## Course details

Studying Mathematics at Liverpool is an excellent foundation for a wide range of careers. At Liverpool you will be part of a department which is first-class in teaching and research.

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XJTLU 2+2

# Mathematics BSc (Hons): XJTLU 2+2 programme

## Course details

## Course overview

## Course content and modules

## Year two

### Compulsory

## VECTOR CALCULUS WITH APPLICATIONS IN FLUID MECHANICS (MATH225)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Statistics and Probability I (MATH253)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## COMPLEX FUNCTIONS (MATH243)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## METRIC SPACES AND CALCULUS (MATH242)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

### Optional

## CLASSICAL MECHANICS (MATH228)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Commutative Algebra (MATH247)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY II (MATH254)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Financial Mathematics (MATH260)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Operational Research (MATH269)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## METRIC SPACES AND CALCULUS (MATH241)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Year three

### Optional

## FURTHER METHODS OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS (MATH323)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## CARTESIAN TENSORS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF SOLIDS AND VISCOUS FLUIDS (MATH324)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## QUANTUM MECHANICS (MATH325)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Relativity (MATH326)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## NUMBER THEORY (MATH342)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## GROUP THEORY (MATH343)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY (MATH349)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## APPLIED PROBABILITY (MATH362)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Linear Statistical Models (MATH363)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Game Theory (MATH331)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Numerical Methods for Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations (MATH336)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## COMBINATORICS (MATH344)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## THE MAGIC OF COMPLEX NUMBERS: COMPLEX DYNAMICS, CHAOS AND THE MANDELBROT SET (MATH345)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## TOPOLOGY (MATH346)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## APPLIED STOCHASTIC MODELS (MATH360)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## THEORY OF STATISTICAL INFERENCE (MATH361)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## MEDICAL STATISTICS (MATH364)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## MEASURE THEORY AND PROBABILITY (MATH365)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## MATHEMATICAL RISK THEORY (MATH366)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## NETWORKS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE (MATH367)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Stochastic Theory and Methods in Data Science (MATH368)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## STATISTICAL PHYSICS (MATH327)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 2

## Professional Projects and Employability in Mathematics (MATH390)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1

## Maths Summer Industrial Research Project (MATH391)

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Credits: 15 /
Semester: semester 1,summer

## Your experience

### Virtual tour

### Supporting your learning

### What students say...

Studying Mathematics at Liverpool is an excellent foundation for a wide range of careers. At Liverpool you will be part of a department which is first-class in teaching and research.

Mathematics is a fascinating, beautiful and diverse subject to study. It underpins a wide range of disciplines; from physical sciences to social science, from biology to business and finance. At Liverpool, our programmes are designed with the needs of employers in mind, to give you a solid foundation from which you may take your career in any number of directions.

A Mathematics 2+2 degree at the University of Liverpool is an excellent investment in your future. We have a large department with highly qualified staff, a first-class reputation in teaching and research, and a great city in which to live and work.

On the 2+2 programme, you'll study your third and fourth years at the University of Liverpool. These will be year two and year three of the University of Liverpool's programme of study.

To provide an understanding of the various vector integrals, the operators div, grad and curl and the relations between them. To give an appreciation of the many applications of vector calculus to physical situations. To provide an introduction to the subjects of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism.

Analysis of data has become an essential part of current research in many fields including medicine, pharmacology, and biology. It is also an important part of many jobs in e.g. finance, consultancy and the public sector. This module provides an introduction to statistical methods with a strong emphasis on applying and interpreting standard statistical techniques. Since modern statistical analysis of real data sets is performed using computer power, a statistical software package is introduced and employed throughout.

This module introduces students to a surprising, very beautiful theory having intimate connections with other areas of mathematics and physical sciences, for instance ordinary and partial differential equations and potential theory.

