Book Launch: OFF-GRID TOILETS Compilation, Analysis and Comparison

Circle with abstract pattern inside representing different types of water flow. Underneath is the text Off-Grid Toilets.

Dr Paco Mejias Villatoro & Dr Junjie Xi 

1pm, Wednesday May 10th 2023

Reilly Lecture Room,
The Liverpool School of Architecture,

25 Abercromby Square,
L69 7ZN

This is a Hybrid lecture which can be watched live on Zoom if you cannot join us, click here to register.

This book thoroughly investigates 16 off-grid toilet systems that have been implemented across the world, to provide a comprehensive understanding of their functional principles. Through comparison and evaluation, we provide recommendations on how users’ needs can be better met and how contextual conditions can be better considered. We hope this book will be a valuable tool for governments, NGOs and communities to tackle the problems of unsafe sanitation across the globe.


Dr Paco Mejias Villatoro is an architect, urban planner and academic, codirector of Estudio Abierto/Open Studio, a collaborative think-and-do tank, operating at the intersection between architecture and urbanism (www.thisstudioisopen). He has expertise in community design, empathic urbanism and social ecology, and he has been conducting research about ultra-dense urbanism and informal settlements, particularly focused on Dhaka since 2014. He has been teaching architecture and urban planning since 1997 in Spain, Canada, the USA, China and the UK, where he teaches architecture at the University of Liverpool

Dr Junjie Xi is a senior lecturer in architectural design and humanities at the University of Liverpool. She was previously a Postdoctoral researcher for the China Railway Group Limited and School of Architecture, Tsinghua University. She continues her research in railway development and has completed a new book with Dr Paco Mejias Villatoro – China’s Railway Transformation: History, Culture Changes and Urban Development, which is published by Routledge in December 2022. Through research in infrastructure, she developed a focus on the informal settlements in Bangladesh, aiming to provide better sanitation system for the future.