Andreas Goebel

Director of the Pain Research Institute

Reader in Pain Medicine, University of Liverpool

Honorary Consultant in Pain Medicine, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust

Contact: andreasgoebel@rocketmail.com


Main research interests

Investigation of the roles of IgG-autoantibodies in causing chronic pain. We are worldwide leading in this area of research, 'Autoantibody Pain’. Our focus has been on a particular, severe pain affecting distal limbs after trauma, ‘Complex Regional Pain Syndrome’.

Assessment of the efficacy of immune modulating treatments, such as disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologics, or polyvalent immunoglobulins to provide meaningful benefit for patients suffering form severe idiopathic chronic pain.


Ongoing studies

  • Cellular studies to investigate serum-autoantibodies in longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (collaboration with D. Naisbitt, Liverpool, and D. Andersson, King's College, London)
  • Characterisation of a passive transfer-trauma model for complex regional pain syndrome (collaboration with S. Helyes, University of Pecs, Hungary)
  • Low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin for longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (LIPS) randomized controlled trial
  • Mycophenolate for longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (MYPS1) randomized controlled trial
  • Placebo responses in randomized biologic trials for rheumatoid arthritis (collaboration with S. Noland, and R. Moots, University of Liverpool)
  • Pain intensity and distribution in Behcet’s disease (collaboration Rheumatology departments)
  • Assessment of epicutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator to treat pain post nerve trauma (with S. Johnson, University of Liverpool)

Publications 2014-2017

Jobanputra C, Richey RH, Nair J, Moots RJ, Goebel A. Fibromyalgia in Behcet's disease: a narrative review. British Journal of Pain.

Johnson S, Richey R, Holmes E, Hughes D, Goebel A. A randomised patient-assessor blinded, sham-controlled trial of expernal non-invasive peripheral nerve stimuation for chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury (EN-PENS trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2016, 17:574

Goebel A. Autoantibody pain. Autoimmunity Reviews 2016, 15:552-557

Goebel A., Johnson S. Long-Term Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain Using External Noninvasive External Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Five Patients. Neuromodulation. 2015, 19(8):893-896

Reilly JM., Dharmalingam B., Marsh SJ., Thompson V., Goebel A* and Brown D*. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) on depolarization-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Experimental Neurology 2015, 277:96-102 (*joint)

Barbalinado S., Loer SA, Goebel A*, Perez R.* The treatment of longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with oral steroids. Pain Medicine 2016, 17:337-43 (*joint)

Shenker N., Goebel A., Rockett M., Batchelor J., Jones GT., Parker R., Williams A., McCabe C. Establishing the Characteristics for Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: The Value of the CRPS-UK Registry. British Journal of Pain 2015 9(2): 122-8 19(10):1516-1526.

Aradillas E., Schwartzman R.J., Grothusen J.R., Goebel A., Alexander G.M. Plasma exchange therapy in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain Physician 2015, 18(4):383-94.

Goebel A., Jayaseelan A., Bhagwat K., Gupta M., Frank B. Racemic Ketamine 4.5 day Infusion for the treatment of longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2015, 115(1): 146-7.

Osborne A., Farrell J., Dearman R.J., MacIver K., Naisbitt D.J., Moots R.J., Edwards S.W., Goebel A. Cutaneous Immunopathology of Longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. European Journal of Pain 2015, 19;1516-26

Mbizvo G., Nolan S., Nurmikko T., Goebel A. Placebo responses in longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Pain 2015, 16(2): 99-115.

Goebel A. Immune activation and autoimmunity in chronic pain conditions and response to immunoglobulin G. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014; 178(S1): 39-41.

Goebel A. Cellular and behavioral models to predict responses to immunoglobulin G treatment in complex regional pain syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014; 178(S1): 136-137.

Dubuis E., Thompson V., Leite M., Blaes F., Maihoefner Ch., Greensmith D., Shenker N., Kuttikat A., Leuwer M., Goebel A. Longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is associated with activating autoantibodies against α-1a adrenoceptors. Pain 2014; 155: 2408 - 2417.

Benson J., Spencer M., Goebel A., Munglani R.. Compensation Claims Relating to Chronic Pain – Parts 1-5. Journal of Observational Pain Medicine 2014; 1(4).

Goebel A., Jones S., Oomman S., Callaghan Th., Sprotte G. Treatment of Longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with Therapeutic Plasma Exchange; a Preliminary Case Series of Patients Treated 2008-2014. Pain Medicine 2014; 15(12): 2163-4.

Johnson S., Ayling H., Sharma M., Goebel A. External Non Invasive Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Treatment of Neuropathic Pain, a Prospective Audit. Neuromodulation 2014 2015; 18(5): 394-91.

Goebel A., Shenker N., Padfield N., et al. Low-dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – Study Protocol. Trials 2014 Oct 15:404.

Tamburin S., Bork K., Caro XJ., Jann S., Clark AJ., Magrinelli F., Sobue G., Werhagen L., Zanette G., Koike H., Spaeth PJ., Vincent A., Goebel A. Immunoglobulin G for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Report of an Expert Workshop. Pain Medicine 2014; 15(7): 1072-82

Birley T, Goebel A. Widespread Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain Practice 2014; 14(6): 526-31.

Haynes L, Goebel A, Flynn M. The Impact of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Upper Extremity Complex Regional Pain Syndrome on Level of Function. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 2014; 21(2): 77-83

Tékus V, Hajna Z, Borbély E, Markovics A, Bagoly T, Szolcsányi J, Thompson V, Kemény A, Helyes Z, Goebel A. A CRPS-IgG-Passive-Transfer-Trauma Model Reproducing Inflammatory and Positive Sensory Signs Associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain 2014; 144(2): 229-308

Goebel A. Current Understanding of the Causes of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), with its Medico-Legal Implications. Journal of Observational Pain Medicine 2014; 1(3).