Japanese encephalitis virus

This is a zoonotic virus, transmitted from animals to humans by mosquitoes. It is a major cause of brain infections across Asia and is spreading. The group's work includes:

  • Diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis
  • Clinical features - poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis
  • Development of a simple tool for assessing outcome of infection
  • Pathophysiology - the role of seizures and raised intracranial pressure
  • Putative treatment with interferon alpha
  • Viral molecular epidemiology
  • Inflammatory responses


This mosquito-borne virus, which is related to Japanese encephalitis, is best known as a cause of fever, rash and haemorrhage, but also causes neurological disease. The group's work includes:

  • Delineation of the clinical features
  • Understanding the putative role of viral genetic determinants in disease presentation

West Nile Virus

This zoonotic mosquito-borne virus, which is closely related to Japanese encephalitis, has been causing outbreaks in Southern Europe and the United States.

  • Clinical features
  • Virulence determinants

Enterovirus 71

This virus which is related to poliovirus is directly transmitted between humans. In recent years it has caused large outbreaks of hand-foot and mouth disease with associated neurological complications. The group's work includes:

  • Description of the clinical features
  • Improving the diagnosis
  • Examining the role of viral determinants in clinical epidemiology
  • Examine the role of proinflammatory cytokine responses


This zoonotic virus is a major cause of viral encephalitis globally. We have shown it is an important cause of CNS disease in Malawi, Africa, that can sometimes be mistaken for cerebral malaria.


HIV-encephalopathy is the result of damage to the brain by longstanding HIV infection. It is also known as HIV-associated dementia, or AIDS-dementia complex. HIV-encephalopathy causes problems with concentration and memory and may cause some slowness of physical movements. These problems tend to develop slowly over months or even years but can become quite severe and some people may need help to look after themselves.

Viruses in 'cerebral' malaria

CNS infections in UK

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