Photo of Prof David Forrest

Prof David Forrest PhD

Professor of Economics Economics

    Publications

    2019

    Modelling demand for lotto using a novel method of correcting for endogeneity (Journal article)

    Forrest, D. K., Baker, R., & Perez, L. (n.d.). Modelling demand for lotto using a novel method of correcting for endogeneity. Economic Modelling. doi:10.1016/j.econmod.2019.04.021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2019.04.021

    Using statistics to detect match fixing in sport (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (n.d.). Using statistics to detect match fixing in sport. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics. doi:10.1093/imaman/dpz008

    DOI: 10.1093/imaman/dpz008

    2018

    Bayesian forecasting of UEFA Champions League under alternative seeding regimes (Journal article)

    Tena Horrillo, J., Forrest, D. K., Corona, F., & Wiper, M. (2018). Bayesian forecasting of UEFA Champions League under alternative seeding regimes. International Journal of Forecasting. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2018.07.009

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2018.07.009

    Is timing everything in horse betting? Bet amount, timing and bettors' returns in pari-mutuel wagering markets (Journal article)

    Suhonen, N., Saastamoinen, J., Kainulainen, T., & Forrest, D. (2018). Is timing everything in horse betting? Bet amount, timing and bettors' returns in pari-mutuel wagering markets. ECONOMICS LETTERS, 173, 97-99. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2018.09.021

    DOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2018.09.021

    Match-fixing (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2018). Match-fixing. In The Palgrave Handbook on the Economics of Manipulation in Sport (pp. 91-114). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6_6

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6_6

    Reflections (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., & Breuer, M. (2018). Reflections. In The Palgrave Handbook on the Economics of Manipulation in Sport (pp. 315-335). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6_16

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6_16

    The Palgrave handbook on the economics of manipulation in sport (Book)

    Breuer, M., & Forrest, D. (2018). The Palgrave handbook on the economics of manipulation in sport. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77389-6

    2017

    New Price, New Hope? An Examination of the Effects of Doubling the Ticket Price in UK Lotto (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Gulley, O. D. (2018). New Price, New Hope? An Examination of the Effects of Doubling the Ticket Price in UK Lotto. JOURNAL OF GAMBLING STUDIES, 34(1), 39-53. doi:10.1007/s10899-017-9689-z

    DOI: 10.1007/s10899-017-9689-z

    Sports corruption and developments in betting markets (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2017). Sports corruption and developments in betting markets. In The Economics of Sports Betting (pp. 162-182). doi:10.4337/9781785364556.00016

    DOI: 10.4337/9781785364556.00016

    2016

    An analysis of country medal shares in individual sports at the Olympics (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., McHale, I. G., Sanz, I., & Tena, J. D. (2017). An analysis of country medal shares in individual sports at the Olympics. EUROPEAN SPORT MANAGEMENT QUARTERLY, 17(2), 117-131. doi:10.1080/16184742.2016.1248463

    DOI: 10.1080/16184742.2016.1248463

    Modelling regional lottery sales: Methodological issues and a case study from Spain (Journal article)

    Baker, R., Forrest, D., & Perez, L. (2016). Modelling regional lottery sales: Methodological issues and a case study from Spain. Papers in Regional Science, 95, S127-S142. doi:10.1111/pirs.12118

    DOI: 10.1111/pirs.12118

    The compatriot win effect on national sales of a multicountry lottery (Journal article)

    Baker, R., Forrest, D., & Perez, L. (2016). The compatriot win effect on national sales of a multicountry lottery. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES C-APPLIED STATISTICS, 65(4), 603-618. doi:10.1111/rssc.12143

    DOI: 10.1111/rssc.12143

    2015

    Benefits to their Communities from Small Town Professional Football Clubs (Journal article)

    Barlow, A., & Forrest, D. (2015). Benefits to their Communities from Small Town Professional Football Clubs. National Institute Economic Review, 232(1), R18-R29. doi:10.1177/002795011523200103

    DOI: 10.1177/002795011523200103

    Determinants of national medals totals at the summer Olympic Games: An analysis disaggregated by sport (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., McHale, I. G., Sanz, I., & Tena, J. D. (2015). Determinants of national medals totals at the summer Olympic Games: An analysis disaggregated by sport. In The Economics of Competitive Sports (pp. 166-184). doi:10.4337/9781783474769

