Formative assessment refers to a range of both formal and informal assessment procedures conducted during the learning process. They enable and support modification to both teaching and learning activities and to improve student attainment (Crooks, 2001). It generally has a developmental purpose, designed to enable students to learn more effectively by providing them with feedback on their performance and indicating how this can be improved or maintained. Formative assessments typically focus on the details of performance and content rather than scores and as such tend to include qualitative feedback (Huhta, 2010).
Storytelling is a powerful tool for learning: humans are hardwired to make sense of their lives and their surroundings through stories (Gottschall, 2012). In educational contexts, the storyteller engages more deeply with the subject (Salpeter, 2005). Digital storytelling is the practice of using digital technology to tell stories that have a purpose and present a particular point of view. Unlike traditional stories, digital stories are presented through a mix of modes: text, visuals, audio and video.
Peer Assisted Learning
Bridging the gap between school and university is a longstanding issue in HE, requiring students to adapt to a different educational environment. PAL is a student-to-student support in which higher year students (‘leaders’) facilitate study sessions for lower year students. PAL is growing in popularity due to a number of factors, including research evidence of the impact of PAL (Keenan 2014; Sedghi 2013), as well as the scheme’s promotion of ‘students as partners’ in learning.