# Mathematics and Philosophy BA (Joint Hons)

- Course length: 3 years
- UCAS code: GV15
- Year of entry: 2019
- Typical offer: A-level : ABB / IB : 33 including 6 in HL Mathematics with no score less than 4 / BTEC : Applications considered

## Honours Select

×This programme offers Honours Select combinations.

## Honours Select 100

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Single Honours (100%).

## Honours Select 75

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Major (75%).

## Honours Select 50

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Joint Honours (50%).

## Honours Select 25

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Minor (25%).

## Study abroad

×This programme offers study abroad opportunities.

## Year in China

×This programme offers the opportunity to spend a Year in China.

## Accredited

×This programme is accredited.

### Module details

### Programme Year One

Students take four modules from the Philosophy Year One programme.

Philosophy modules:

- Reading and Writing Philosophy 1
- Reading and Writing Philosophy 2 Critical, Analytical, and Creative Thinking
- Symbolic Logic 1

Students take the core foundation modules from the Mathematics Year One programme:

- Foundation Module I: Calculus
- Foundation Module II: Complex Numbers and Linear Algebra
- Foundation Module III: Multivariable Calculus

And one of the following:

- Numbers, Groups and Codes
- Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving

#### Year One Compulsory Modules

##### Calculus I (MATH101)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**1. To introduce the basic ideas of differential and integral calculus, to develop the basic skills required to work with them and to apply these skills to a range of problems.

2. To introduce some of the fundamental concepts and techniques of real analysis, including limits and continuity.

3. To introduce the notions of sequences and series and of their convergence.

**Learning Outcomes**differentiate and integrate a wide range of functions;

sketch graphs and solve problems involving optimisation and mensuration

understand the notions of sequence and series and apply a range of tests to determine if a series is convergent

##### Calculus II (MATH102)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**· To discuss local behaviour of functions using Taylor’s theorem.

· To introduce multivariable calculus including partial differentiation, gradient, extremum values and double integrals.

**Learning Outcomes**use Taylor series to obtain local approximations to functions;

obtain partial derivaties and use them in several applications such as, error analysis, stationary points change of variables

evaluate double integrals using Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates

##### Introduction to Linear Algebra (MATH103)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**- To develop techniques of complex numbers and linear algebra, including equation solving, matrix arithmetic and the computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
- To develop geometrical intuition in 2 and 3 dimensions.
- To introduce students to the concept of subspace in a concrete situation.
- To provide a foundation for the study of linear problems both within mathematics and in other subjects.

**Learning Outcomes**manipulate complex numbers and solve simple equations involving them

solve arbitrary systems of linear equations

understand and use matrix arithmetic, including the computation of matrix inverses

compute and use determinants

understand and use vector methods in the geometry of 2 and 3 dimensions

calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors and, if time permits, apply these calculations to the geometry of conics and quadrics

##### Reading and Writing Practical Philosophy (PHIL107)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**- Tointroduce the academic skills and knowledge necessary for the critical readingand writing of philosophy.
- Tofoster in students an appreciation of the value of philosophy.
- Toenable students to read effectively and to takes notes efficiently.
- Todevelop students'' skill in presenting complex ideas to an audience and inpracticing the intellectual virtues associated with philosophical discussion.
- Topromote students'' skill in writing rigorously argued, well-written andwell-presented philosophical essays.
- To developstudents'' research skills.
- Toincrease students'' awareness of the importance of feedback, review andreflection and to encourage them to use feedback, review and reflection toshape their approach to future work.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and evaluate some work relevant to a selected specialist topic in ethics. (This topic may vary from year to year. Examples include: human treatment of animals; ethics and the environment.)

Students will be able to explain and evaluate some central work about political liberty.

Students will be able to give structured seminar presentations and to conduct discussion in a manner that displays the intellectual virtues associated with philosophy.

Students will be able to write essays that embody a philosophically-informed approach to argumentation.

Students will be able to use the Harvard referencing system.

Students will be able to conduct independent research in support of their work, using appropriate print and online resources (including the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Philosopher''s Index). Students will be able to explain and evaluate some work in aesthetics and the philosophy of art.

##### Reading and Writing Theoretical Philosophy (PHIL108)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To consolidate the academic skills and knowledge necessary for the critical reading and writing of philosophy.

To consolidate students'' appreciation of the value of philosophy.

To consolidate students'' ability to read and take notes effectively.

To consolidate students'' skill in presenting complex ideas to an audience and in practising the intellectual virtues associated with philosophical discussion.

To consolidate students'' skill in writing rigorously argued, well-written and well-presented essays.

To consolidate students'' research skills.

To consolidate students'' appreciation of, and ability to use, forward-facing feedback and review.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and evaluate some central work from the early modern period, covering the following topics: (i) perception; (ii) personal identity; (iii) freedom and determinism.

Students will develop greater skill and confidence in giving structured seminar presentations and in conducting discussion in a manner that displays the intellectual virtues associated with philosophy.

Students will develop greater skill and confindence in writing essays that embody a philosophically-informed approach to argumentation.

Students will be able to use the Harvard system of referencing.

Students will be able to conduct independent research in support of their work, using appropriate print and online resources (including the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Philosopher''s Index).

#### Year One Optional Modules

##### Numbers, Groups and Codes (MATH142)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**· To provide an introduction to rigorous reasoning in axiomatic systems exemplified by the framework of group theory.

· To give an appreciation of the utility and power of group theory as the study of symmetries.

· To introduce public-key cryptosystems as used in the transmission of confidential data, and also error-correcting codes used to ensure that transmission of data is accurate. Both of these ideas are illustrations of the application of algebraic techniques.

**Learning Outcomes** Use the division algorithm to construct the greatest common divisor of a pair of positive integers;

Solve linear congruences and find the inverse of an integer modulo a given integer;

Code and decode messages using the public-key method

Manipulate permutations with confidence

Decide when a given set is a group under a specified operation and give formal axiomatic proofs;

Understand the concept of a subgroup and use Lagrange''s theorem;

Understand the concept of a group action, an orbit and a stabiliser subgroup

Understand the concept of a group homomorphism and be able to show (in simple cases) that two groups are isomorphic;

##### Critical, Analytical and Creative Thinking (PHIL112)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To introduce students to the concepts and methods of informal logic and to enable students to use these concepts and methods in assessing arguments both within and outside philosophy.

To help students to think more logically themselves, and to locate and remove inconsistencies in their own thoughts.

To introduce students to methods of causal, statistical and probabilistic reasoning and to enable students to identify and avoid causal, statistical and probabilistic fallacies.

To enable students to think creatively about problems and to come up with rational solutions to them, and to make logical decisions in the light of available evidence.**Learning Outcomes**Students will able to explain and apply the basic concepts of logic.

Students will be able to identify conclusions and premises in arguments, including hidden premises.

Students will be able to reconstruct and evaluate arguments.

Students will be able to distinguish between reasoning and rhetoric and to identify fallacies and rhetorical ploys in arguments.

Students will be able to distinguish between deductive and inductive infererence, including distinguishing between different types of inductive inference (enumerative, statistical, causal, analogical).

Students will be able to tell when a given set of statements is logically consistent and when it is not.

Students will be able to explain some of the problems with relativism about truth.

Students will be able to explain and apply some of the basic principles of statistics and of probablity theory.

Students will be able to demonstrate creative thinking by spotting possibilities missed by less creative thinkers.

##### Introduction to Logic (PHIL127)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To introduce students to the concepts, a language of, and the methods of, classical sentential logic.

To introduce students to a language of classical quantificational logic.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and apply the basic concepts of classical sentence logic.

Students will be able to translate from English into sentence logic and vice versa.

Students will be able to construct and use truth tables.

Students will be able to construct proofs in natural deduction for sentence logic.

Students will be able to translate from English into quantificational logic and vice versa.

##### Ethics (PHIL101)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**85:15 **Aims**- Students will become familiar with key concepts in ethics – bothmeta-ethics and normative ethics.
- Students will gain an acquaintance with the main approaches to moral theory (such as virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism), as well as key debates in meta-ethics (subjectivism vs objectivism, naturalism vs non-naturalism).
Students will tackle central questions in ethics, such as ‘is a good action more about good intentions than beneficial outcomes?’, ‘does lying possess an objective property of badness?’, ‘ought different people to follow different moral codes?’ and ‘what activities lead to a good life?’.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish between some main concepts in ethical debates, past and present.