    DOI: 10.4337/9781783474769

    Just like the lottery? Player behaviour and anomalies in the market for football pools. (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Pérez, L. (2015). Just like the lottery? Player behaviour and anomalies in the market for football pools.. Journal of gambling studies, 31(2), 471-482. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9423-4

    DOI: 10.1007/s10899-013-9423-4

    What is a good result in the first leg of a two-legged football match? (Journal article)

    Flores, R., Forrest, D., de Pablo, C., & Tena, J. D. (2015). What is a good result in the first leg of a two-legged football match?. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH, 247(2), 641-647. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2015.05.076

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2015.05.076

    2014

    Football and betting (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2014). Football and betting. In Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football (pp. 383-400). doi:10.4337/9781781003176.00032

    DOI: 10.4337/9781781003176.00032

    Match fixing: An economics perspective (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2014). Match fixing: An economics perspective. In Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies (pp. 177-197). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02582-7_10

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-02582-7_10

    2013

    Happiness and Job Satisfaction in a Casino-Dominated Economy (Journal article)

    Zeng, Z., Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (2013). Happiness and Job Satisfaction in a Casino-Dominated Economy. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(3), 471-490. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9318-9

    DOI: 10.1007/s10899-012-9318-9

    2012

    Decision taking under pressure: Evidence on football manager dismissals in Argentina and their consequences (Journal article)

    Flores, R., Forrest, D., & Tena, J. D. (2012). Decision taking under pressure: Evidence on football manager dismissals in Argentina and their consequences. European Journal of Operational Research, 222(3), 653-662. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2012.03.033

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2012.03.033

    Explaining and forecasting national team medals totals at the Summer Olympic Games (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., Ceballos, A., Flores, R., McHale, I. G., Sanz, I., & Tena, J. D. (2012). Explaining and forecasting national team medals totals at the Summer Olympic Games. In International Handbook on the Economics of Mega Sporting Events (pp. 208-226). doi:10.4337/9780857930279.00020

    DOI: 10.4337/9780857930279.00020

    Gambling and problem gambling among young adolescents in Great Britain. (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (2012). Gambling and problem gambling among young adolescents in Great Britain.. Journal of gambling studies, 28(4), 607-622. doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9277-6

    DOI: 10.1007/s10899-011-9277-6

    Introduction (Chapter)

    Kearns, J. (2015). Introduction. In Unknown Book (pp. 1-+). Retrieved from http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/

    The threat to football from betting-related corruption (Journal article)

    Forrest, D. (2012). The threat to football from betting-related corruption. International Journal of Sport Finance, 7(2), 99-116.

    Travel and Population Issues in Modeling Attendance Demand (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2012). Travel and Population Issues in Modeling Attendance Demand. In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics (Vol. 2). doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195387780.013.0010

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195387780.013.0010

    2011

    Football pools and lotteries: substitute roads to riches? (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Pérez, L. (2011). Football pools and lotteries: substitute roads to riches?. Applied Economics Letters, 18(13), 1253-1257. doi:10.1080/13504851.2010.532100

    DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2010.532100

    Impact of importing foreign talent on performance levels of local co-workers (Journal article)

    Alvarez, J., Forrest, D., Sanz, I., & Tena, J. D. (2011). Impact of importing foreign talent on performance levels of local co-workers. Labour Economics, 18(3), 287-296. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2010.11.003

    DOI: 10.1016/j.labeco.2010.11.003

    OWN- AND CROSS-PRICE ELASTICITIES FOR GAMES WITHIN A STATE LOTTERY PORTFOLIO (Journal article)

    PEREZ, L., & FORREST, D. (2011). OWN- AND CROSS-PRICE ELASTICITIES FOR GAMES WITHIN A STATE LOTTERY PORTFOLIO. Contemporary Economic Policy, 29(4), 536-549. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7287.2010.00234.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-7287.2010.00234.x

