SiPM - In-depth Studies of Silicon Photomultipliers
Sensors capable of detecting single photons are of critical importance for a very wide range of scientific and technical applications in such areas as medical imaging, biotechnology, high energy physics, scientific instrumentation, communication, and homeland security, including, in particular, positron emission tomography, flow cytometry, Cherenkov cosmic ray telescopy, laser ranging, optical time domain reflectometry or beam loss monitoring in particle accelerators and light sources.
Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), in particular, are an emerging and very promising technology due to their photon number resolution at room temperature, insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness and relatively low operating voltages. Furthermore, they are cheap to mass-produce, especially in comparison to conventional photomultiplier tubes. In order to evaluate their potential for a specific application, it is necessary to quantify their fundamental parameters as a particle detector, as well as in combination with scintillators or optical fibers used for signal generation and transport, in detail.
In the frame of the SiPM project, a comprehensive analytical probabilistic model of the SiPM response shall be developed that will take the specific excess noises of crosstalk and after pulsing, nonlinearities and saturation effects into account. Based on this model, a full set of analysis, measurement and characterization methods will then be built up. This will allow for selecting an optimum SiPM design and model for a specific application as accelerator, nuclear or medical physics instrumentation and thus contribute to an overall improvement of the respective application. Finally, reliability and mass testing approaches and techniques, applicable for large-scale projects and focused on the balance between accuracy, simplicity and cost efficiency, shall be developed.
Currently involved QUASARs:
S. Vinogradov, “Performance of Silicon Photomultipliers in photon number and time resolution”, Proc. of Science (PoS SISSA) -8 p. (submitted).
S. Vinogradov, L. Devlin, E. Nebot del Busto, M. Kastriotou, and C. P. Welsch 'Challenges of arbitrary waveform signal detection by SiPM in beam loss monitoring systems with Cherenkov fibre readout', Proc. of Science (PoS SISSA) -4 p. (submitted).
S. Vinogradov, 'The Silicon Photomultiplier Concept and Design Development', Astroparticle Physics European Consortium News, Apr. 2015; http://www.appec.org/index.php?view=article&id=119
S. Vinogradov, 'Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk' Nucl. Instr. Methods A (2015), pp. 229-233; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.010.
S. Vinogradov, A. Arodzero, R.C. Lanza, and C.P. Welsch, 'SiPM response to long and intense light pulses', Nucl. Instr. Methods A (2015), pp. 148-152; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2014.11.079.
E. Popova, P. Buzhan, A. Pleshko, S. Vinogradov, A. Stifutkin, A. Ilyin, D. Besson, and R. Mirzoyan, 'Amplitude and Timing properties of a Geiger discharge in a SiPM cell', Nucl. Instr. Methods A (2015), pp. 270-274; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.050.
S. Vinogradov, 'New Approach to Calibration of Low Gain PMTs and SiPMs Using Transit Time Histograms', in 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, and Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors workshop, Seoul, Korea, Oct 27th - Nov 2nd, 2013.
S. Vinogradov, A. Arodzero, and R.C. Lanza, 'Performance of X-Ray Detectors with SiPM Readout in Cargo Accelerator-Based Inspection Systems', in 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, and Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors workshop, Seoul, Korea, Oct 27th - Nov 2nd, 2013.
S. Vinogradov, 'Probabilistic analysis of Solid State Photomultiplier performance', Advanced Photon Counting Techniques VI, Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750S, 2012.
S. Vinogradov, 'Analytical models of probability distribution and excess noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with crosstalk', Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Phys. Res. A 695, pp. 247–251, 2012.
S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, 'Efficiency of Solid State Photomultipliers in Photon Number Resolution', IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58, no.1, pp. 9-16, 2011.
S. Vinogradov, T. Vinogradova, V. Shubin, D. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, 'Characterization of single photon detection in solid state photomultipliers using multi-photon transit time histograms', JINST 6 P02013, 2011.
S. L. Vinogradov, T. R. Vinogradova, V. E. Shubin, D. A. Shushakov, and K. Sitarsky, 'Probabilistic characteristics of detection of short light pulses and single photons', Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, 38, no 5, pp. 147–154, 2011.
S. L. Vinogradov, T. R. Vinogradova, V. E. Shubin, and D. A. Shushakov, 'Probabilistic Distribution and Noise Factor of Solid State Photomultiplier Signals, Taking Into Account Cross-Talk Processes', Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, 36, no 9, pp. 253–259, 2009.
M. Panniello, L. Devlin, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, and C. P. Welsch, 'Spectroscopic Characterization of Novel Silicon Photomultipliers', Proc. BIW2012, Newport News, VA, USA, 2012.
M. Panniello, A. Pappalardo, P. Finocchiaro, S. Mallows, and C. P. Welsch, 'Characterization of Detectors for Beam Loss Measurements', Proc. BIW2012, Newport News, VA, USA, 2012, pp. 32–34.
M. Putignano, A. Intermite, and C. P. Welsch, 'A non-linear algorithm for current signal filtering and peak detection in SiPM', J. Instrum., vol. 7, no. 08, pp. P08014–P08014, 2012.
M. Putignano, 'Study of the response of silicon photomultipliers in presence of strong cross-talk noise', in Proc. IPAC2011, San Sebastián, Spain, pp. 1389–1391, 2011.
A. Intermite, M. Putignano, and C. P. Welsch, 'Influence of dark count on the performance of silicon photomultipliers', Proc. the BIW2010, Santa Fe, NM, USA, 2010.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 329100.