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Primary Sources (pre 1900)   

Blyden, Edward Wilmot: Christianity, Islam and the Negro race. London: W.B. Whittingham, 1887; 423p.

Cugoano, Ottobah: Thoughts and sentiments on the evil of slavery and commerce of the human species. London: 1787; 148p.

Douglass, Frederick: Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston: Anti-slavery Office, 1845; 125p.

Equiano, Olaudah: The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. London: 1789; 2 vol.


Secondary Sources   

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The 1st international congress of black writers and artists: Paris, Sorbonne, 19–22 Sept. 1956: full account. Paris: 1958; 414p.; includes contributions by Frantz Fanon, Léopold Sédar Senghor and Langston Hughes amongst others.


Abraham, John Kirby: In search of Josephine Baker. London: Pen Press Publishers Ltd., 2001 227p., illus.; bibl. pp.219–20.

Ackermann, Marion et al.: Kara Walker. Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bank, 2002; 83p., illus.; biog. p.79, exhibs. p.81.
Araeen, Rasheed; Cubitt, Sean; Sardar, Ziauddin (eds.): The third text reader: on art, culture, and theory. London; New York: Continuum, 2002; 392p., illus.

Apollinaire, Guillaume: Chroniques d’art (1902–1918). Paris: Gallimard, 1960; 524p.

Anthology of African and Indian Ocean photography. Paris: Revue Noire, 1999; 1st English ed.; 432p., illus. (some col.); biogs. pp.426–9, bibl. pp.430–1.

Aranda-Alvarado’s: Rocio: “New World Primitivism in Harlem and Havana: constructing modern identities in the Americas, 1925–1945”; Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, 2001.

Archer-Straw, Petrine and Robinson, Kim: Jamaican art: an overview – with a focus on fifty artists. Kingston: Kingston Publishers Ltd., 1990; 167p., col. illus.; biogs. pp.159–67.

Archer-Straw, Petrine: Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and black culture in the 1920’s. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000; 200p. illus.


Baddeley, Oriana and Fraser, Valerie: Drawing the line: art and cultural identity in contemporary Latin America. London and New York, Verso, 1989; 164p., illus.

Bailey, David A., Baucom, Ian and Boyce, Sonia (eds.): Shades of black: assembling black arts in 1980s Britain. Durham: London: Duke University Press in collaboration with the Institute of International Visual Arts and the African and Asian Visual Artists’ Archive (Aavaa), 2005; 340p., illus. (some col.); biogs. pp.319–25, bibl. pp.309–18.

Baker, Jean-Claude: Josephine Baker: The Hungry Heart. Cooper Square Press, 2001; 592p.

Baker, Josephine and Bouillon, Jo: Josephine. New York: Harper & Row, 1977; 302p., illus.; translated from the French by Mariana Fitzpatrick.

Baker, Jr. Houston A.: Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 1987; 122p., illus.

Baker, Jr. Houston A.; Diawara, Manthia; Lindeborg, Ruth H. (eds.): Black cultural studies: a reader. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996; 340p., illus.; bibl. pp.314–22.

Baker, Jean-Claude and Chase, Chris: Josephine Baker: the hungry heart. New York: Random House, 1993; 592p., illus.

Barnes, Sandra T (ed.): Africa’s Ogun: old world and new. 1989; see 1997 ed.

Barnes, Sandra T (ed.): Africa’s Ogun: old world and new. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1997. 2nd exp. ed.; 389p., illus. See 1989 ed.

Baykam, Bedri: Monkey’s right to paint: and the post-Duchamp crisis: the fight of a cultural guerilla for the rights of non-western artists and the empty world of the neo-ready mades. Istanbul: Literatur, 1994; 319p., illus.

Bennett, Michael and Dickerson, Vanessa D (eds.): Recovering the black female body: self-representations
by African American women; New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2001; 331p.

Berger, Maurice (ed.): Modern art and society: an anthology of social and multicultural readings. New York: IconEditions an imprint of HarperCopllins Publishers, 1994; 310p., illus.

Berman, Esmé: Art and artists of South Africa: an illustrated biographical dictionary and historical survey of painters and graphic artists since 1875. Rotterdam; Cape Town: A.A. Balkema, 1974; 368p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.353–355.

Bihalji-Merin, Oto: Modern primitives: naïve painting from the late seventeenth century until the present day. London: Thames and Hudson; 1971; 304p., 389 illus. (204 col.); bibl. p.301, biogs. pp.289–300.

Blake, Jody: Le tumulte noir: modernist art and popular entertainment in jazz-age Paris, 1900–1930. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999; 207p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.191–202.