    Subjective well-being and engagement in sport: Evidence from England (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (2011). Subjective well-being and engagement in sport: Evidence from England. In The Economics Of Sport, Health And Happiness: The Promotion of Well-being through Sporting Activities (pp. 184-199). doi:10.4337/9780857930149.00014

    DOI: 10.4337/9780857930149.00014

    2010

    Broadcasting, attendance and the inefficiency of Cartels (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Szymanski, S. (2010). Broadcasting, attendance and the inefficiency of Cartels. In Football Economics and Policy (pp. 112-135). doi:10.1057/9780230274266_05

    DOI: 10.1057/9780230274266_05

    Forecasting national team medal totals at the Summer Olympic Games (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Sanz, I., & Tena, J. D. (2010). Forecasting national team medal totals at the Summer Olympic Games. International Journal of Forecasting, 26(3), 576-588. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2009.12.007

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2009.12.007

    Impact on Competitive Balance from Allowing Foreign Players in a Sports League: Evidence from European Soccer (Journal article)

    Flores, R., Forrest, D., & Tena, J. D. (2010). Impact on Competitive Balance from Allowing Foreign Players in a Sports League: Evidence from European Soccer. Kyklos, 63(4), 546-557. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6435.2010.00487.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6435.2010.00487.x

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETTING AND LOTTERY PLAY (Journal article)

    FORREST, D., GULLEY, O. D., & SIMMONS, R. (2010). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETTING AND LOTTERY PLAY. Economic Inquiry, 48(1), 26-38. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00123.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00123.x

    The 12th man?: refereeing bias in English and German soccer (Journal article)

    Buraimo, B., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2010). The 12th man?: refereeing bias in English and German soccer. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES A-STATISTICS IN SOCIETY, 173, 431-449. doi:10.1111/j.1467-985X.2009.00604.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-985X.2009.00604.x

    2009

    Insights for clubs from modelling match attendance in football (Journal article)

    Buraimo, B., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2009). Insights for clubs from modelling match attendance in football. JOURNAL OF THE OPERATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY, 60(2), 147-155. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602549

    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602549

    2008

    Consumer interests and the regulation and taxation of gambling (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2008). Consumer interests and the regulation and taxation of gambling. In Economic Aspects of Gambling Regulation: EU and US Perspectives (pp. 103-117). doi:10.1163/ej.9789004165595.i-208

    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004165595.i-208

    Demand issues in the market for lotto and similar games (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2008). Demand issues in the market for lotto and similar games. In Gaming in the New Market Environment (pp. 54-74). doi:10.1057/9780230582613

    DOI: 10.1057/9780230582613

    Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes. (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Dorsey, R. (2008). Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes.. Journal of sports sciences, 26(1), 3-13. doi:10.1080/02640410802335136

    DOI: 10.1080/02640410802335136

    Gambling Policy in the European Union: Too Many Losers? (Journal article)

    Forrest, D. (2008). Gambling Policy in the European Union: Too Many Losers?. FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, 64(4), 540-569. doi:10.1628/001522108X397714

    DOI: 10.1628/001522108X397714

    Measuring displacement effects across gaming products: a study of Australian gambling markets (Journal article)

    Farrell, L., & Forrest, D. (2008). Measuring displacement effects across gaming products: a study of Australian gambling markets. Applied Economics, 40(1), 53-62. doi:10.1080/00036840701591379

    DOI: 10.1080/00036840701591379

    Say it ain't so": Betting- Related malpractice in sport (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Mchale, I., & Mcauley, K. (2008). Say it ain't so": Betting- Related malpractice in sport. International Journal of Sport Finance, 3(3), 156-166.

    Sentiment in the betting market on Spanish football (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2008). Sentiment in the betting market on Spanish football. Applied Economics, 40(1), 119-126. doi:10.1080/00036840701522895

    DOI: 10.1080/00036840701522895

    Soccer Betting in Britain (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2008). Soccer Betting in Britain. In Handbook of Sports and Lottery Markets (pp. 421-446). doi:10.1016/B978-044450744-0.50023-8

    DOI: 10.1016/B978-044450744-0.50023-8

    2007

    Anyone for Tennis (Betting)? (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Mchale, I. (2007). Anyone for Tennis (Betting)?. The European Journal of Finance, 13(8), 751-768. doi:10.1080/13518470701705736

