(1). doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015003

    DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015003

    Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink (Journal article)

    Rogan, N., Achterberg, E. P., Le Moigne, F. A. C., Marsay, C. M., Tagliabue, A., & Williams, R. G. (2016). Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 43(6), 2732-2740. doi:10.1002/2016GL067905

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067905

    2015

    Mechanisms of Heat Content and Thermocline Change in the Subtropical and Subpolar North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., Lozier, M. S., & Smith, D. (2015). Mechanisms of Heat Content and Thermocline Change in the Subtropical and Subpolar North Atlantic. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 28(24), 9803-9815. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0097.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0097.1

    Physical controls of variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities (Journal article)

    Barton, A. D., Lozier, M. S., & Williams, R. G. (2015). Physical controls of variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 60(1), 181-197. doi:10.1002/lno.10011

    DOI: 10.1002/lno.10011

    Sensitivity of climate to cumulative carbon emissions due to compensation of ocean heat and carbon uptake (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Williams, R. G., & Ridgwell, A. (2015). Sensitivity of climate to cumulative carbon emissions due to compensation of ocean heat and carbon uptake. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 8(1), 29-34. doi:10.1038/NGEO2304

    DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2304

    2014

    Mean sea-level variability along the northeast American Atlantic coast and the roles of the wind and the overturning circulation (Journal article)

    Woodworth, P. L., Maqueda, M. A. M., Roussenov, V. M., Williams, R. G., & Hughes, C. W. (2014). Mean sea-level variability along the northeast American Atlantic coast and the roles of the wind and the overturning circulation. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 119(12), 8916-8935. doi:10.1002/2014JC010520

    DOI: 10.1002/2014JC010520

    A ventilation-based framework to explain the regeneration-scavenging balance of iron in the ocean (Journal article)

    Tagliabue, A., Williams, R. G., Rogan, N., Achterberg, E. P., & Boyd, P. W. (2014). A ventilation-based framework to explain the regeneration-scavenging balance of iron in the ocean. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 41(20), 7227-7236. doi:10.1002/2014GL061066

    DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061066

    Decadal Evolution of Ocean Thermal Anomalies in the North Atlantic: The Effects of Ekman, Overturning, and Horizontal Transport (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., Smith, D., & Lozier, M. S. (2014). Decadal Evolution of Ocean Thermal Anomalies in the North Atlantic: The Effects of Ekman, Overturning, and Horizontal Transport. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 27(2), 698-719. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00234.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00234.1

    Evidence for production and lateral transport of dissolved organic phosphorus in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Reynolds, S., Mahaffey, C., Roussenov, V., & Williams, R. G. (2014). Evidence for production and lateral transport of dissolved organic phosphorus in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 28(8), 805-824. doi:10.1002/2013GB004801

    DOI: 10.1002/2013GB004801

    The impact of fine-scale turbulence on phytoplankton community structure (Journal article)

    Barton, A. D., Ward, B. A., Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (2014). The impact of fine-scale turbulence on phytoplankton community structure. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments, 4(1), 34-49. doi:10.1215/21573689-2651533

    DOI: 10.1215/21573689-2651533

    2013

    Internal Wave Reflection on Shelf Slopes with Depth-Varying Stratification (Journal article)

    Hall, R. A., Huthnance, J. M., & Williams, R. G. (2013). Internal Wave Reflection on Shelf Slopes with Depth-Varying Stratification. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 43(2), 248-258. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-0192.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-0192.1

    The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity (Journal article)

    Kenitz, K., Williams, R. G., Sharples, J., Selsil, O., & Biktashev, V. N. (2013). The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, 490, 107-119. doi:10.3354/meps10452

    DOI: 10.3354/meps10452

    Water Mass Transformations in the Southern Ocean Diagnosed from Observations: Contrasting Effects of Air-Sea Fluxes and Diapycnal Mixing (Journal article)

    Badin, G., Williams, R. G., Jing, Z., & Wu, L. (2013). Water Mass Transformations in the Southern Ocean Diagnosed from Observations: Contrasting Effects of Air-Sea Fluxes and Diapycnal Mixing. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 43(7), 1472-1484. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0216.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0216.1

    Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO2 (Journal article)

    Lauderdale, J. M., Garabato, A. C. N., Oliver, K. I. C., Follows, M. J., & Williams, R. G. (2013). Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO2. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 41(7-8), 2145-2164. doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1650-3

    DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1650-3

    2012

    How warming and steric sea level rise relate to cumulative carbon emissions (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Goodwin, P., Ridgwell, A., & Woodworth, P. L. (2012). How warming and steric sea level rise relate to cumulative carbon emissions. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 39. doi:10.1029/2012GL052771

    DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052771

    OCEANOGRAPHY Centennial warming of ocean jets (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G. (2012). OCEANOGRAPHY Centennial warming of ocean jets. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 2(3), 149-150. doi:10.1038/nclimate1393

    DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1393

    Sea level changes at Ascension Island in the last half century (Journal article)

    Woodworth, P. L., Foden, P. R., Jones, D. S., Pugh, J., Holgate, S. J., Hibbert, A., . . . Williams, R. G. (2012). Sea level changes at Ascension Island in the last half century. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE, 34(3), 443-452. doi:10.2989/1814232X.2012.689623

    DOI: 10.2989/1814232X.2012.689623

    2011

    Internal tides, nonlinear internal wave trains, and mixing in the Faroe-Shetland Channel (Journal article)

    Hall, R. A., Huthnance, J. M., & Williams, R. G. (2011). Internal tides, nonlinear internal wave trains, and mixing in the Faroe-Shetland Channel. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 116. doi:10.1029/2010JC006213

    DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006213

    Nutrient streams in the North Atlantic: Advective pathways of inorganic and dissolved organic nutrients (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., McDonagh, E., Roussenov, V. M., Torres-Valdes, S., King, B., Sanders, R., & Hansell, D. A. (2011). Nutrient streams in the North Atlantic: Advective pathways of inorganic and dissolved organic nutrients. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 25. doi:10.1029/2010GB003853

    DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003853

    OCEANOGRAPHY Ocean eddies and plankton blooms (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G. (2011). OCEANOGRAPHY Ocean eddies and plankton blooms. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 4(11), 739-740. doi:10.1038/ngeo1307

    DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1307

    Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle: Principles and Mechanisms (Book)

    Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (2011). Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle: Principles and Mechanisms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    The supply of excess phosphate across the Gulf Stream and the maintenance of subtropical nitrogen fixation (Journal article)

    Palter, J. B., Lozier, M. S., Sarmiento, J. L., & Williams, R. G. (2011). The supply of excess phosphate across the Gulf Stream and the maintenance of subtropical nitrogen fixation. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 25. doi:10.1029/2010GB003955

    DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003955

    2010

    Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (vol 3, pg 728, 2010) (Journal article)

    Lozier, M. S., Roussenov, V., Reed, M. S. C., & Williams, R. G. (2010). Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (vol 3, pg 728, 2010). NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 3(11), 805. doi:10.1038/NGEO1010

    DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1010

    On the Buoyancy Forcing and Residual Circulation in the Southern Ocean: The Feedback from Ekman and Eddy Transfer (Journal article)

    Badin, G., & Williams, R. G. (2010). On the Buoyancy Forcing and Residual Circulation in the Southern Ocean: The Feedback from Ekman and Eddy Transfer. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 40(2), 295-310. doi:10.1175/2009JPO4080.1

    DOI: 10.1175/2009JPO4080.1

    Modelling the effects of chromatic adaptation on phytoplankton community structure in the oligotrophic ocean (Journal article)

    Hickman, A. E., Dutkiewicz, S., Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (2010). Modelling the effects of chromatic adaptation on phytoplankton community structure in the oligotrophic ocean. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, 406, 1-17. doi:10.3354/meps08588

    DOI: 10.3354/meps08588

    Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Journal article)

    Lozier, M. S., Roussenov, V., Reed, M. S. C., & Williams, R. G. (2010). Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 3(10), 728-734. doi:10.1038/NGEO947

    DOI: 10.1038/NGEO947

    The shaping of storm tracks by mountains and ocean dynamics (Journal article)

    Wilson, C., Sinha, B., & Williams, R. G. (2010). The shaping of storm tracks by mountains and ocean dynamics. WEATHER, 65(12), 320-323. doi:10.1002/wea.633

    DOI: 10.1002/wea.633

    Water-mass transformation in the shelf seas (Journal article)

    Badin, G., Williams, R. G., & Sharples, J. (2010). Water-mass transformation in the shelf seas. JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH, 68(2), 189-214. doi:10.1357/002224010793721442

    DOI: 10.1357/002224010793721442

    2009

    The Effect of Ocean Dynamics and Orography on Atmospheric Storm Tracks (Journal article)

    Wilson, C., Sinha, B., & Williams, R. G. (2009). The Effect of Ocean Dynamics and Orography on Atmospheric Storm Tracks. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 22(13), 3689-3702. doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2651.1

    DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2651.1

    Tritium ventilation ages of waters along 36 degrees N and 25 degrees W in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (Conference Paper)

    Zhou, Z., Ballentine, C. J., Postlethwaite, C. F., & Williams, R. G. (2009). Tritium ventilation ages of waters along 36 degrees N and 25 degrees W in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. In GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Vol. 73 (pp. A1528). Retrieved from http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/

    Are mesoscale eddies in shelf seas formed by baroclinic instability of tidal fronts? (Journal article)

    Badin, G., Williams, R. G., Holt, J. T., & Fernand, L. J. (2009). Are mesoscale eddies in shelf seas formed by baroclinic instability of tidal fronts?. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 114. doi:10.1029/2009JC005340

    DOI: 10.1029/2009JC005340

    Climate sensitivity to the carbon cycle modulated by past and future changes in ocean chemistry (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Williams, R. G., Ridgwell, A., & Follows, M. J. (2009). Climate sensitivity to the carbon cycle modulated by past and future changes in ocean chemistry. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 2(2), 145-150. doi:10.1038/NGEO416

    DOI: 10.1038/NGEO416

    Distribution of dissolved organic nutrients and their effect on export production over the Atlantic Ocean (Journal article)

    Torres-Valdes, S., Roussenov, V. M., Sanders, R., Reynolds, S., Pan, X., Mather, R., . . . Williams, R. G. (2009). Distribution of dissolved organic nutrients and their effect on export production over the Atlantic Ocean. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 23. doi:10.1029/2008GB003389

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GB003389

    2008

    Ocean Subduction (Chapter)

    Williams, R. G. (2001). Ocean Subduction. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (pp. 156-166). Elsevier. doi:10.1016/b978-012374473-9.00109-0

    DOI: 10.1016/b978-012374473-9.00109-0

    Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Follows, M. J., & Williams, R. G. (2008). Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 22(3). doi:10.1029/2008GB003184

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GB003184

    Boundary wave communication of bottom pressure and overturning changes for the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Roussenov, V. M., Williams, R. G., Hughes, C. W., & Bingham, R. J. (2008). Boundary wave communication of bottom pressure and overturning changes for the North Atlantic. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 113(C8). doi:10.1029/2007JC004501

    DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004501

    Phosphorus cycling in the North and South Atlantic Ocean subtropical gyres (Journal article)

    Mather, R. L., Reynolds, S. E., Wolff, G. A., Williams, R. G., Torres-Valdes, S., Woodward, E. M. S., . . . Achterberg, E. P. (2008). Phosphorus cycling in the North and South Atlantic Ocean subtropical gyres. NATURE GEOSCIENCE, 1(7), 439-443. doi:10.1038/ngeo232

    DOI: 10.1038/ngeo232

    The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat-content change in the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Lozier, M. S., Leadbetter, S., Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., Reed, M. S. C., & Moore, N. J. (2008). The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat-content change in the North Atlantic. SCIENCE, 319(5864), 800-803. doi:10.1126/science.1146436

    DOI: 10.1126/science.1146436

    2007

    A twenty year reversal in water mass trends in the subtropical North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Leadbetter, S. J., Williams, R. G., McDonagh, E. L., & King, B. A. (2007). A twenty year reversal in water mass trends in the subtropical North Atlantic. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 34(12). doi:10.1029/2007GL029957

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL029957

    How widespread and important is N-2 fixation in the north Atlantic ocean? (Journal article)

    Reynolds, S. E., Mather, R. L., Wolff, G. A., Williams, R. G., Landolfi, A., Sanders, R., & Woodward, E. M. S. (2007). How widespread and important is N-2 fixation in the north Atlantic ocean?. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 21(4). doi:10.1029/2006GB002886

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002886

    Meridional coherence of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Journal article)

    Bingham, R. J., Hughes, C. W., Roussenov, V., & Williams, R. G. (2007). Meridional coherence of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 34(23). doi:10.1029/2007GL031731

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031731

    Ocean and atmosphere storm tracks: The role of eddy vorticity forcing (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Wilson, C., & Hughes, C. W. (2007). Ocean and atmosphere storm tracks: The role of eddy vorticity forcing. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 37(9), 2267-2289. doi:10.1175/JPO3120.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JPO3120.1

    Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales (Journal article)

    Goodwin, P., Williams, R. G., Follows, M. J., & Dutkiewicz, S. (2007). Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 21(1). doi:10.1029/2006GB002810

