Photo of Dr Alex Hardy

Dr Alex Hardy

Postdoctoral Research Associate Communication and Media


Personal Statement


Alex completed his PhD at Royal Holloway, University of London in 2022. Entitled ‘Securing e-Estonia: Challenges, Insecurities, Opportunities’ it explored the social, technical, and geopolitical nuances of ubiquitous connectivity and e-governance.

Alex’s research background is interdisciplinary, working at the intersections of information security, international studies, and geopolitics. His wider interests include the politics of central and eastern Europe, geopolitics, e-government, cyber security, digital innovation, disinformation, and AI policy.

Prior to joining Liverpool, Alex taught on the Digital Humanities at Kings College London and completed visiting fellowships in Estonia and Slovakia. He has also taught Political Geography, Geopolitics, and Research Methods at Royal Holloway, University of London. He previously studied at Durham and Newcastle Universities.

Currently, he is a Postdoctoral Researcher focusing on digital innovation and improving data processes. His ongoing interdisciplinary research explores how workers in British public and private institutions understand their data and their attitudes to digital innovation and artificial intelligence. This research is part of the UK Government-funded Defence Data Research Centre (DDRC) and the UK's Defence AI Strategy.

Academic Publications:

- Hardy, A. 2022. Securing e-Estonia: Challenges, Insecurities, Opportunities. Ph.D., Royal Holloway, University of London
- Robinson, N & Hardy, A. 2021. Estonia: From the Bronze Night to Cybersecurity Pioneers, in The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber Security
- Robinson, N, Hardy, A & Ertan, A. 2022. Estonia: A Cautious and Curious Approach to Artificial Intelligence and National Security, in The Routledge Companion to Artificial Intelligence and National Security Policy
- Hardy, A. 2023 [forthcoming] Digital Innovation and Shelter Theory: Exploring Estonia’s e-Residency, Data Embassy, and Cross-Border e-Governance Initiatives, Journal of Baltic Studies

Other Publications:

- The Art of the Steal: Russia’s Online Voting Problem / «Искусство кражи?»: проблема онлайн-голосования в России [Global Voices]
- Artificial Intelligence in the Visegrád 4: Emerging Strategies, Uncoordinated Approaches [Globsec Policy Institute]
- Russia Scales up E-voting for Referendum but misses key security issues [Open Democracy]
- Russia uses online voting in referendum despite security problems/Россия использовала электронное голосование в ходе всенародного референдума, несмотря на проблемы с безопасностью [Global Voices]
- Estonia’s Soft Power through Technology [e-IR]
- The Digital Single Market: What the UK can learn from Estonia [Estonian World]

Teaching Experience:

- Kings College London, Digital Humanities Programme - Modules: Digital Research Methods, London as a Digital City, Digital Innovation.
- Royal Holloway, University of London · Political Geography · Geopolitics of Media & Communications · Human Geography: Politics, Society, Development & Environment (All Royal Holloway, University of London).
- Guest lectures on Cyber Security and The International System - Tartu University, Estonia.
- Supervision: Supervised numerous Master's theses in Digital Humanities on a broad range of topics relating to Artificial Intelligence and Digital Innovation. Additionally acted as a personal supervisor throughout the academic year.