This is a foundational module aimed at providing the students with the basic concepts and techniques of modern real Analysis. The guiding idea will be to start using the powerful tools of analysis, familiar to the students from the first year module MATH101 (Calculus I) in the context of the real numbers, to vectors (multivariable analysis) and to functions (functional analysis). The notions of convergence and continuity will be reinterpreted in the more general setting of metric spaces. This will provide the language to prove several fundamental results that are in the basic toolkit of a mathematician, like the Picard Theorem on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to first order differential equations with an initial datum, and the implicit function theorem. The module is central for a curriculum in pure and applied mathematics, as familiarity with these notions will help students who want to take several other subsequent modules as well as many projects. This module is also a useful preparation (although not a formal prerequisite) for MATH365 Measure theory and probability, a very useful module for a deep understanding of financial mathematics.

This module is concerned with the motion of physical bodies both in everyday situations and in the solar system. To describe motion, acceleration and forces you will need background knowledge of calculus, differentiation, integration and partial derivatives from MATH101 (Calculus I), MATH102 (Calculus II) and MATH103 (Introduction to Linear Algebra). Classical mechanics is important for learning about modern developments such as relativity (MATH326), quantum mechanics (MATH325) and chaos and dynamical systems (MATH322). This module will make you familiar with notions such as energy, force, momentum and angular momentum which lie at the foundations of applied mathematics problems.

The module provides an introduction to the theory and methods of the modern commutative algebra (commutative groups, commutative rings, fields and modules) with some applications to number theory, algebraic geometry and linear algebra.

This module provides an introduction to probabilistic methods that are used not only in actuarial science, financial mathematics and statistics but also in all physical sciences. It focuses on discrete and continuous random variables with values in one and several dimensions, properties of the most useful distributions (e.g. geometric, exponential, and normal), their transformations, moment and probability generating functions and limit theorems. This module will help students doing MATH260 and MATH262 (Financial mathematics). This module complements MATH365 (Measure theory and probability) in the sense that MATH365 provides the contradiction-free measure theoretic foundation on which this module rests.

Mathematical Finance uses mathematical methods to solve problems arising in finance. A common problem in Mathematical Finance is that of derivative pricing. In this module, after introducing the basic concepts in Financial Mathematics, we use some particular models for the dynamic of stock price to solve problems of pricing and hedging derivatives. This module is fundamental for students intending to work in financial institutions and/or doing an MSc in Financial Mathematics or related areas.

The term "Operational Research" came in the 20th century from military operations. It describes mathematical methods to achieve the goal (or to find the best possible decision) having limited resources. This branch of applied mathematics makes use of and has stimulated the development of optimisation methods, typically for problems with constraints. This module can be interesting for any student doing mathematics because it concentrates on real-life problems.

This is a foundational module aimed at providing the students with the basic concepts and techniques of modern real Analysis. The guiding idea will be to start using the powerful tools of analysis, familiar to the students from the first-year module MATH101 (Calculus I) in the context of the real numbers, to vectors (multivariable analysis) and to functions (functional analysis). The notions of convergence and continuity will be reinterpreted in the more general setting of metric spaces. This will provide the language to prove several fundamental results that are in the basic toolkit of a mathematician, like the Picard Theorem on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to first order differential equations with an initial datum, and the implicit function theorem. The module is central for a curriculum in pure and applied mathematics, as familiarity with these notions will help students who want to take other subsequent modules such as MATH444 as well as many projects. This module is also a useful preparation (although not a formal prerequisite) for MATH365 (Measure theory and probability), a very useful module for a deep understanding of financial mathematics.

On the 2+2 programme, you'll study your third and fourth years at the University of Liverpool. These will be year two and year three of the University of Liverpool's programme of study.

Ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs and PDEs) are crucial to many areas of science, engineering and finance. This module addresses methods for, or related to, their solution. It starts with a section on inhomogeneous linear second-order ODEs which are often required for the solution of higher-level problems. We then generalize basic calculus by considering the optimization of functionals, e.g., integrals involving an unknown function and its derivatives, which leads to a wide variety of ODEs and PDEs. After those systems of two linear first-order PDEs and second-order PDES are classified and reduced to ODEs where possible. In certain cases, e.g., `elliptic’ PDEs like the Laplace equation, such a reduction is impossible. The last third of the module is devoted to two approaches, conformal mappings and Fourier transforms, which can be used to obtain solutions of the Laplace equation and other irreducible PDEs.

This module provides an introduction to basic concepts and principles of continuum mechanics. Cartesian tensors are introduced at the beginning of the module, bringing simplicity and versatility to the analysis. The module places emphasis on the importance of conservation laws in integral form, and on the fundamental role integral conservation laws play in the derivation of partial differential equations used to model different physical phenomena in problems of solid and fluid mechanics. Some knowledge of Vector Calculus (e.g. MATH225 Vector calculus with applications in fluid mechanics) is useful.

The development of Quantum Mechanics, requiring as it did revolutionary changes in our understanding of the nature of reality, was arguably the greatest conceptual achievement of all time. The aim of the module is to lead the student to an understanding of the way that relatively simple mathemactics (in modern terms) led Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg and others to a radical change and improvement in our understanding of the microscopic world.

Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity have introduced a new concept of space and time, which underlies modern particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. It makes use of, and has stimulated the development of modern differential geometry. This module develops the required mathematics (tensors, differential geometry) together with applications of the theory to particle physics, black holes and cosmology. It is an essential part of a programme in theoretical physics. Together with MATH325 (Quantum mechanics) it covers the basics of modern theoretical physics. Possible follow up modules in theoretical physics are MATH423 (Introduction to string theory), MATH425 (Quantum field theory) and MATH431 (Introduction to modern particle theory). MATH326 is essential for students who consider doing a project on black holes or cosmology. Students following a pure mathematics or applied mathematics pathway might be interested in MATH326 because of its applications of differential geometry, and take it together with MATH349 (Differential geometry).

Number theory begins with, and is mainly concerned with, the study of the integers. Because of the fundamental role which integers play in mathematics, many of the greatest mathematicians, from antiquity to the modern day, have made contributions to number theory. In this module you will study results due to Euclid, Euler, Gauss, Riemann, and other greats: you will also see many results from the last 10 or 20 years.Several of the topics you will study will be familiar from MATH142 (Numbers, groups, and codes). We will go into them in greater depth, and the module will be self-contained from the point of view of number theory. However, some background in group theory (no more than is in MATH142) will be assumed.

The module provides an introduction to the modern theory of finite non-commutative groups. Group Theory is one of the central areas of Pure Mathematics. Being part of Algebra, it has innumerable applications in Geometry, Number Theory, Combinatorics and Analysis, but also plays a very important role in Theoretical Physics, Mechanics and Chemistry. The module starts with basic definitions and some well-known examples (the symmetric group of permutations and the groups of congruence classes modulo an integer) and builds up to some very interesting and non-trivial constructions, such as the semi-direct product, which makes it possible to construct more complicated groups from simpler ones. In the final part of the course, the Sylow theory and its applications to the classification of groups are considered.

Differential geometry studies distances and curvatures on manifolds through differentiation and integration. This module introduces the methods of differential geometry on the concrete examples of curves and surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The module MATH248 (Geometry of curves) develops methods of differential geometry on examples of plane curves. This material will be discussed in the first weeks of the course, but previous familiarity with these methods is helpful. Students following a pathway in theoretical physics might find this module interesting as it discusses a different aspect of differential geometry, and might take it together with MATH326 (Relativity). MATH410 (Manifolds, homology and Morse theory) and MATH446 (Lie groups and Lie algebras).

To give examples of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide suitable mathematical models. To provide an introduction to the methods of probabilistic model building for dynamic events occurring over time. To familiarise students with the usual techniques in the area of probability modelling.