Block, Holly (ed.): Art Cuba: the new generation.
New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001; 174p., col. illus.; bibl. p.168.

Boxer, David and Poupeye, Veerle: Modern Jamaican Art. Kingston: Ian Randle and University of West Indies, 1998; 192p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.176–7, biogs. pp.178–90.

Bugnar, Ladislas (ed.): The image of the black in western art. Houston; Menil Foundation: Cambridge, Mass.: distributed by Harvard University Press, 1976–1989; 4 vol., illus. (some col.)


Calo, Mary Ann: Distinction and denial: race, nation, and the critical construction of the African American artist, 1920–40. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, c2007; 264p.; bibl. pp.243–251.

Carroll, Anne Elizabeth: Word, image and the
new Negro: representation and identity in the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2007, c.2005; 275p., illus.; bibl. pp.247–63.

Césaire, Aimé: Cahier d’un retour au pays natal. Paris: Volontes, [1939?]; 29p.

Césaire, Aimé: Discours sur le colonialisme. Paris: Réclame, 1950; 60p.

Chambers, Eddie and Lamba, Juginda: The Artpack: a history of black artists in Britain. [London]: Haringey Arts Council, 1988; 31p., illus. (chiefly col.).

Challiss, Laura Charlotte: African art of the diaspora; the emergence of the opportunity for a new international discourse. Dissertation for Surrey Institute of Art and Design University College, 2005; 53p.; bibl. pp.47–51.

Christensen, Eleanor Ingalls: The art of Haiti. South Brunswick and New York: A.S. Barnes and Company; London: Thomas Yoseloff Ltd., 1975; 76p., illus. (some col.).

Clifford, James: The predicament of culture: twentieth-century ethnography, literature and art. Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press, 1988; 381p., illus.; bibl. pp.349–70.

Colin, Paul: Le tumulte noir. [Paris: Editions d’Art, Success, 1927]; [52]p., col. illus.; includes essay by Josephine Baker.

Collins, Lisa Gail and Crawford, Margo Natalie (eds.): New thoughts on the Black Arts movement. New Brunswick, N.J. and London: Rutgers University Press, 2006; 390p., illus.

Conduru, Roberto: Arte afro-brasileira. Belo Horizonte: Editora C/Arte, 2007; 126p., col. illus.; bibl. pp.[125]–126.

Connelly, Frances S: The sleep of reason: primitivism in modern European art and aesthetics: 1725–1907. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995; 154p., illus.; bibl. pp.133–49.

Cummins, Alissandra: Art in Barbados: what kind of mirror image?  Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers; 1999; 270p., col. illus.

Cunard, Nancy: Negro: an anthology. London: Nancy Cunard at Wishart & Co., 1934; 854p.


Deepwell, Katy (ed.): Art criticism and Africa. London: Saffron Books, [c.1996–1998]; 125p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.113–8; essays developed from papers delivered at a conference organised by AICA (International Association of Art Critics) November 1996.

Dover, Cedric: Half-caste. London: M Secker and Warburg, 1937; 324p.; bibl. pp.291–314.

Doy, Gen: Black visual culture: modernity and post-modernity. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000 (i.e. 1999); 258p., illus.; bibl. pp.248–254.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt: The souls of black folk. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1903; 264p.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt: Darkwater: voices from within the veil. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920; 276p.


Edwards, Brent Hayes: The practice of diaspora: literature, translation, and the rise of black internationalism. London, 2003; 397p., illus.

English, Darby: How to see a work of art in total darkness. Cambridge, Mass.; London: MIT Press, 2007; 356p., illus. (some col.)

Erickson, Peter and Hulse, Clark (eds.): Early modern visual culture: representation, race, and empire in Renaissance England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000; 403p., illus.

Eulisse, Eriberto: Afriche, diaspore, ibridi: il concettualismo come strategia dell’arte Africana contemporanea. San Marino: AIEP editore, 2003; 175p., illus. (some col.).  


Fall, N’Goné and Loup Pivin, Jean (eds): An Anthology of African art: the twentieth century. English ed. New York: D.A.P.; Paris: Revue Noire Éditions, African Contemporary Art, 2002; 407p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.402–4.

Fanon, Frantz: Peau noire, masques blanc. Editions de Seuil, 1952; 237p. See English edition, published in 1986.

Fanon, Frantz: Les damnés de la terre. Paris: F Maspero, 1961; 242p.; preface by Jean-Paul Sartre.

Fanon, Frantz: Black skin, white masks. London: Pluto Press, 1986; 232p.; translated by Charles Lam Markmann. Originally published in French as “Peau noire, masques blanc”, 1952.