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002810

    2006

    The atlantic Meridional Transect (CMT) Programme: A contextual view 1995-2005 (Journal article)

    Robinson, C., Poulton, A. J., Holligan, P. M., Baker, A. R., Forster, G., Gist, N., . . . Zubkov, M. V. (2006). The atlantic Meridional Transect (CMT) Programme: A contextual view 1995-2005. DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART II-TOPICAL STUDIES IN OCEANOGRAPHY, 53(14-16), 1485-1515. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.05.015

    DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.05.015

    Does the transport of dissolved organic nutrients affect export production in the Atlantic Ocean? (Journal article)

    Roussenov, V., Williams, R. G., Mahaffey, C., & Wolff, G. A. (2006). Does the transport of dissolved organic nutrients affect export production in the Atlantic Ocean?. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 20(3). doi:10.1029/2005GB002510

    DOI: 10.1029/2005GB002510

    Nutrient streams and their induction into the mixed layer (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Roussenov, V., & Follows, M. J. (2006). Nutrient streams and their induction into the mixed layer. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 20(1). doi:10.1029/2005GB002586

    DOI: 10.1029/2005GB002586

    The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Programme: a contextual view 1995 - 2005 (Journal article)

    Robinson, C., al, E., & Williams, R. G. (2006). The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Programme: a contextual view 1995 - 2005. Deep-Sea Research II, in press.

    Topographic control of basin and channel flows: The role of bottom pressure torques and friction (Journal article)

    Jackson, L., Hughes, C. W., & Williams, R. G. (2006). Topographic control of basin and channel flows: The role of bottom pressure torques and friction. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 36(9), 1786-1805. doi:10.1175/JPO2936.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JPO2936.1

    When are eddy tracer fluxes directed downgradient? (Journal article)

    Wilson, C., & Williams, R. G. (2006). When are eddy tracer fluxes directed downgradient?. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 36(2), 189-201. doi:10.1175/JPO2841.1

    DOI: 10.1175/JPO2841.1

    2004

    Mechanisms Controlling the Air-sea Flux of CO2 in the North Atlantic Ocean (Chapter)

    Follows, M. J., & Williams, R. G. (2004). Mechanisms Controlling the Air-sea Flux of CO2 in the North Atlantic Ocean. In M. J. Follows, & T. Oguz (Eds.), The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate (pp. 1-39). Dordecht: Kluwer.

    Physical supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean (Journal article)

    Mahaffey, C., Williams, R. G., Wolff, G. A., & Anderson, W. T. (2004). Physical supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 18(1). doi:10.1029/2003GB002129

    DOI: 10.1029/2003GB002129

    Role of bottom water transport and diapycnic mixing in determining the radiocarbon distribution in the Pacific (Journal article)

    Roussenov, V., Williams, R. G., Follows, M. J., & Key, R. M. (2004). Role of bottom water transport and diapycnic mixing in determining the radiocarbon distribution in the Pacific. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 109(C6). doi:10.1029/2003JC002188

    DOI: 10.1029/2003JC002188

    Why are eddy fluxes of potential vorticity difficult to parameterize? (Journal article)

    Wilson, C., & Williams, R. G. (2004). Why are eddy fluxes of potential vorticity difficult to parameterize?. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 34(1), 142-155. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0142:WAEFOP>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0142:WAEFOP>2.0.CO;2

    2003

    Biogeochemical signatures of nitrogen fixation in the eastern North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Mahaffey, C., Williams, R. G., Wolff, G. A., Mahowald, N., Anderson, W., & Woodward, M. (2003). Biogeochemical signatures of nitrogen fixation in the eastern North Atlantic. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 30(6). doi:10.1029/2002GL016542

    DOI: 10.1029/2002GL016542

    Physical transport of nutrients and the maintenance of biological production (Chapter)

    Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (2003). Physical transport of nutrients and the maintenance of biological production. In M. Fasham (Ed.), Ocean Biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change (pp. 19-51). Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer.