    DOI: 10.1080/13518470701705736

    Consumer interests and the regulation and taxation of gambling (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2007). Consumer interests and the regulation and taxation of gambling. In Economic Aspects of Gambling Regulation: EU and US Perspectives (pp. 103-117). doi:10.1163/ej.9789004165595.i-208.41

    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004165595.i-208.41

    Distribution of UK National Lottery grants across local authority areas (Journal article)

    Feehan, P., & Forrest, D. (2007). Distribution of UK National Lottery grants across local authority areas. Applied Economics Letters, 14(5), 361-365. doi:10.1080/13504850500426327

    DOI: 10.1080/13504850500426327

    Freedom of entry, market size, and competitive outcome: Evidence from English soccer (Journal article)

    Buraimo, B., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2007). Freedom of entry, market size, and competitive outcome: Evidence from English soccer. SOUTHERN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 74(1), 204-213. doi:10.2307/20111960

    DOI: 10.2307/20111960

    Outcome uncertainty measures: How closely do they predict a close game? (Chapter)

    Buraimo, B., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2007). Outcome uncertainty measures: How closely do they predict a close game?. In Statistical Thinking in Sports (pp. 167-178).

    Within-season dismissal of football coaches: Statistical analysis of causes and consequences (Journal article)

    de Dios Tena, J., & Forrest, D. (2007). Within-season dismissal of football coaches: Statistical analysis of causes and consequences. European Journal of Operational Research, 181(1), 362-373. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2006.05.024

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2006.05.024

    2006

    New Issues in Attendance Demand: The Case of the English Football League (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2006). New Issues in Attendance Demand: The Case of the English Football League. Journal of Sports Economics, 7(3), 247-266. doi:10.1177/1527002504273392

    DOI: 10.1177/1527002504273392

    Read all about it? (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2006). Read all about it?. Significance, 3(1), 20-21. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2006.00146.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2006.00146.x

    Sport and gambling (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2006). Sport and gambling. In Handbook on the Economics of Sport (pp. 40-48). doi:10.4337/9781847204073.00010

    DOI: 10.4337/9781847204073.00010

    2005

    Efficiency in the handicap and index betting markets for English rugby league (Chapter)

    Simmons, R., Forrest, D., & Curran, A. (2005). Efficiency in the handicap and index betting markets for English rugby league. In The Economics of Gambling (pp. 114-134). doi:10.4324/9780203986936-17

    DOI: 10.4324/9780203986936-17

    Efficiency of the odds on english professional football matches (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2005). Efficiency of the odds on english professional football matches. In Information Efficiency in Financial and Betting Markets (pp. 330-338). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511493614.016

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511493614.016

    Home advantage and the debate about competitive balance in professional sports leagues. (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Beaumont, J., Goddard, J., & Simmons, R. (2005). Home advantage and the debate about competitive balance in professional sports leagues.. Journal of sports sciences, 23(4), 439-445. doi:10.1080/02640410400021641

    DOI: 10.1080/02640410400021641

    Longshot bias: Insights from the betting market on men's professional tennis (Chapter)

    Forrest, D., & McHale, I. (2005). Longshot bias: Insights from the betting market on men's professional tennis. In Information Efficiency in Financial and Betting Markets (pp. 215-230). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511493614.009

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511493614.009

    Odds-setters as forecasters: The case of English football (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Goddard, J., & Simmons, R. (2005). Odds-setters as forecasters: The case of English football. International Journal of Forecasting, 21(3), 551-564. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2005.03.003

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2005.03.003

    Outcome uncertainty and the couch potato audience (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Buraimo, B. (2005). Outcome uncertainty and the couch potato audience. SCOTTISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, 52(4), 641-661. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9485.2005.00360.x

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9485.2005.00360.x

    The importance of recent scores in a forecasting model for professional golf tournaments (Journal article)

    McHale, I., & Forrest, D. (2005). The importance of recent scores in a forecasting model for professional golf tournaments. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 16(2), 131-140. doi:10.1093/imaman/dpi005

    DOI: 10.1093/imaman/dpi005

    Time-series modelling of Lotto demand (Chapter)