Students will be able to explain recent developments in meta-ethics and normative ethics.Students will be able to evaluate some of the main theories in the history of moral philosophy and contemporary ethics.Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to ethical issues.Students will be able to identify philosophical assumptions underlying ethical claims and judgments.Students will be able to structure a discussion of issues in ethics.Students will be able to speak with confidence and clarity on issues of moral philosophy.Students will be able to explain details of canonical texts in moral philosophy.Students will be able to articulate and defend basic positions in classic and contemporary moral philosophy.

Students will be able to write coherently and rigorously about abstract philosophical issues raised by ethical debates.

- Students will become familiar with key concepts in ethics – bothmeta-ethics and normative ethics.
##### Introduction to Statistics (MATH162)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**To introduce topics in Statistics and to describe and discuss basic statistical methods.

To describe the scope of the application of these methods.

**Learning Outcomes**to describe statistical data;

to use the Binomial, Poisson, Exponential and Normal distributions;

to perform simple goodness-of-fit tests

to use the package Minitab to present data, and to make statistical analysis

##### Mind, Knowledge and Reality (PHIL103)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce students to some of the main topics in metaphysics: God, the mind/body problem, personal identity, time and free will.

To introduce students to the philosophical system of Rene Descartes.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish between sound and unsound arguments.

Students will be able to build a case for a specific metaphysical position, by weighing theoretical virtues, such as Occam''s razor, and metaphysical principles, such as the conceivability principle and the principle of sufficient reason.

Students will be able to extract an argument from text, render it into standard form, and critically evaluate its premises.

Students will be able to explain Descartes'' philosophical system.

Students will be able explain the basic issues, and the standard views, pertaining to five topics in contemporary metaphysics: God, personal identity, consciousness, free will and time.

Students will be able to able to argue for a specific view pertaining to five issues in contemporary metaphysics: God, personal identity, consciousness, free will and time.

Students will be able to discuss reality in the partially abstract manner distinctive of metaphysical thought.

##### Political Philosophy (PHIL102)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce students to the theories and arguments of some of the most important philosophers and of the western tradition of political thought, such as Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Mill.

To introduce students to some of the main concepts in political philosophy, including political obligation, democracy, community, rights, liberty, justice and property.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish some main concepts in political philosophical debates.

Students will be able to distinguish different ways of understanding concepts in political philosophical debates.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in the history of political philosophy.

Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to political issues.

Students will be able to identify philosophical assumptions underlying political claims.

Students will be able to structure a discussion of issues in political philosophy.

Students will be able to speak with confidence and clarity on issues of political philosophy.

Students will be able to explain details of canonical texts in political philosophy.

Students will be able to articulate and defend basic positions in political philosophy.

Students will be able to write coherently and rigorously about abstract philosophical issues raised by political debates.

##### Philosophy and the Arts (PHIL110)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To consider philosophically relevant questions and concepts pertaining to the scope of art and the evaluation of artworks.

To enable students to reflect philosophically about their intuitions regarding the arts and about their appreciation of particular artistic media.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to examine whether the concept of art may apply to objects and activities from different historical periods and cultural contexts.

Students will be able to consider critically the impact that cultural institutions and their practices may have on philosophical theorising concerning the arts.

Students will be able to assess the view that artistic value is a matter of subjective response to it.

Students will be able to analyse the character of self-expression through art, and assess its significance in evaluating artworks.

Students will be able to evaluate the argument that artistic intentions must inform our appreciation of works of art.

Students will be able to define and expound the conception of beauty in a narrow and in a wide sense.

Students will be able to outline and discuss the significance of the distinction between artistic and aesthetic properties.

Students will be able to argue for or against the view that artworks are unrepeatable.

Students will be able to interpret the ways in which content and meaning is attributed to art that does not seem to represent anything.

Students will be able to provide a critical account of the possible links between seeking truth and creating good art.

Students will be able to discuss whether art can function as a vehicle for demonstrating what is morally good.

### Programme Year Two

Students choose modules to the value of four units from the Philosophy Year Two programme and four from Mathematics.

#### Year Two Compulsory Modules

##### Logic (PHIL207)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To introduce students to the language and methods of classical quantificational logic.

To enable students to use trees for both sentence logic and quantificational logic.

To relate quantificational logic to the philosophy of language. **Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and apply the basic concepts of classical quantificational logic.

Students will consolidate their skill in translating from English into quantificational logic and vice versa.

Students will be able to construct proofs in natural deducation for valid sequents of quantificational logic.

Students will be able to test sets of formulas for consistency using trees and to assess sequents of sentence logic and sequents of quantificational logic for validity using trees.

Students will be able to explain Russell''s theory of definite descriptions and formally to represent sentences that use definite descriptions in a Russellain manner using the notation of quantificational logic.

Students will be able to define, both formally and informally, some formal properties of relations (i.e., reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity and related properties) and to represent these properties using diagrams.

#### Year Two Optional Modules

##### Philosophy of Religion (PHIL215)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To introduce the current state of discussion concerning the concept of God.

To introduce the major arguments for, and the major arguments against, the existence of God.

To enable students to clarify and develop their own views on whether God exists and, if so, what God is like.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to engage with key debates and arguments in the philosophy of religion, primarily in the Western tradition. Students will be able to reflect on methodological issues that arise in the philosophy of religion, such as the relationship between faith and reason.

Students will be able to assess challenges to the coherence of the concept of God.

Students will be able to discuss and evalate arguments for the existence of God.Students will be able to reflect critically on the significance and implications of the problem of evil for religious thought.

##### Liberty, Justice and the Good Society (PHIL219)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**Students will be invited to consider the theories and arguments of thinkers who have shaped contemporary political philosophy, such as John Rawls, Robert Nozick and Michael Walzer.

Students will be asked to consider some of the main concepts in political philosophy, including freedom, equality and justice.

Students will be invited to appreciate the variety of philosophical issues raised by contemporary political debates around controversial topics, such as feminism and multiculturalism.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish some of the main concepts in debates within contemporary political philosophy.Students will be able to explain different ways of understanding concepts employed in debates in contemporary political philosophy.Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in contemporary political philosophy.Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to contemporary political issues.Students will be able to identify philosophical assumptions underlying political questions and claims.Students will be able to speak with confidence and clarity on issues of contemporary political philosophy.Students will be able to explain details of influential texts in recent political philosophy.Students will be able to articulate and defend positions on issues in contemporary political philosophy.Students will be able to write coherently and rigorously about philosophical issues raised by current political controversies. Students will be able to structure a discussion of issues in contemporary political philosophy.

##### Metaphysics (PHIL228)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To provide an introduction to some of the most significant debates in contemporary metaphysics; topics include: change and persistence, objects and properties, space and time.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to identify the main issues and positions in contemporary metaphysical discussions of space, time, persistence, properties, substance, persons, modality and existence.Students will be able to explain the main strengths and weaknesses of these positions. Students will be able to identify the historical contexts of some of these positions.

Students will be able to construct a positive case for a specific metaphysical position, by appealing to theoretical virtues (e.g. simplicity), metaphysical principles (e.g. the principle of sufficient reason) and thought experiments which evoke powerful intuitions.

Students will further develop their abilities to extract arguments from texts, render them in standard form, and assess the soundness of their premises and the validity of their structures.Students will be able to think more creatively about metaphysical issues.

Students will be able to explain the competing positions in contemporary meta-metaphysics.

##### Ancient Greek Philosophy (PHIL237)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**- To consider the theories and arguments of some of the most important ancient philosophers, in particular Plato and Aristotle.
- To consider key ethical, epistemological and metaphysical concepts relevant to ancient philosophy, and their interconnections.
- To analyse and practise the dialectical skills portrayed in the ancient texts.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in ancient Greek philosophy.Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to classic ethical, epistemological and/or metaphysical issues.Students will be able to identify points of agreement and disagreement between different philosophies.Students will be able to structure a discussion of central issues in ancient Greek philosophy.Students will be able to engage dialectically with positions in ancient Greek philosophy and to articulate the implications of these positions.Students will be able to present their ideas with clarity and confidence.Students will be able to write coherent, structured and informative accounts of abstract philosophical issues. Students will be able to highlight the social and political dimensions of ancient Greek philosophy, in terms of justice and the ''good life''.

Students will be able to compare and contrast philosophy as an intellectual activity and philosophy as a ''way of life'', with reference to Socratic enquiry.

Students will be able to reflect on the significance of ancient Greek philosophy for the emergence of Western ideals about democracy and rational discourse.##### Moral Philosophy (PHIL239)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**Students will consider the theories and arguments of some of the most important contemporary moral philosophers focused on normative and applied ethics.

Students will discuss some of the main concepts in moral philosophy.