    The role of sloping sidewalls in forming potential vorticity contrasts in the ocean interior (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., & Roussenov, V. (2003). The role of sloping sidewalls in forming potential vorticity contrasts in the ocean interior. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 33(4), 633-648. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(2003)33<633:TROSSI>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)33<633:TROSSI>2.0.CO;2

    2002

    Formation of low potential vorticity over the deep Pacific (Journal article)

    Roussenov, V., Williams, R. G., & O'Dwyer, J. (2002). Formation of low potential vorticity over the deep Pacific. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 32(6), 1811-1823. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<1811:FOLPVO>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<1811:FOLPVO>2.0.CO;2

    Role of the overturning circulation in determining the potential vorticity over the abyssal ocean (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Day, K., Roussenov, V., & Wood, R. (2002). Role of the overturning circulation in determining the potential vorticity over the abyssal ocean. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 107(C10). doi:10.1029/2001JC001094

    DOI: 10.1029/2001JC001094

    2001

    Comparing the overflow of dense water in isopycnic and cartesian models with tracer observations in the eastern Mediterranean (Journal article)

    Roussenov, V. M., Williams, R. G., & Roether, W. (2001). Comparing the overflow of dense water in isopycnic and cartesian models with tracer observations in the eastern Mediterranean. DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS, 48(5), 1255-1277. Retrieved from http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/

    Interannual variability in the thermodynamics of subduction over the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    McLaren, A. J., & Williams, R. G. (2001). Interannual variability in the thermodynamics of subduction over the North Atlantic. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 31(11), 3284-3294. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<3284:IVITTO>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<3284:IVITTO>2.0.CO;2

    Ocean Subduction (Chapter)

    Williams, R. G. (2001). Ocean Subduction. In J. H. Steele, K. K. Turekian, & S. A. Thorpe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (pp. 1982-1993). London: Academic Press.

    2000

    Estimating the convective supply of nitrate and implied variability in export production over the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., McLaren, A. J., & Follows, M. J. (2000). Estimating the convective supply of nitrate and implied variability in export production over the North Atlantic. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 14(4), 1299-1313. doi:10.1029/2000GB001260

    DOI: 10.1029/2000GB001260

    The role of eddies in the isopycnic transfer of nutrients and their impact on biological production (Journal article)

    Lee, M. M., & Williams, R. G. (2000). The role of eddies in the isopycnic transfer of nutrients and their impact on biological production. JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH, 58(6), 895-917. doi:10.1357/002224000763485746

    DOI: 10.1357/002224000763485746

    Impact of the circulation on sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean (Journal article)

    Stratford, K., Williams, R. G., & Myers, P. G. (2000). Impact of the circulation on sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean. GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, 14(2), 683-695. doi:10.1029/1999GB001157

    DOI: 10.1029/1999GB001157

    Does the potential vorticity distribution constrain the spreading of floats in the North Atlantic? (Journal article)

    O'Dwyer, J., Williams, R. G., LaCasce, J. H., & Speer, K. G. (2000). Does the potential vorticity distribution constrain the spreading of floats in the North Atlantic?. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 30(4), 721-732. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<0721:DTPVDC>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<0721:DTPVDC>2.0.CO;2

    1999

    Combining altimetry with a thermocline model to examine the transport of the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., & Pennington, M. (1999). Combining altimetry with a thermocline model to examine the transport of the North Atlantic. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 104(C8), 18269-18280. doi:10.1029/1999JC900125

    DOI: 10.1029/1999JC900125

    Diagnosing water mass formation from air-sea fluxes and surface mixing (Journal article)

    Nurser, A. J. G., Marsh, R., & Williams, R. G. (1999). Diagnosing water mass formation from air-sea fluxes and surface mixing. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 29(7), 1468-1487. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1468:DWMFFA>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1468:DWMFFA>2.0.CO;2

    The relation between Eddy-induced transport and isopycnic gradients of potential vorticity (Journal article)

    Marshall, D. P., Williams, R. G., & Lee, M. M. (1999). The relation between Eddy-induced transport and isopycnic gradients of potential vorticity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 29(7), 1571-1578. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1571:TRBEIT>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1571:TRBEIT>2.0.CO;2

    1998

    Estimating climatological age from a model-derived oxygen-age relationship in the Mediterranean (Journal article)

    Stratford, K., Williams, R. G., & Drakopoulos, P. G. (1998). Estimating climatological age from a model-derived oxygen-age relationship in the Mediterranean. JOURNAL OF MARINE SYSTEMS, 18(1-3), 215-226. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00013-X

    DOI: 10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00013-X

    Oceanography - Eddies make ocean deserts bloom (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (1998). Oceanography - Eddies make ocean deserts bloom. NATURE, 394(6690), 228-229. doi:10.1038/28285

    DOI: 10.1038/28285

    The Ekman transfer of nutrients and maintenance of new production over the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., & Follows, M. J. (1998). The Ekman transfer of nutrients and maintenance of new production over the North Atlantic. DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS, 45(2-3), 461-489. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00094-0

    DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00094-0

    1997

    The climatological distribution of potential vorticity over the Abyssal Ocean (Journal article)

    ODwyer, J., & Williams, R. G. (1997). The climatological distribution of potential vorticity over the Abyssal Ocean. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 27(11), 2488-2506. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<2488:TCDOPV>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<2488:TCDOPV>2.0.CO;2

    A tracer study of the formation, dispersal, and renewal of Levantine Intermediate Water (Journal article)

    Stratford, K., & Williams, R. G. (1997). A tracer study of the formation, dispersal, and renewal of Levantine Intermediate Water. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 102(C6), 12539-12549. doi:10.1029/97JC00019

    DOI: 10.1029/97JC00019

    On the eddy transfer of tracers: Advective or diffusive? (Journal article)

    Lee, M. M., Marshall, D. P., & Williams, R. G. (1997). On the eddy transfer of tracers: Advective or diffusive?. JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH, 55(3), 483-505. doi:10.1357/0022240973224346

    DOI: 10.1357/0022240973224346

    1996

    The solubility pump of carbon in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic (Journal article)

    Follows, M. J., Williams, R. G., & Marshall, J. C. (1996). The solubility pump of carbon in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic. JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH, 54(4), 605-630. doi:10.1357/0022240963213682

    DOI: 10.1357/0022240963213682

    On frontal and ventilated models of the main thermocline (Journal article)

    Hood, S., & Williams, R. G. (1996). On frontal and ventilated models of the main thermocline. JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH, 54(2), 211-238. doi:10.1357/0022240963213376

    DOI: 10.1357/0022240963213376

    1995

    Does Stommel's mixed layer ''demon'' work? (Journal article)

    Williams, R. G., Spall, M. A., & Marshall, J. C. (1995). Does Stommel's mixed layer ''demon'' work?. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 25(12), 3089-3102. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<3089:DSMLW>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<3089:DSMLW>2.0.CO;2

    1993

    A MIXED-LAYER STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF LEVANTINE INTERMEDIATE WATER (Journal article)

    LASCARATOS, A., WILLIAMS, R. G., & TRAGOU, E. (1993). A MIXED-LAYER STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF LEVANTINE INTERMEDIATE WATER. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 98(C8), 14739-14749. doi:10.1029/93JC00912

    DOI: 10.1029/93JC00912

    INFERRING THE SUBDUCTION RATE AND PERIOD OVER THE NORTH-ATLANTIC (Journal article)

    MARSHALL, J. C., NURSER, A. J. G., & WILLIAMS, R. G. (1993). INFERRING THE SUBDUCTION RATE AND PERIOD OVER THE NORTH-ATLANTIC. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 23(7), 1315-1329. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<1315:ITSRAP>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<1315:ITSRAP>2.0.CO;2

    1991

    THE ROLE OF THE MIXED LAYER IN SETTING THE POTENTIAL VORTICITY OF THE MAIN THERMOCLINE (Journal article)

    WILLIAMS, R. G. (1991). THE ROLE OF THE MIXED LAYER IN SETTING THE POTENTIAL VORTICITY OF THE MAIN THERMOCLINE. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 21(12), 1803-1814. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<1803:TROTML>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<1803:TROTML>2.0.CO;2

    1990

    COOLING PARSONS MODEL OF THE SEPARATED GULF-STREAM (Journal article)

    NURSER, A. J. G., & WILLIAMS, R. G. (1990). COOLING PARSONS MODEL OF THE SEPARATED GULF-STREAM. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 20(12), 1974-1979. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<1974:CPMOTS>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<1974:CPMOTS>2.0.CO;2

    1989

    THE INFLUENCE OF AIR SEA INTERACTION ON THE VENTILATED THERMOCLINE (Journal article)

    WILLIAMS, R. G. (1989). THE INFLUENCE OF AIR SEA INTERACTION ON THE VENTILATED THERMOCLINE. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, 19(9), 1255-1267. doi:2.0.CO;2">10.1175/1520-0485(1989)019<1255:TIOAIO>2.0.CO;2

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1989)019<1255:TIOAIO>2.0.CO;2

    1988

    MODIFICATION OF OCEAN EDDIES BY AIR-SEA INTERACTION (Journal article)

    WILLIAMS, R. G. (1988). MODIFICATION OF OCEAN EDDIES BY AIR-SEA INTERACTION. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 93(C12), 15523-15533. doi:10.1029/JC093iC12p15523

    DOI: 10.1029/JC093iC12p15523