    Forrest, D. (2005). Time-series modelling of Lotto demand. In The Economics of Gambling (pp. 182-203). doi:10.4324/9780203986936-21

    DOI: 10.4324/9780203986936-21

    2004

    Broadcasting, Attendance and the Inefficiency of Cartels (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Szymanski, S. (2004). Broadcasting, Attendance and the Inefficiency of Cartels. Review of Industrial Organization, 24(3), 243-265. doi:10.1023/B:REIO.0000038274.05704.99

    DOI: 10.1023/B:REIO.0000038274.05704.99

    Substitution between games in the UK national lottery (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., David Gulley, O., & Simmons, R. (2004). Substitution between games in the UK national lottery. Applied Economics, 36(7), 645-651. doi:10.1080/0003684042000222034

    DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000222034

    2003

    Sport and gambling (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2003). Sport and gambling. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 19(4), 598-611.

    2002

    A spatial cross-sectional analysis of the elasticity of demand for soccer (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Feehan, P. (2002). A spatial cross-sectional analysis of the elasticity of demand for soccer. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 49(3), 336-355.

    Buying a Dream: Alternative Models of Demand for Lotto (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Chesters, N. (2002). Buying a Dream: Alternative Models of Demand for Lotto. Economic Inquiry, 40(3), 485-496. doi:10.1093/ei/40.3.485

    DOI: 10.1093/ei/40.3.485

    Outcome uncertainty and attendance demand in sport: the case of English soccer (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2002). Outcome uncertainty and attendance demand in sport: the case of English soccer. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician), 51(2), 229-241. doi:10.1111/1467-9884.00314

    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9884.00314

    2000

    Elasticity of demand for UK national lottery tickets (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Gulley, O. D., & Simmons, R. (2000). Elasticity of demand for UK national lottery tickets. National Tax Journal, 53(4 PART 1), 853-863.

    Forecasting sport: the behaviour and performance of football tipsters (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2000). Forecasting sport: the behaviour and performance of football tipsters. International Journal of Forecasting, 16(3), 317-331. doi:10.1016/S0169-2070(00)00050-9

    DOI: 10.1016/S0169-2070(00)00050-9

    Is it worth subsidising regional repertory theatre? (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Grime, K., & Woods, R. (2000). Is it worth subsidising regional repertory theatre?. Oxford Economic Papers, 52(2), 381-397.

    Making up the results: The work of the Football Pools Panel, 1963-1997 (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2000). Making up the results: The work of the Football Pools Panel, 1963-1997. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series D: The Statistician, 49(2), 253-260. doi:10.1111/1467-9884.00235

    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9884.00235

    Testing for rational expectations in the UK National Lottery (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., David Gulley, O., & Simmons, R. (2000). Testing for rational expectations in the UK National Lottery. Applied Economics, 32(3), 315-326. doi:10.1080/000368400322741

    DOI: 10.1080/000368400322741

    1999

    The labour market in association football: Who gets transferred and for how much? (Journal article)

    Carmichael, F., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (1999). The labour market in association football: Who gets transferred and for how much?. Bulletin of Economic Research, 51(2), 125-149.

    The past and future of the British football pools (Journal article)

    Forrest, D. (1999). The past and future of the British football pools. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15(2), 161-176. doi:10.1023/A:1022286309127

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1022286309127

    1996

    The impact of a light rail system on the structure of house prices: A hedonic longitudinal study (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., Glen, J., & Ward, R. (1996). The impact of a light rail system on the structure of house prices: A hedonic longitudinal study. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 30(1), 15-29.

    1991

    An Analysis of House Price Differentials between English Regions (Journal article)

    Forrest, D. (1991). An Analysis of House Price Differentials between English Regions. Regional Studies, 25(3), 231-238. doi:10.1080/00343409112331346447

    DOI: 10.1080/00343409112331346447

    1988

    The Sensitivity of Regional Unemployment Rates to the National Trade Cycle (Journal article)

    Forrest, D., & Naisbitt, B. (1988). The Sensitivity of Regional Unemployment Rates to the National Trade Cycle. Regional Studies, 22(2), 149-153. doi:10.1080/00343408812331344850

    DOI: 10.1080/00343408812331344850