Students will appreciate the variety of philosophical issues raised by morality and a range of controversial social practices.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish some of the main concepts in moral philosophical debates. Students will be able to distinguish between different ways of understanding concepts in moral philosophical debates.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in contemporary moral philosophy.

Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to ethical issues.

Students will be able to identify philosophical assumptions underlying ethical claims.

Students will be able to structure a discussion of issues in moral philosophy.

Students will be able to speak with confidence and clarity on issues of moral philosophy.Students will be able to explain details of influential texts in recent moral philosophy.Students will be able to articulate and defend positions in moral philosophy.

Students will be able to write coherently and rigorously about abstract philosophical issues raised by ethical controversies.##### Business Ethics (PHIL271)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**40:60 **Aims**To introduce and explain major contemporary perspectives on corporate behaviours.

To introduce moral perspectives as they relate to managerial decision-making and corporate

structures.

To make students familiar with a range of recurrent ethical problems arising in business.

To improve students'' skills in identifying and analyzing ethical issues that managers and employees face.

To give students practice in formulating, defending, and planning the implementation of action plans managing ethical dilemmas.**Learning Outcomes**Studentswill be able to discuss the main theories concerning the placeof ethics in business.

Student will be able to explain assess the main approaches to normative ethics.Students will be able to state and discuss the broad ethical principles concerning costs and benefits, the challenge posed by uncertainty, professional roles, profits and the right of shareholder interests, and affirmative action.Students will be able to state and discuss the broad ethical principles concerning the obligations of complex organizations with respect to loyalty and whistle-blowing, insider trading, customer responsibility, and corporate responsibility.

Students will be able to state and discuss the broad ethical principles concerning social justice and executive compensation.

Students will be able to consider an ethical approach as a basis for sustainable marketing.

##### Chinese Philosophy (PHIL220)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To examine the ways in which philosophy in Classical Chinese civilisation develops in the Hundred Schools period after the dialogue between Kongzi and Mozi, and to relate fundamental Chinese concepts to Western counterparts.

To investigate what is distinctive about classical Chinese approaches to questions of ontology, social harmony, personal morality and soteriology.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to engage in informed discussions about the concepts and categories in which philosophical discussions were conducted in ancient China.

Students will develop skills in developing and contextualising new information about other worldviews.

Sudents will be enabled to assimilate alternative cultural perspectives from which to view their own traditions.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories propounded in the classical period of Chinese thought.

Students will be able to discuss the problem of cultural relativism informed by an understanding of a particular alien pattern of thinking.

Students will be able to relate classical Chinese thought to European philosophical interests.

##### Classical Mechanics (MATH228)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To provide an understanding of the principles of Classical Mechanics and their application to dynamical systems.

**Learning Outcomes**Understanding of variational principles, Lagrangian mechanics, Hamiltonian mechanics.

Newtonian gravity and Kepler''s laws, including calculations of the orbits of satellites, comets and planetary motions

Motion relative to a rotating frame, Coriolis and centripetal forces, motion under gravity over the Earth''s surface

Connection between symmetry and conservation laws

Inertial and non-inertial frames.

##### Commutative Algebra (MATH247)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To give an introduction to abstract commutative algebra and show how it both arises naturally, and is a useful tool, in number theory.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

• Work confidently with the basic tools of algebra (sets, maps, binary operations and equivalence relations).

• Recognise abelian groups, different kinds of rings (integral, Euclidean, principal ideal and unique factorisation domains) and fields.

• Find greatest common divisors using the Euclidean algorithm in Euclidean domains.

• Apply commutative algebra to solve simple number-theoretic problems.

##### Complex Functions (MATH243)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**To introduce the student to a surprising, very beautiful theory which has intimate connections with other areas of mathematics and physical sciences, for instance ordinary and partial differential equations and potential theory.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing this module students should:

- appreciate the central role of complex numbers in mathematics;

- be familiar with all the classical holomorphic functions;

- be able to compute Taylor and Laurent series of such functions;

- understand the content and relevance of the various Cauchy formulae and theorems;

- be familiar with the reduction of real definite integrals to contour integrals;

- be competent at computing contour integrals.

##### Engineering Mathematics II (MATH299)

**Level**2 **Credit level**7.5 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce some advanced Mathematics required by Engineers, Aerospace Engineers, Civil Engineers and Mechanical Engineers.

To develop the students ability to use the mathematics presented in the module in solving problems.

**Learning Outcomes**A good knowledge of matrices and their use to solve systems of linear equations.

An understanding of how to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

A good knowledge of multi-variable calculus.

##### Field Theory and Partial Differential Equations (MATH283)

**Level**2 **Credit level**7.5 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**- To introduce students to the concepts of scalar and vector fields.
- To develop techniques for evaluating line, surface and volume integrals.
- To introduce students to some of the basic methods for solving partial differential equations

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module, students should be able to:

- Evaluate Grad, Div, Curl and Laplacian operators in Cartesian and polar coordinates
- Evaluate line, double and volume integrals
- Have a good understanding of the physical meaning of flux and circulation
- Be able to solve simple boundary value problems for the wave equation, diffusion equation and Laplace''s equation

##### Theory of Interest (MATH267)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**This module aims to provide students with an understanding of the fundamental concepts of Financial Mathematics, and how the concepts above are applied in calculating present and accumulated values for various streams of cash flows. Students will also be given an introduction to financial instruments, such as derivatives and the concept of no-arbitrage.

**Learning Outcomes**To understand and calculate all kinds of rates of interest, find the future value and present value of a cash flow and to write the equation of value given a set of cash flows and an interest rate.

To derive formulae for all kinds of annuities.

To understand an annuity with level payments, immediate (or due), payable m-thly, (or payable continuously) and any three of present value, future value, interest rate, payment, and term of annuity as well as to calculate the remaining two items.

To calculate the outstanding balance at any point in time.

To calculate a schedule of repayments under a loan and identify the interest and capital components in a given payment.

To calculate a missing quantity, being given all but one quantities, in a sinking fund arrangement.

To calculate the present value of payments from a fixed interest security, bounds for the present value of a redeemable fixed interest security.

Given the price, to calculate the running yield and redemption yield from a fixed interest security.

To calculate the present value or real yield from an index-linked bond.

To calculate the price of, or yield from, a fixed interest security where the income tax and capital gains tax are implemented.

To calculate yield rate, the dollar-weighted and time weighted rate of return, the duration and convexity of a set of cash flows.

To describe the concept of a stochastic interest rate model and the fundamental distinction between this and a deterministic model.

##### Financial Mathematics (MATH262)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**- to provide an understanding of basic theories in Financial Mathematics used in the study process of actuarial/financial interest,
- to provide an introduction to financial methods and derivative pricing financial instruments,
- to gain understanding of some financial models with applications to financial/insurance industry,
- to prepare the students adequately and to develop their skills in order to be ready to sit the CT1 & CT8 subject of the Institute of Actuaries (the module covers the material of CT8 and 20% of CT1).

**Learning Outcomes**To understand the assumptions of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), to be able to explain the no riskless lending or borrowing and other lending and borrowing assumptions, to be able to use the formulas of CAPM, to be able to derive the capital market line and security market line.

To be able to describe the Arbitrage Theory Model (APT) and explain its assumptions as well as perform estimating and testing in APT

To be able to explain the terms long/short position, spot/delivery/forward price, understand the use of future contracts, describe what a call/put option (European/American) is as well as be able to create graphs and explain their payouts, describe the hedging for reducing the exposure to risk, to be able to explain arbitrage, understand the mechanism of short sales.

To be able to explain/describe what arbitrage is, what the risk neutral probability measure is, as well as to be able to use (and perform calculation) the binomial tree for European and American style options.To understand the probabilistic interpretation and the basic concept of the random walk of asset pricing.

To understand the concepts of replication, hedging, and delta hedging in continuous time.

To be able to use Ito''s formula, derive/use the Black‐Scholes formula, price contingent claims (in particular European/American style options and forward contracts), to be able to explain the properties of the Black‐Scholes formula and to be able to use the Normal distribution function in numerical examples of pricing,

To understand the role of Greeks, to be able to describe intuitively what Delta, Theta, Gamma is, and to calculate them in numerical examples.##### Geometry of Curves (MATH248)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce geometric ideas and develop the basic skills in handling them.

To study the line, circle, ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, cubics and many other curves.

To study theoretical aspects of parametric, algebraic and projective curves.

To study and sketch curves using an appropriate computer package.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing this module students should be able to:

- use a computer package to study curves and their evolution in both parametric and algebraic forms.