Farrington, Lisa E.: Creating their own image: the history of African-American women artists. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005; 354p., illus. (some col.)

Farris, Phoebe: (ed.): Women artists of color: a bio-critical sourcebook of 20th century artists in the Americas. Westport, Conn.; London: Greenwood Press, 1999; 496p., illus.

Fax, Elton C: Black artists of the new generation. New York: Dodd Mead, c1977; 370p., illus.

Ferguson, Russell et al. (ed.): Out there: marginalization and contemporary cultures. New York: New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1990; 446p., illus.

Fisher, Jean (ed.): Global visions: towards a new internationalism in the visual arts. London: Kala Press in association with the Institute of International Visual Arts, 1994; 175p., illus.; papers delivered at the conference entitled “A new internationalism”, the first conference of the Institute of International Visual Arts, held at the Tate Gallery in London on 27 and 28 April 1994.

Flam, Jack and Deutch, Mirium (eds.): Primitivism and twentieth century art: a documentary history. Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 2003; 491p., illus.; bibl. pp.453–67.

Franco, Jean: The modern culture of Latin America: society and the artist. London: Pall Mall Press, 1967; see 1970 ed.

Franco, Jean: The modern culture of Latin America: society and the artist. London: Pelican Books, 1970; 380p.; rev. ed., 1st published 1967.

Franklin, John Hope: From slavery to freedom: a history of American Negroes. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1947; 622p.

Fusco, Coco: Young British and black: the work of Sankofa and Black Audio Film Collective. Buffalo: Hallwalls/Contemporary Arts Center, 1988; 65p., illus.

Fusco, Coco: English is broken here: notes on cultural fusion in the Americas. New York: The New Press, 1995; 214p., illus.

Fusco, Coco: The bodies that were not ours: and other writings. London: Routledge published in collaboration with Institute of International Visual Arts, 2001; 252p., illus., (some col.); biog., bibl. p.245–6.


Gates, Henry Louis., Dalton, Karen C.C.: Josephine Baker and La Revue negre: Paul Colin’s lithographs of Le tumulte noir in Paris, 1927; New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998; 64p.

Gaudibert, Pierre: L’art Africain contemporain. Paris: Editions Cercle d’Art, 1991; 175p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.160–74.

Gibson, Ann Eden: Abstract expressionism: other
politics. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1997; 248p., illus. (some col.)

Gilroy, Paul: “There ain’t no black in the Union Jack”: the cultural politics of race and nation. London: Routledge, 1987; 271p., illus.; bibl. pp.251–66.

Gilroy, Paul: Small acts: thoughts on the politics of black cultures. London: Serpent’s Tail, 1993; 257p., illus.

Gilroy, Paul: The black Atlantic: modernity and double consciousness. London: Verso, 1993; 261p.

Gilroy, Paul: Black Britain: a photographic history. London: Saqi in association with Getty Images, 2007; 320p., illus.; preface by Stuart Hall.

Giraudon, Colette: Paul Guillaume: et les peintres du XXe siècle: de l’art nègre à l’avant-garde. Paris: La Bibiothèque des Arts, 1993; 147p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.135–139.

Gobel, Walker and Schabio, Saskia (eds.): Beyond the Black Atlantic: relocating modernization and technology. London: Routledge, 2006; 210p; bibls.

Goldwater, Robert: Primitivism in modern art. Cambridge, Mass; London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986; 339 p., illus.; bibl. ‘Publications of Robert Goldwater (1907–1973)’ pp.[320]–8. First published in 1938.

Goldwater, Robert J.: Primitivism in modern painting. New York; London: Harper, 1938; 210p., illus.; bibl. pp.195–210.

González, Jennifer A.: Subject to display: reframing race in contemporary installation art. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2008; 297p., col. illus.


Hall, Stuart and Maharaj, Sarat: Modernity and difference: annotations 6. London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 2001; 64p., illus. (some col.); bibl. p.59; foreword by Gilane Tawadros; edited by Sarah Campbell and Gilane Tawadros; published in conjunction with a talk organised by Iniva at the Lux Centre, Hoxton, London, 25 Oct. 2000.

Harris, Michael D.: Colored pictures: race and visual representation. Chapel Hill; London: University of North Carolina Press, 2003; 281p., col. illus.

Hassan, Salah M. and Oguibe Olu: Authentic/ex-centric: conceptualism in contemporary African art. Ithaca, N.Y.: Forum for African Arts, 2001; 263p., col. illus.; bibl. pp.230–232, biogs. pp.238–249, colls., exhibs.; includes essays on the work of Maria Magdalena Campos-Pons and Yinka Shonibare. Published on the occasion of an exhibition held as part of the 49th Venice Biennale, as a project of the Forum for African Arts.