This module follows on directly from MATH263 (Statistical Theory and Methods I), extending the work there on linear regression and analysis of variance, and then going beyond these to generalised linear models. The module emphasises applications of statistical methods, while the companion module MATH361 (Theory of Statistical Inference) focuses on more theoretical aspects. Statistical software is used throughout as familiarity with its use is a valuable skill for those interested in a career in a statistical field. It is helpful, though not essential, to have taken MATH264 (Statistical Theory and Methods II).

In this module you will explore, from a game-theoretic point of view, models which have been used to understand phenomena in which conflict and cooperation occur and see the relevance of the theory not only to parlour games but also to situations involving human relationships, economic bargaining (between trade union and employer, etc), threats, formation of coalitions, war, etc.

Many real-world systems in mathematics, physics and engineering can be described by differential equations. In rare cases these can be solved exactly by purely analytical methods, but much more often we can only solve the equations numerically, by reducing the problem to an iterative scheme that requires hundreds of steps. We will learn efficient methods for solving ODEs and PDEs on a computer.

Combinatorics is a part of mathematics in which mathematicians deal with discrete and countable structures by means of various combinations, such as permutations, ordered and unordered selections, etc. The seemingly simple methods of combinatorics can raise highly non-trivial mathematical questions and lead to deep mathematical results, which are, in turn, closely related to some fundamental phenomena in number theory

A “dynamical system” is a system that changes over time according to a fixed rule. In complex dynamics, we consider the case where the state of the system is described by a single (complex) variable, and the rule of evolution is given by a holomorphic function. It turns out that this seemingly simple setting leads to very rich, subtle and intricate problems, some of which are still the subject of ongoing mathematical research, both at the University of Liverpool and internationally. This module will provide an introduction to this fascinating subject, and introduce students to some of these problems. In the course of this study, we will encounter many results about complex functions that may seem “magic” when compared with what might be expected from real analysis. A highlight of this kind is the theorem that every polynomial is “chaotic” on its Julia set. We will also see how this “magic” can help us understand phenomena that at first seem to have no connection with complex numbers at all.

Topology is the mathematical study of space. It is distinguished from geometry by the fact that there is no consideration of notions of distance, angle or other similar quantities. For this reason topology is sometimes popularly referred to as ‘rubber sheet’ geometry. It was introduced by Poincaré, under the name of analysis situs, in 1895 and became one of the most successful areas of 20th century mathematics. It continues to be an active research area to this day, and its insights and methods underlie many areas of modern mathematics. More recently, new applications of topological ideas outside mathematics have been developed, in particular to provide qualitative analysis of large data sets. This module introduces the basic notions of topological space and continuous map, illustrating them with many examples from different areas of mathematics. It also introduces homotopy theory, the study of paths in a space, which has become one of the most fundamental areas of modern mathematics.

Stochastic processes are ways of quantifying the dynamic relationships of sequences of random events. Stochastic models play an important role in elucidating many areas of the natural and engineering sciences. They can be used to analyse the variability inherent in biological and medical processes, to deal with uncertainties affecting managerial decisions and with the complexities of psychological and social interactions, and to provide new perspectives, methodology, models and intuition to aid in other mathematical and statistical studies. This module is intended as a beginning course in introducing continuous-time stochastic processes for students familiar with elementary probability. The objectives are: (1) to introduce students to the standard concepts and methods of stochastic modelling; (2) to illustrate the rich diversity of applications of stochastic processes in the science; and (3) to provide exercises in the applications of simple stochastic analysis to appropriate problems. The module is complementary to MATH362 (Applied probability), in which discrete-time processes are studied. Those who plan to go on to MSc study in financial mathematics will find this module a very useful preparation for modules such as MATH481 (Interest rate theory), MATH482 (Stochastic modelling in finance), MATH483 (Stochastic analysis and its applications) and MATH484 (Advanced numerical analysis for financial mathematics).