-determine and work with tangents, inflexions, curvature, cusps, nodes, length and other features.

-calculate envelopes and evolutes.

- solve the position and shape of some algebraic curves including conics.

The first learning outcome is assessed by coursework, the others by both coursework and examination.

##### Group Project Module (MATH206)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**· To give students experience of working effectively in small groups.

· To train students to write about mathematics.

· To give students practice in delivering presentations.

· To develop students’ ability to study independently.

· To prepare students for later individual project work.

· To enhance students’ appreciation of the connections between different areas of mathematics.

· To encourage students to discuss mathematics with each other.

**Learning Outcomes**Work effectively in groups, and delegate common tasks.

Write substantial mathematical documents in an accessible form.Give coherent verbal presentations of more advanced mathematical topics.

Appreciate how mathematical techniques can be applied in a variety of different contexts##### Hellenistic, Neoplatonic, Byzantine and Medieval Philosophy (PHIL221)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To consider the theories and arguments of some of the most important philosophers of the Hellenistic, late Antique and Medieval periods.

- To study key ethical, epistemological and metaphysical concepts and their interconnections.
- To enable students to analyse and practise the dialectical skills portrayed in the texts examined.
**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in ancient and/or medieval philosophyStudents will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to classic ethical, epistemological and/or metaphysical issuesStudents will be able to structure a discussion of central issues in ancient and/or medieval philosophyStudents will be able to identify points of agreement and disagreement between different philosophiesStudents will be able to dialectically engage with positions in ancient and/or medieval philosophy and articulate their implicationsStudents will be able to present their ideas with clarity and confidenceStudents will be able to develop in writing coherent, structured and informative accounts on abstract philosophical issues ##### Introduction to Methods of Operational Research (MATH261)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**- Appreciate the operational research approach.
- Be able to apply standard methods to a wide range of real-world problems as well as applications in other areas of mathematics.
- Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.
- Be able to derive methods and modify them to model real-world problems.
- Understand and be able to derive and apply the methods of sensitivity analysis.

**Learning Outcomes**Appreciate the operational research approach.Be able to apply standard methods to a wide range of real-world problems as well asapplications in other areas of mathematics.

Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.

Be able to derive methods and modify them to model real-world problems.Understand and be able to derive and apply the methods of sensitivity analysis. Appreciate the importance of sensitivity analysis.

##### Introduction to the Methods of Applied Mathematics (MATH224)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To provide a grounding in elementary approaches to solution of some of the standard partial differential equations encountered in the applications of mathematics.

To introduce some of the basic tools (Fourier Series) used in the solution of differential equations and other applications of mathematics.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should:

- be fluent in the solution of basic ordinary differential equations, including systems of first order equations;

- be familiar with the concept of Fourier series and their potential application to the solution of both ordinary and partial differential equations;

- be familiar with the concept of Laplace transforms and their potential application to the solution of both ordinary and partial differential equations;

- be able to solve simple first order partial differential equations;

- be able to solve the basic boundary value problems for second order linear partial differential equations using the method of separation of variables.

##### Introduction to Methods of Operational Research (MATH261)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**- Appreciate the operational research approach.
- Be able to apply standard methods to a wide range of real-world problems as well as applications in other areas of mathematics.
- Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.
- Be able to derive methods and modify them to model real-world problems.
- Understand and be able to derive and apply the methods of sensitivity analysis.

**Learning Outcomes**Appreciate the operational research approach.Be able to apply standard methods to a wide range of real-world problems as well asapplications in other areas of mathematics.

Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.

Be able to derive methods and modify them to model real-world problems.Understand and be able to derive and apply the methods of sensitivity analysis. Appreciate the importance of sensitivity analysis.

##### Life Insurance Mathematics I (MATH273)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**Provide a solid grounding in the subject of life contingencies for single life, and in the subject of the analysis of life assurance and life annuities, including pension contracts.

Provide an introduction to mathematical methods for managing the risk in life insurance,?Develop skills of calculating the premium for a certain life insurance contract, including allowance for expenses and profits?Prepare the students adequately and to develop their skills in order to be ready to sit for the exams of CT5 subject of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries.

**Learning Outcomes**Be able to explain and analyze the factors that affect mortality, simple life assurance and life annuity contracts.

Understand the concept (and the mathematical assumptions) of the future life time random variables in continuous and discrete time,Be able to define the survivals probabilities and the force of mortality of the (c) section of the Syllabus, explain these types of probabilities and the force of mortality intuitively, be able to calculate the different types of the survival probabilities in theoretical and numerical examples.

Understand the concept of the De Moivre, Makeham, Gompertz, Weibull and the exponential law (constant force of mortality) for modelling fractional ages, explain the basic difference between the laws above, be able to use these laws to calculate the survival probabilities of (c) of the Syllabus in numerical examples.

Understand, define/calculate and derive the expected present values of all types of the life assurances of (d) of the Syllabus. Derive relations between life assurances both in continuous and discrete time, be able to use recursive equations for the calculation of the expected present value of different types of life assurances, calculate the variance of the present values for basic forms of life assurances.

Be able to derive the distributions and the moment/variance of the aforementioned future lifetimes, be able to make graphs of these future life times.

##### Linear Algebra and Geometry (MATH244)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce general concepts of linear algebra and its applications in geometry and other areas of mathematics.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

• appreciate the geometric meaning of linear algebraic ideas,

• appreciate the concept of an abstract vector space and how it is used in different mathematical situations,

• apply a change of coordinates to simplify a linear map,

• manipulate matrix groups, in particular GL(n), O(n) and SO(n),

• understand bilinear forms from a geometric point of view.

##### Mathematical Models: Microeconomics and Population Dynamics (MATH227)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**1. To provide an understanding of the techniques used in constructing, analysing, evaluating and interpreting mathematical models.

2. To do this in the context of two non-physical applications, namely microeconomics and population dynamics.

3. To use and develop mathematical skills introduced in Year 1 - particularly the calculus of functions of several variables and elementary differential equations.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

- Use techniques from several variable calculus in tackling problems in microeconomics.

- Use techniques from elementary differential equations in tackling problems in population dynamics.

- Apply mathematical modelling methodology in these subject areas.

All learning outcomes are assessed by both examination and course work.

##### Mathematics Education and Communication (MATH291)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**Improving communication skills.

Exposing students to current pedagogical practice and issues related to child protection

Encouraging students to reflect on mathematics with which they are familiar in a teaching context.

**Learning Outcomes**Confidence in planning and presenting mathematics to school-age children.

Knowledge of current best pedagogical practice and child protection issues.

Ability to work in a team.

Understanding the role of outreach in mathematics education.##### Mathematics International Exchange Module I (MATH271)

**Level**2 **Credit level**60 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**This is an exchange module. Compatible modules are selected by the outgoing students with approval by the programme director and should mirror as closely as possible the modules normally taking at Liverpool during the same period. The aim of the exchange is to provide the student with experience of living in another country and sampling different academic environments.

**Learning Outcomes**By the end of this module the student should have:

-achieved learning outcomes equivalent to 60 credits contributing to their current programme as agreed by their programme director

-enhanced their knowledge and skills in specific areas of their current programme

##### Mathematics International Exchange Module II (MATH272)

**Level**2 **Credit level**60 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**This is an exchange module. Compatible modules are selected by the outgoing students with approval by the programme director and should mirror as closely as possible the modules normally taking at Liverpool during the same period. The aim of the exchange is to provide the student with experience of living in another country and sampling different academic environments.

**Learning Outcomes**By the end of this module the student should have:

-achieved learning outcomes equivalent to 60 credits contributing to their current programme as agreed by their programme director.

-enhanced their knowledge and skills in specific areas of their current programme

##### Metric Spaces and Calculus (MATH241)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce the basic elements of the theories of metric spaces and calculus of several variables.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should:

Be familiar with a range of examples of metric spaces.

Have developed their understanding of the notions of convergence and continuity.

Understand the contraction mapping theorem and appreciate some of its applications.

Be familiar with the concept of the derivative of a vector valued function of several variables as a linear map.

Understand the inverse function and implicit function theorems and appreciate their importance.

Have developed their appreciation of the role of proof and rigour in mathematics.

##### Numerical Methods (MATH266)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To provide an introduction to the main topics in Numerical Analysis and their relation to other branches of Mathematics

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

• write simple mathematical computer programs in Maple,

• understand the consequences of using fixed-precision arithmetic,

• analyse the efficiency and convergence rate of simple numerical methods,

• develop and implement algorithms for solving nonlinear equations,

• develop quadrature methods for numerical integration,

• apply numerical methods to solve systems of linear equations and to calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors,

• solve boundary and initial value problems using finite difference methods.