Heyd, Milly: Mutual reflections: Jews and blacks in American art. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999; 245p., illus.

Hiller, Susan (ed.): The Myth of primitivism: perspectives on art. London; New York: Routledge, 1991; 355p., illus.; biogs. pp.345–8; based on seminars held at the Slade School of Art, University of London 1985–1986.

Hooks, Bell: Art on my mind: visual politics. New York: New Press, 1995; 224p., illus. (some col.) 



Jager, E.J.: Contemporary African art in South Africa. Cape Town: C. Struik, 1973; 31p., illus.

James, C.L.R.: The black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution. New York: The Dial Press, 1938; 328p., illus.; bibl. pp.317–322.

Jones, Kellie; Golden, Thelma and Iles, Chrissie: Lorna Simpson. London and New York: Phaidon, 2002; 160p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.158–9, colls., exhibs.

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta: Josephine Baker in art and life: the icon and the image. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007; 392p., illus.


Kasfir, Sidney Littlefield: Contemporary African Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999; 224p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.214–7.

Keen, Melanie and Daly, Eileen (eds.): Necessary journeys. London: Arts Council England; BFI Blackworld, 2005; 96p., col. illus.

Keim, Curtis A. and Schildkrout, Enid: The scramble for art in Central Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998; 257p., illus.; bibl. pp.236–251.

Kennedy, Jean: New currents, ancient rivers: contemporary African artists in a generation of change. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992; 204p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.194–9.

Kester, Grant H.: Art, activism and oppositionality: essays from “Afterimage”. Durham, N.C.; London: Duke University Press, 1998; 318p., illus.

King, Catherine (ed.): Views of difference: different views of art. New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with The Open University, 1999; 272p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.261–2.

Kirschke, Amy Helene: Aaron Douglas: Art, race and the Harlem Renaissance, 1995; 166p., illus.; bibl. pp.149–58.

Klotman, Phyllis R. and Cutler, Janet K. (eds.): Struggles for representation: African American documentary film and video. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1999; 483p., illus.; bibl. pp.457–470.

Koser, Khalid: New African diasporas. London and New York: Taylor and Francis, 2003; 163p.


Lahs-Gonzales, Olivia: Josephine Baker: image and icon. Reedy Press, 2006; 116p.

Laude, Jean: La Peinture française [1905–1914] et “l’art nègre”: contribution à l’étude des sources du fauvisme et du cubisme. Paris: Klincksieck, 1968; 2 vol. (574p, [96]p.) 90 illus. in vol. 2; bibl. vol. 1 pp.545–560.

Lázaro, Wilson; Araújo, Emanoel; Bispo do Rosario, Arthur; Museu Bispo do Rosário.; et al.: Arthur Bispo do Rosario. [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]: Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro: IMAS Juliano Moreira: Museu Bispo do Rosário Arte Contemporânea, [2006?]; 303p., col. illus.; bibl. pp.100–1, biog., exhibs.

Lemke, Sieglinde: Primitivist modernism: black culture and the origins of transatlantic modernism. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1998; 183p., illus.; bibl. pp.165–74.

Leininger-Miller, Theresa: New Negro artists in Paris: African American painters and sculptors in the city of light, 1922–1934. New Brunswick, N.J. and London: Rutgers University Press, 2001; 320p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.289–305.

Levering-Lewis, David: When Harlem was in vogue. New York Penguin Books, 1989; 381p., illus.

Lewis, Samella: African American art and artists. Berkeley; London: University of California Press, 1990; 2nd rev. ed.; 302p., illus. (some col.). See 1978 edition, Art: African American, 1978; and 2003 expanded edition.

Lewis, Samella: Art: African American. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978; 246p. See 1990 and 2003 editions entitled African American art and artists.

Lewis, Samella S and Waddy, Ruth G: Black artists on art. Los Angeles: Contemporary Crafts, 1976; Vol. 1, revised ed.; 141 p., illus. (some col.); biogs. pp.137–41.

Lewis, Samella: African American art and artists. Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 2003; 3rd rev. and expanded ed.; 340p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.331–338. See 2nd ed. 1990, and 1st ed. 1978, published under the title Art: African American.

Leyten, Harrie and Damen, Bibi (eds.): Art, anthropology and the modes of re-presentation: museums and contemporary non-Western art. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1993; 78p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.73–5.

Lippard, Lucy R.: Mixed blessings: new art in a multicultural America. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990; 278p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.260–70.

Lock, