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Energy, Air Pollution and Health Research


Optimising upscale of cleaner energy technologies

The LPG Adoption in Cameroon Evaluation (LACE) Study. Scaling adoption and sustained use of LPG as a clean fuel in Cameroon

Cooking with LPG – 2 burner (Limbe, Cameroon) – credit Dan PopeThe LPG Adoption in Cameroon Evaluation (LACE) Study was developed in response to the need to provide critical evidence to enhance political and donor commitment to implement the WHO Indoor Air Quality Guideline recommendation for scaled transition from solid to clean fuels to address the health burden of household air pollution. LACE aims to investigate how this transition can be achieved in Cameroon, focussing on identifying enablers and barriers to adoption and sustained use of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) – a widely accessible and accepted source of clean domestic energy in the country. Currently in Cameroon approximately 70% of the population rely on solid fuel to meet their household energy requirements (with more than 90% in rural communities). In response to associated degradation of forest, impacts on environment and sustainability of energy, the Cameroon government engaged with our research partner (the Global LPG Partnership) to establish a strategy to achieve an aspirational goal of scaling adoption of LPG from currently 12% of the population to 58% by 2030. LACE is being conducted in the context of implementation of this strategy.

Cooking with sawdust fuel (Limbe, Cameroon) – credit Sara Ronzi

Working with local research partners from Douala General Hospital, the University of Douala and a research team based in our study region (Limbe), the LACE study involves a mixed-methods investigation of barriers and enablers to adoption of LPG (and sustained/ exclusive use) through representative demographic and health surveys, in-depth interviews with households and stakeholders and focus group discussions. LACE is also evaluating the impacts of LPG use on household air pollution through measurement of concentrations (kitchens) and exposure (women and children) to small diameter particulate matter (PM2.5). Finally, LACE is exploring factors associated with patterns of fuel use and cooking behaviour that can inform future strategies to facilitate households and communities to make the transition to LPG.


$200,000 - from US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Public Health Institute)

Study Protocol

View the study protocol