This module introduces fundamental topics in mathematical statistics, including the theory of point estimation and hypothesis testing. Several key concepts of statistics are discussed, such as sufficiency, completeness, etc., introduced from the 1920s by major contributors to modern statistics such as Fisher, Neyman, Lehmann and so on. This module is absolutely necessary preparation for postgraduate studies in statistics and closely related subjects.

This module is important for students who are interested in the abstract theory of integrating and in the deep theoretical background of the probability theory. It will be extremely useful for those who plan to do MSc and perhaps PhD in Probability, including financial applications. If you plan to take level 4 module(s) on Financial Mathematics next year, MATH365 can be very helpful.

To provide an understanding of the mathematical risk theory used in practise in non-life actuarial depts of insurance firms, to provide an introduction to mathematical methods for managing the risk in insurance and finance (calculation of risk measures/quantities), to develop skills of calculating the ruin probability and the total claim amount distribution in some non ‐ life actuarial risk models with applications to insurance industry, to prepare the students adequately and to develop their skills in order to be exempted for the exams of CT6 subject of the Institute of Actuaries (MATH366 covers 50% of CT6 in much more depth).

MATH367 aims to develop an appreciation of optimisation methods for real-world problems using fundamental tools from network theory; to study a range of ‘standard problems’ and techniques for solving them. Thus, network flow, shortest path problem, transport problem, assignment problem, and routing problem are some of the problems that are considered in the syllabus. MATH367 is a decision making module, which fits well to those who are interested in receiving knowledge in graph theory, in operational research, in economics, in logistics and in finance.

This module raises the awareness of students on how mathematical methods from stochastics can help to deal with problems arising in a variety of areas, ranging from quantifying uncertainty, to problems in physics, to optimisation and decision making, among others. The module summarises probability theory, explain the basics of simulation and sampling and then focuses on learning theory and methods. Specific topics and examples will be presented along with the theory and computer experiments.

Statistical Physics is a core subject in Physics and a cornerstone for modern technologies. To name just one example, quantum statistics is informing leading edge developments around ultra-cold gases and liquids giving rise to new materials. The module will introduce foundations of Statistical Physics and will develop an understanding of the stochastic roots of thermodynamics and the properties of matter. After successfully completing this module students will understand statistical ensembles and related concepts such as entropy and temperature, will understand the properties of classical and quantum gases, will be know the laws of thermodynamics and will be aware of advanced phenomena such as phase transition. The module will also develop numerical computer programming skills for the description of macroscopic effects such as diffusion by an underlying stochastic process.

This module gives the opportunity to further develop skills of mathematical problem solving and the application of mathematical results to real-world scenarios through group activities. The module aims to develop skills that are needed when undertaking employment or research, such as working in-depth on a problem over an extended period, writing reports, communicating mathematical results to different audiences and working in collaboration with others. This module will provide employability skills experiences and develop students’ ability to articulate their skills, which will be useful to draw on when applying for jobs.

The research internship module is designed to give students the experience of working in a research environment or setting that is quite different from any project work that they undertake in the Department of Mathematics. It should provide an insight into how students may apply skills and experiences later in their career; whether working abroad, in industry or in a scientific setting.

We have a large department with highly qualified staff, a first-class reputation in teaching and research, and a great city in which to live and work.

Your course will be delivered by the Department of Mathematical Sciences.

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### Actuarial Mathematics 2+2

Zeng Changyi shares their experience on the Actuarial Mathematics 2+2 course

From arrival to alumni, we’re with you all the way:

- Careers and employability support, including help with career planning, understanding the job market and strengthening your networking skills
- A dedicated student services team can help you get assistance with your studies, help with health and wellbeing, and access to financial advice
- Confidential counselling and support to help students with personal problems affecting their studies and general wellbeing
- Support for students with differing needs from the Disability advice and guidance team. They can identify and recommend appropriate support provisions for you.

Every student has an academic adviser. My academic adviser holds a meeting nearly every month to give us some suggestions or help us solve the problems. He has given me useful tips for applying for graduate study and wrote a reference letter for me.

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