##### Operational Research: Probabilistic Models (MATH268)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce a range of models and techniques for solving under uncertainty in Business, Industry, and Finance.

**Learning Outcomes**The ability to understand and describe mathematically real-life optimization problems.

Understanding the basic methods of dynamical decision making.

Understanding the basics of forecasting and simulation.

The ability to analyse elementary queueing systems.

##### Ordinary Differential Equations (MATH201)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**75:25 **Aims**To familiarize students with basic ideas and fundamental techniques to solve ordinary differential equations.

To illustrate the breadth of applications of ODEs and fundamental importance of related concepts.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be:

- familiar with elementary techniques for the solution of ODE''s, and the idea of reducing a complex ODE to a simpler one;

- familiar with basic properties of ODE, including main features of initial value problems and boundary value problems, such as existence and uniqueness of solutions;

- well versed in the solution of linear ODE systems (homogeneous and non-homogeneous) with constant coefficients matrix;

- aware of a range of applications of ODE.

##### Statistical Theory and Methods I (MATH263)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**85:15 **Aims**To introduce statistical methods with a strong emphasis on applying standard statistical techniques appropriately and with clear interpretation. The emphasis is on applications.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should have a conceptual and practical understanding of a range of commonly applied statistical procedures. They should have also developed some familiarity with the statistical package MINITAB.

##### Statistical Theory and Methods II (MATH264)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce statistical distribution theory which forms the basis for all applications of statistics, and for further statistical theory.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should understand basic probability calculus. They should be familiar with a range of techniques for solving real life problems of the probabilistic nature.

##### Vector Calculus With Applications in Fluid Mechanics (MATH225)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**85:15 **Aims**To provide an understanding of the various vector integrals, the operators div, grad and curl and the relations between them.

To give an appreciation of the many applications of vector calculus to physical situations.

To provide an introduction to the subjects of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

- Work confidently with different coordinate systems.

- Evaluate line, surface and volume integrals.

- Appreciate the need for the operators div, grad and curl together with the associated theorems of Gauss and Stokes.

- Recognise the many physical situations that involve the use of vector calculus.

- Apply mathematical modelling methodology to formulate and solve simple problems in electromagnetism and inviscid fluid flow.

All learning outcomes are assessed by both examination and course work.

### Programme Year Three

Students choose modules to the value of four units from the Philosophy Year Three programme and four Mathematics modules. Students may choose to undertake a project as one of the Mathematics options – this may be on a topic related to Philosophy.

#### Year Three Optional Modules

##### Final Year Dissertation (PHIL306)

**Level**3 **Credit level**30 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**The aim is for the student to choose a topic of special interest in philosophy and conduct research into this area of interest via reading and private study under the supervison of the supervisor to whom they have been allocated.

**Learning Outcomes**The student will produce a systematic piece of written work, organised in chapters/sections in the manner of professional and published work in philosophy, so as to show that the research referred to in the Aims has been mastered in a way appropriate to someone with a grasp of the practice of professional philosophy.

##### Mind, Brain and Consciousness (PHIL309)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To give students an understanding of the main developments in twentieth century analytic philosophy of mind: dualism, behaviourism, identity theory and functionalism.

To give students a grasp of cutting-edge debates in philosophy of mind concerning (i) the place of consciousness in nature, (ii) the relationship between consciousness and thought, (iii) artificial intelligence.**Learning Outcomes**Students should be able to explain the history of twentieth century analytic philosophy of mind.

Students should be able to explain cutting edge contemporary debates on (i) the place of consciousness in nature, (ii) the relationship between thought and consciousness, (iii) artificial intelligence.

Students should be able to build a case for a specific view concerning (i) the place of consciousness in nature, (ii) the relationship between thought and consciousenss, (iii) aritificial intelligence.

Students should be able to explain the main strengths and weaknesses of dominent theories on these three things in the philosophical literature.

Students should further develop their abilities to extract arguments from texts, render them in schematic form, and assess the soundness of their premises and the validity of their structures.

Students should be able to think more creatively about the relationship between thought, consciousness and the physical world.

##### Philosophy of Language (PHIL310)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To study some of the main issues in the contemporary philosophy of language.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain the point of compositional theories of meaning. Students will be able to explain the nature and purpose of Frege''s sense-reference distinction.

Students will be able to explain Russell''s Theory of Descriptions.

Students will be able to explain the difference between extensionality and intensionality and be able to evaluate some of the problems connected with these notions.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate sceptical approaches to meaning, such as Quine''s and Kripke''s.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate Davidson''s programme of radical interpretation.

Students will be able to explain rival theories of truth and evaluate their relative merits.

Students will be able to explain the connections between the notions of truth and meaning, and be able to evaluate the debate between realists and anti-realists.

##### Aesthetics (PHIL316)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**Students will be introduced to arguments of some of the most important philosophers on art, aesthetics and cultural theory, including Kant, Hegel, Danto and Tolstoy.

Students will consider key concepts and theories in aesthetics, including the aesthetic judgement, disinterestedness, the institutional theory of art, the nature of representation and expression and feminist and post-modern critiques.

Students will be encouraged to make connections between works of art and artistic practices of the past and present.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to analyse key concepts and arguments relating to aesthetics and art.

Students will be able to structure discussion of issues in aesthetics.

Students will be able to identify links between influential philosophical theories and artistic practices.

Students will be able to articulate and defend positions in aesthetics and philosophy of art.

Students will be able to present their ideas with clarity and confidence.

Students will be able to develop in writing coherent, structured and informative accounts on abstract philosophical issues.

##### Indian Philosophy (PHIL326)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To examine the ways in which philosophy in Classical India develops as a dialogue between thinkers of Buddhist and Brahminical persuasions and to relate fundamental Indian metaphysical concepts to Western counterparts.

To investigate what is distinctive about Indian approaches to questions of ontology, soteriology, social harmony, and morality.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to engage in informed discussions identifying and evaluating the concepts and categories in which philosophical discussions were conducted in India. Students will able to be enabled to assimilate a differentview Western philosophical traditions from the perspective of Indian philosohical traditions.

Students will be able to contextualise information about the Indian worldviews under discussion.

Students will be able to think more imaginatively by empathising with unfamiliar outlooks on life.

Students will be able to engage in debate informed by an awareness of the particularity and peculiarities of Western philosophical positions.

##### Existentialism (PHIL332)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To consider the theories and arguments of some of the most important existentialist philosophers, such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Sartre.

To analyse some of the main themes of existentialist philosophy, such as absurdity, ethics, authenticity and ''truth''.

To relate the philosophical issues raised by existentialism to lived practice and to concrete examples.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in existentialism.Students will be able to analyse key concepts and arguments relating to existentialism.Students will be able to structure discussion of issues around existentialist metaphysics and ethics.Students will be able to identify the relevance of existentialist philosophy to their own lives.

Students will be able to present their ideas with clarity and confidence.

Students will be able to write coherent, structured and informative accounts on abstract philosophical issues.##### Actuarial Models (MATH376)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**1

Be able to understand the differences between stochastic and deterministic modelling

2

Explain the need of stochastic processes to model the actuarial data

3

Be able to perform model selection depending on the outcome from a model.

4

Prepare the students adequately and to develop their skills in order to be ready to sit for the exams of CT4 subject of the Institute of Actuaries.

Be able to understand time series

**Learning Outcomes** Use Markov processes to describe simple survival, sickness and marriage models, and describe other simple applications. Derive an appropriate Markov multi-state model for a system with multiple transfers, derive the likelihood function in a Markov multi-state model with data and use the likelihood function to estimate the parameters (with standard errors). The Kaplan-Meier (or product limit) estimate, the Nelson-Aalen estimate. Describe the Cox model for proportional hazards. Apply the chi-square test, the stardardised deviations test, the cumulative deviation test, the sign test, the grouping of signs test, teh serial correlation test to testing the adherence of graduation data

Understand the connection between estimation of transition intensities and exposed to risk (central and initial exposed to risk). Apply exact calculation of the central exposed to risk

Understand the time series together with its applications

##### Analysis and Number Theory (MATH351)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To provide an introduction to uniform distribution modulo one as a meeting ground for other branches of pure mathematics such as topology, analysis and number theory.

