Callum Duffield

NERC PhD student

Callum Duffield

Research interests

My main research areas lie within behavioural ecology, but more specifically, the understanding of behavioural plasticity and the consequences of early life histories. I am interested in how behaviours vary across different social and environmental contexts and ultimately its evolutionary consequences.

In my PhD I am investigating the consequences of varying developmental, demographic and environmental conditions on competition and cooperation within and between groups of mammals. This project aims to highlight the importance of environmental factors in behavioural ecology, but will also provide valuable insight in areas such as conservation and animal management.

Education and career

  • BSc (Hons), Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Worcester (2009 – 2012)
  • MSc, Evolutionary and Behavioural Ecology, University of Exeter (2013 – 2014)
  • Research Assistant, Predator-prey interactions, University of Bristol (2014-2015)
  • Research Assistant, Elasmobranch behavioural ecology, Bimini Biological Field Station (2016-2017)
  • NERC ACCE DTP PhD studentship, Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, University of Liverpool (2017-2021). Supervisors: Prof. Paula Stockley and Prof. Jane Hurst.


Duffield, C., Wilson, A.J. & Thornton, A. (2015) Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans. PLoS ONE, 10(10): e0139050. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139050

Duffield, C. & Ioannou, C.C. (2017) Marginal predation: do encounter or confusion effects explain the targeting of prey group edges? Behavioural Ecology 28: 1283-1292. doi:10.1093/beheco/arx090

Rocque, F., Duffield, C. & Ioannou, C. (In prep) Leaders gain anti-predation benefits in groups of virtual prey versus going it alone.

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