To give an idea of how these subjects work together in this context to shape modern analysis by focusing on one particular rich context.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

understand completions and irrationality;

understand diophantine approximation and its relation to uniform distribution;

appreciate that analysis has a complex unity and to have a feel for basic computations in analysis.

calculate rational approximations to real and p adic numbers and to put this to use in number theoretic situations.

calculate approximations to functions from families of simpler functions e.g. continuous functions by polynomials and step functions by trigonometric sums.

work with basic tools from analysis, like Fourier series and continuous functions to prove distributional properties of sequences of numbers.

##### Applied Probability (MATH362)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To give examples of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide suitable mathematical models. To provide an introduction to the methods of probabilistic model building for ‘‘dynamic" events occuring over time. To familiarise students with an important area of probability modelling.

**Learning Outcomes**1. Knowledge and Understanding

After the module, students should have a basic understanding of:

(a) some basic models in discrete and continuous time Markov chains such as random walk and Poisson processes

(b) important subjects like transition matrix, equilibrium distribution, limiting behaviour etc. of Markov chain

(c) special properties of the simple finite state discrete time Markov chain and Poisson processes, and perform calculations using these.

2. Intellectual Abilities

After the module, students should be able to:

(a) formulate appropriate situations as probability models: random processes

(b) demonstrate knowledge of standard models

(c) demonstrate understanding of the theory underpinning simple dynamical systems

3. General Transferable Skills

(a) numeracy through manipulation and interpretation of datasets

(b) communication through presentation of written work and preparation of diagrams

(c) problem solving through tasks set in tutorials

(d) time management in the completion of practicals and the submission of assessed work

(e) choosing, applying and interpreting results of probability techniques for a range of different problems.

##### Applied Stochastic Models (MATH360)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To give examples of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide suitable mathematical models. To provide an introduction to the methods of stochastic model building for ''dynamic'' events occurring over time or space. To enable further study of the theory of stochastic processes by using this course as a base.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should have a grounding in the theory of continuous-time Markov chains and diffusion processes. They should be able to solve corresponding problems arising in epidemiology, mathematical biology, financial mathematics, etc.

##### Cartesian Tensors and Mathematical Models of Solids and VIscous Fluids (MATH324)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To provide an introduction to the mathematical theory of viscous fluid flows and solid elastic materials. Cartesian tensors are first introduced. This is followed by modelling of the mechanics of continuous media. The module includes particular examples of the flow of a viscous fluid as well as a variety of problems of linear elasticity.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module, students should be able to understand and actively use the basic concepts of continuum mechanics such as stress, deformation and constitutive relations, and apply mathematical methods for analysis of problems involving the flow of viscous fluid or behaviour of solid elastic materials.

##### Chaos and Dynamical Systems (MATH322)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To develop expertise in dynamical systems in general and study particular systems in detail.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students will be able to understand the possible behaviour of dynamical systems with particular attention to chaotic motion;

After completing the module students will be familiar with techniques for extracting fixed points and exploring the behaviour near such fixed points;

After completing the module students will understand how fractal sets arise and how to characterise them.

##### Combinatorics (MATH344)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To provide an introduction to the problems and methods of Combinatorics, particularly to those areas of the subject with the widest applications such as pairings problems, the inclusion-exclusion principle, recurrence relations, partitions and the elementary theory of symmetric functions.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

- understand of the type of problem to which the methods of Combinatorics apply, and model these problems;

- solve counting and arrangement problems;

- solve general recurrence relations using the generating function method;

- appreciate the elementary theory of partitions and its application to the study of symmetric functions.

##### Differential Geometry (MATH349)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**85:15 **Aims**This module is designed to provide an introduction to the methods of differential geometry, applied in concrete situations to the study of curves and surfaces in euclidean 3-space. While forming a self-contained whole, it will also provide a basis for further study of differential geometry, including Riemannian geometry and applications to science and engineering.

**Learning Outcomes**1. Knowledge and understanding

After the module, students should have a basic understanding of

a) invariants used to describe the shape of explicitly given curves and surfaces,

b) special curves on surfaces,

c) the difference between extrinsically defined properties and those which depend only on the surface metric,

d) understanding the passage from local to global properties exemplified by the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem.

2. Intellectual abilities

After the module, students should be able to

a) use differential calculus to discover geometric properties of explicitly given curves and surface,

b) understand the role played by special curves on surfaces.

3. Subject-based practical skills

Students should learn to

a) compute invariants of curves and surfaces,

b) interpret the invariants of curves and surfaces as indicators of their geometrical properties.

4. General transferable skills

Students will improve their ability to

a) think logically about abstract concepts,

b) combine theory with examples in a meaningful way.

##### Frontiers of Ethics (PHIL302)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To consider conceptual and ethical issues arising from matters of global concern, such as international justice, humanitarian intervention and the environmental crisis.

To consider arguments and assumptions underlying a range of claims concerning such issues as disability, global citizenship, climate change and the ethical status of nature.

To examine difficulties for traditional philosophical approaches raised by such issues and recent theoretical developments relevant to them.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to distinguish between some of the main concepts involved in philosophical debates arising from matters of current global concern. Students will be able to distinguish between different ways of understanding concepts in philosophical debates arising from from matters of global concern.

Students will be able to explain and evaluate some of the main theories in debates about matters of disability, global justice, just war, environmental justice and environmental ethics.Students will be able to analyse concepts and arguments relating to current ethical issues.

Students will be able to identify philosophical assumptions underlying ethical claims.

Students will be able to structure a philosophical discussion of current ethical issues.Students will be able to speak with confidence and clarity on current ethical issues.Students will be able to explain details of texts shaping current philosophical debates about matters of global concern.Students will be able to articulate and defend positions in current philosophical debates about matters of global concern.

Students will be able to write coherently and rigorously about abstract philosophical issues raised by current ethical controversies.##### Further Methods of Applied Mathematics (MATH323)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To give an insight into some specific methods for solving important types of ordinary differential equations.

To provide a basic understanding of the Calculus of Variations and to illustrate the techniques using simple examples in a variety of areas in mathematics and physics.

To build on the students'' existing knowledge of partial differential equations of first and second order.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

- use the method of "Variation of Arbitrary Parameters" to find the solutions of some inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations.

- solve simple integral extremal problems including cases with constraints;

- classify a system of simultaneous 1st-order linear partial differential equations, and to find the Riemann invariants and general or specific solutions in appropriate cases;

- classify 2nd-order linear partial differential equations and, in appropriate cases, find general or specific solutions. [This might involve a practical understanding of a variety of mathematics tools; e.g. conformal mapping and Fourier transforms.]

##### Group Theory (MATH343)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce the basic techniques of finite group theory with the objective of explaining the ideas needed to solve classification results.

**Learning Outcomes**Understanding of abstract algebraic systems (groups) by concrete, explicit realisations (permutations, matrices, Mobius transformations).

The ability to understand and explain classification results to users of group theory.

The understanding of connections of the subject with other areas of Mathematics.

To have a general understanding of the origins and history of the subject.

##### Life Insurance Mathematics II (MATH373)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**Provide a solid grounding in the subject of life contingencies for multiple-life, and in the subject of the analysis of life assurance, life annuities, pension contracts, multi-state models and profit testing.

Provide an introduction to mathematical methods for managing the risk in life insurance.

Analyze problems of pricing and reserving in relation to contracts involving several lives.

Prepare the students to sit for the exams of CT5 subject of the Institute of Actuaries.

Be familiar with R programming language to solve life insurance problems.

**Learning Outcomes**Be able to explain, define and analyze the joint survival functions.

Understand the concept (and the mathematical assumptions) of the joint future life time random variables in continuous and discrete time and monthly. Be able to derive the distributions and the moment/variance of the joint future lifetimes.

Be able to define the survivals probabilities/death probabilities of either or both two lives, explain these types of probabilities and the force of interest intuitively, be able to calculate the different types of the survival/death probabilities in theoretical and numerical examples. Understand, define and derive the expected present values of different types of the life assurances and life annuities for joint lives, be able to calculate the expected present values of the joint life assurances and life annuities in theoretical and numerical examples.

Be familiar with R solfware and uses in actuarial mathematics

##### Linear Statistical Models (MATH363)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**· to understand how regression methods for continuous data extend to include multiple continuous and categorical predictors, and categorical response variables.

· to provide an understanding of how this class of models forms the basis for the analysis of experimental and also observational studies.

· to understand generalized linear models.

· to develop familiarity with the computer package SPSS.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

understand the rationale and assumptions of linear regression and analysis of variance.

· understand the rationale and assumptions of generalized linear models.

· recognise the correct analysis for a given experiment.

· carry out and interpret linear regressions and analyses of variance, and derive appropriate theoretical results.

· carry out and interpret analyses involving generalised linear models and derive appropriate theoretical results.

· perform linear regression, analysis of variance and generalised linear model analysis using the SPSS computer package.

##### Mathematical Economics (MATH331)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**· To explore, from a game-theoretic point of view, models which have been used to understand phenomena in which conflict and cooperation occur.

· To see the relevance of the theory not only to parlour games but also to situations involving human relationships, economic bargaining (between trade union and employer, etc), threats, formation of coalitions, war, etc..

· To treat fully a number of specific games including the famous examples of "The Prisoners'' Dilemma" and "The Battle of the Sexes".

· To treat in detail two-person zero-sum and non-zero-sum games.

· To give a brief review of n-person games.

· In microeconomics, to look at exchanges in the absence of money, i.e. bartering, in which two individuals or two groups are involved. To see how the Prisoner''s Dilemma arises in the context of public goods.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should:

· Have further extended their appreciation of the role of mathematics in modelling in Economics and the Social Sciences.

· Be able to formulate, in game-theoretic terms, situations of conflict and cooperation.

· Be able to solve mathematically a variety of standard problems in the theory of games.

· To understand the relevance of such solutions in real situations.

##### Mathematical Physics Project (MATH334)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To study in depth an area of theoretical physics and report on it.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the project with suitable guidance the student should have

· understood an area of advanced theoretical physics

· had experience in consulting relevant literature

· gained experience in using appropriate mathematics

· made a critical appraisal of the current understanding of the area

· learnt how to construct a written essay and given an oral presentation

##### Mathematical Risk Theory (MATH366)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims** to provide an understanding of the mathematical risk theory used in the study process of actuarial interest,

to provide an introduction to mathematical methods for managing the risk in insurance and finance (calculation of risk measures/quantities),

to develop skills of calculating the ruin probability and the total claim amount distribution in some non‐life actuarial risk models with applications to insurance industry,

to prepare the students adequately and to develop their skills in order to be ready to sit for the exams of CT6 subject of the Institute of Actuaries (MATH366 covers 50% of CT6 in much more depth).

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to:

(a) Define the loss/risk function and explain intuitively the meaning of it, describe and determine optimal strategies of game theory, apply the decision criteria''s, be able to decide a model due to certain model selection criterion, describe and perform calculations with Minimax and Bayes rules.

(b) Understand the concept (and the mathematical assumptions) of the sums of independent random variables, derive the distribution function and the moment generating function of finite sums of independent random variables,

(c) Define and explain the compound Poisson risk model, the compound binomial risk model, the compound geometric risk model and be able to derive the distribution function, the probability function, the mean, the variance, the moment generating function and the probability generating function for exponential/mixture of exponential severities and gamma (Erlang) severities, be able to calculate the distribution of sums of independent compound Poisson random variables.

(d) Understand the use of convolutions and compute the distribution function and the probability function of the compound risk model for aggregate claims using convolutions and recursion relationships ,

(e) Define the stop‐loss reinsurance and calculate the (mean) stop‐loss premium for exponential and mixtures of exponential severities, be able to compare the original premium and the stoploss premium in numerical examples,

(f) Understand and be able to use Panjer''s equation when the number of claims belongs to the

R(a, b, 0) class of distributions, use the Panjer''s recursion in order to derive/evaluate the probability function for the total aggregate claims,(g) Explain intuitively the individual risk model, be able to calculate the expected losses (as well as the variance) of group life/non‐life insurance policies when the benefits of the each person of the group are assumed to have deterministic variables,

(h) Derive a compound Poisson approximations for a group of insurance policies (individual risk model as approximation),

(i) Understand/describe the classical surplus process ruin model and calculate probabilities of the number of the risks appearing in a specific time period, under the assumption of the Poisson process,

(j) Derive the moment generating function of the classical compound Poisson surplus process, calculate and explain the importance of the adjustment coefficient, also be able to make use of Lundberg''s inequality for exponential and mixtures of exponential claim severities,

(k) Derive the analytic solutions for the probability of ruin, psi(u), by solving the corresponding integro‐differential equation for exponential and mixtures of exponential claim amount severities,

(l) Define the discrete time surplus process and be able to calculate the infinite ruin probability, psi(u,t) in numerical examples (using convolutions),

(m) Derive Lundberg''s equation and explain the importance of the adjustment coefficient under the consideration of reinsurance schemes,

(n) Understand the concept of delayed claims and the need for reserving, present claim data as a triangle (most commonly used method), be able to fill in the lower triangle by comparing present data with past (experience) data,

(o) Explain the difference and adjust the chain ladder method, when inflation is considered,

(p) Describe the average cost per claim method and project ultimate claims, calculate the required reserve (by using the claims of the data table),

(q) Use loss ratios to estimate the eventual loss and hence outstanding claims,

(r) Describe the Bornjuetter‐Ferguson method (be able to understand the combination of the estimated loss ratios with a projection method), use the aforementioned method to calculate the revised ultimate losses (by making use of the credibility factor).

##### Medical Statistics (MATH364)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**The aims of this module are to:

- demonstrate the purpose of medical statistics and the role it plays in the control of disease and promotion of health
- explore different epidemiological concepts and study designs
- apply statistical methods learnt in other programmes, and some new concepts, to medical problems and practical epidemiological research
- enable further study of the theory of medical statistics by using this module as a base.

**Learning Outcomes**identify the types of problems encountered in medical statistics

demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of different epidemiological study designs

apply appropriate statistical methods to problems arising in epidemiology and interpret results

explain and apply statistical techniques used in survival analysis

critically evaluate statistical issues in the design and analysis of clinical trials

discuss statistical issues related to systematic review and apply appropriate methods of meta-analysisapply Bayesian methods to simple medical problems.

##### Networks in Theory and Practice (MATH367)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To develop an appreciation of network models for real world problems.

To describe optimisation methods to solve them.

To study a range of classical problems and techniques related to network models.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should

. be able to model problems in terms of networks.

· be able to apply effectively a range of exact and heuristic optimisation techniques.

##### Number Theory (MATH342)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To give an account of elementary number theory with use of certain algebraic methods and to apply the concepts to problem solving.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing this module students should be able to understand and solve a wide range of problems about the integers, and have a better understanding of the properties of prime numbers.

##### Numerical Analysis for Financial Mathematics (MATH371)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**1.

To provide basic background in solving mathematical problems numerically, including understanding of stability and convergence of approximations to exact solution.

2.

To acquaint students with two standard methods of derivative pricing: recombining trees and Monte Carlo algorithms.

3.

To familiarize students with implementation of numerical methods in a high level programming language.

**Learning Outcomes**Awareness of the major issues when solving mathematical problems numerically.

Ability to analyse a simple numerical method for convergence and stability

Ability to formulate approximations to derivative pricing problems numerically.Ability to program matlab for pricing options

##### Philosophy of Law (PHIL341)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To help students think about our (and other) legal systems, and their philosophical underpinnings.

To help students think through the strengths and weakeness of various legal systems (codified, mixed, and common-law).

To help students think how the law might be improved.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to describe the rudiments of the legal system of England and Wales. Students will be able to state the chief questions in the philosophy of law, and give the main answers to them.

Students will be able critically to discuss the main arguments for, and the main arguments against, the main answers to the chief questions in the philosophy of law.

Students will be able to state and argue for their own views on the chief questions in the philosophy of law.

##### Philosophy of Play and the VIrtual (PHIL343)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To introduce students to the main contemporary issues around play and games.

To develop students'' understanding of the relationships between play, labour and virtuality.

To enable students to reflect on their own preconceptions of play and value.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain the importance of play as a topic for study.

Students will be able to analyse common topics of discourse around play and games, especially digital games: violence, addiction, therapeutic and educational effects, and gamification.

Students will be able to identify philosophical issues ariding from specific games/instances of play.

Students will be able to explain some of the philosophical literature around play, make-believe, choice and responsibility, and virtual worlds.

Students will be able to trace connections between surface controversies and deeper philosophical concerns.

Students will develop their ability to reflect on their own preconceptions and how these contribute to both philosophical and popular discourse.##### Philosophy of the Future (PHIL312)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To provide an introduction to debates concerning the philosophical implications of foreseeable future technological innovations.

To examine the relevance of metaphysical and ethical considerations to future technological and scientific developments.**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to identify the main issues and positions in contemporary philosophical discussions of issues such as human enhancement, existential risks, teleportation, time travel, the technological singularity, the simulation argument, the feasibility and desirability of uploading into virtual worlds.Students will be able to explain the main strengths and weaknesses of these positions.Students will be able to explain the relevance of metaphysical and ethical considerations to debates concerning these issues. Students will be able to think more creatively about philosophical issues.

Students will be able to structure philosophical arguments relating issues raised by future technological developments.

Students will be able to articulate and defend specific positions in current philosophical debates concerning likely future developments in science and technology.

Students will be able to write coherently and rigourously about the philosophical issues raised by future technological developments.

##### Population Dynamics (MATH332)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**- To provide a theoretical basis for the understanding of population ecology

- To explore the classical models of population dynamics

- To learn basic techniques of qualitative analysis of mathematical models

**Learning Outcomes**The ability to relate the predictions of the mathematical models to experimental results obtained in the field.The ability to recognise the limitations of mathematical modelling in understanding the mechanics of complex biological systems.The ability to use analytical and graphical methods to investigate population growth and the stability of equilibrium states for continuous-time and discrete-time models of ecological systems. ##### Projects in Mathematics (MATH399)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**a) To study in depth an area of pure mathematics and report on it; or

b) To construct and study mathematical models of a chosen problem; or

c) To demonstrate a critical understanding and historical appreciation of some branch of mathematics by means of directed reading and preparation of a report.; or

d) To study in depth a particular problem in statistics, probability or operational research.

**Learning Outcomes**a) (Pure Maths)

After completing the report with suitable guidance the student should have

· gained a greater understanding of the chosen mathematical topic

· gained experience in applying his/her mathematical skills

· had experience in consulting relevant literature

· learned how to construct a written project report

· had experience in making an oral presentation

b) (Applied Mathematics)

After completing the project with suitable guidance the students should have:

- learned strategies for simple model building

- gained experience in choosing and using appropriate mathematics

- understood the nature of approximations used

- made critical appraisal of results

- had experience in consulting related relevant literature

- learned how to construct a written project report

- had experience in making an oral presentation.

c) (Applied Maths/Theoretical Physics)

After researching and preparing the mathematical essay the student should have:

· gained a greater understanding of the chosen mathematical topic

· gained an appreciation of the historical context

· learned how to abstract mathematical concepts and explain them

· had experience in consulting related relevant literature

· learned how to construct a written project report

· had experience in making an oral presentation.

d) (Statistics, Probability and Operational Research)

After completing the project the student should have:

· gained an in-depth understanding of the chosen topic

· had experience in consulting relevant literature

· learned how to construct a written project report;

· had experience in making an oral presentation.

##### Quantum Mechanics (MATH325)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**The development of Quantum Mechanics, requiring as it did revolutionary changes in our understanding of the nature of reality, was arguably the greatest conceptual achievement of all time. The aim of the module is to lead the student to an understanding of the way that relatively simple mathemactics (in modern terms) led Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg and others to a radical change and improvement in our understanding of the microscopic world.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should be able to solve Schrodinger''s equation for simple systems, and have some intuitive understanding of the significance of quantum mechanics for both elementary systems and the behaviour of matter.

##### Relativity (MATH326)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To impart

(i) a firm grasp of the physical principles behind Special and General Relativity and their main consequences;

(ii) technical competence in the mathematical framework of the subjects - Lorentz transformation, coordinate transformations and geodesics in Riemann space;

(iii) knowledge of some of the classical tests of General Relativity - perihelion shift, gravitational deflection of light;

(iv) basic concepts of black holes and (if time) relativistic cosmology.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing this module students should

(i) understand why space-time forms a non-Euclidean four-dimensional manifold;

(ii) be proficient at calculations involving Lorentz transformations, energy-momentum conservation, and the Christoffel symbols.

(iii) understand the arguments leading to the Einstein''s field equations and how Newton''s law of gravity arises as a limiting case.

(iv) be able to calculate the trajectories of bodies in a Schwarzschild space-time.

##### Riemann Surfaces (MATH340)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To introduce to a beautiful theory at the core of modern mathematics. Students will learn how to handle some abstract geometric notions from an elementary point of view that relies on the theory of holomorphic functions. This will provide those who aim to continue their studies in mathematics with an invaluable source of examples, and those who plan to leave the subject with the example of a modern axiomatic mathematical theory.

**Learning Outcomes**Students should be familiar with themost basic examples of Riemann surfaces: the Riemann sphere, hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces, and smooth plane algebraic curves.

Students should understand and be able to use the abstract notions used to build the theory: holomorphic maps, meromorphic differentials, residues and integrals, Euler characteristic and genus.

##### Statistical Methods in Actuarial Science (MATL374)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**1. Provide a solid grounding in analysis of general insurance data,Bayesian credibility theory and the loss distribution concept.

2. Provide an introduction to statistical methods for managing risk innon-life insurance and finance.

3. Prepare the students adequately to sit for the exams of CT6 subject ofthe Institute of Actuaries.

**Learning Outcomes**Be able to apply the estimationmethods described in (b) of the Syllabus for the distribution described in (a)of the Syllabus, be able to make hypothesis testing described in (b) of theSyllabus for the distribution described in (a) of the Syllabus.

Be able to estimate the parameters ofthe loss distributions when data complete/incomplete using the method of moments and the method of maximum likelihood, be able tocalculate the loss elimination ratio.

Understand and use the Buhlmann model, the Buhlmann-Straub model, beable to state the assumptions of the GLM models – normal linear model,understand the properties of the exponential family.

Be able to express the values of thelife assurances in (d) of the Syllabus and the life annuities in (f) of theSyllabus in terms of the life table functions. Be able to use approximationsfor the evaluation of the life assurances in (d) of the Syllabus and the lifeannuities in (f) of the Syllabus based on a life table.

Be able to describe the properties ofa time series using basic analytical and graphical tools.

Understand the definitions,properties and applications of well know time series

models, fit time series models to practical data sets and select the suitablemodels, be able to perform simple statistical inference (forecasting) based onthe fitted models, estimate and remove possible trend and seasonality in a timeseries, analyse the residuals of a time series using stationary models.##### Stochastic Modelling in Insurance and Finance (MATL480)

**Level**M **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**This module aims to introduce students to theadvanced mathematical techniques underlying financial markets and theassociated stochastic analysis.

**Learning Outcomes**To provide an introduction to key financial derivatives and their properties

To provide an understanding of the modelling processes used in financial derivatives e.g. binomial tree, Brownian motion

To provide a general foundation to the stochastic theory behind financial derivatives.

To provide a general methodology for the pricing and hedging of financial derivatives

A critical awareness of issues in the field of financial derivatives

##### Theory of Statistical Inference (MATH361)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**90:10 **Aims**To introduce some of the concepts and principles which provide theoretical underpinning for the various statistical methods, and, thus, to consolidate the theory behind the other second year and third year statistics options.

**Learning Outcomes**After completing the module students should have a good understanding of the classical approach to, and especially the likelihood methods for, statistical inference.

The students should also gain an appreciation of the blossoming area of Bayesian approach to inference

##### Wittgenstein (PHIL340)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**To study the later Wittgenstein. Topics will include: background in the Tractatus - the limits of language and the nature of ethical and religious discourse; rule-following and the private - the limits of language and the nature of ethical and religious discourse; rule-following and the private language argument; the nature and prospects of philosophy; epistemology and certainty.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will be able to explain how the Tractatus influenced Wittgenstein''s later philosophy.

Students will be able to explain and assess both the Augustinian picture of language and Wittgenstein''s criticism of it.

Students will be able to explain the rule-following considerations and their importance to Wittgenstein and contemporary philosophy of language.

Students will be able to explain and assess the private language argument and its importance to contemporary philosophy of mind.

Students will be able to explain and assess Wittgenstein''s technical notion of ''criterion'' and its philosophical significance.

Students will be able to explain and assess Wittgenstein''s later epistemology.

The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.

#### Teaching and Learning

In studying Philosophy you will learn how to defend your views with reasoned arguments, and to assess the arguments of others. Argumentative skills are learned through attending lectures and reading philosophical texts, developed by group seminar discussions, and formally assessed through essays and exams. You complete modules to the value of 120 credits per year, from a wide range of options available. Most modules employ a blend of lectures, seminars and online support materials. You will learn by reading and studying outside class time, by attending and participating in classes, by doing coursework and, for dissertations, via one-to-one meetings with a supervisor. There is also scope, both formally in the placement module and informally, for you to develop practical skills by volunteering.

#### Assessment

Philosophy employs a mixture of modes of assessment: exams and coursework in many different varieties including essays, oral presentations, dissertations, exercises, and supported independent work (eg in the placement module).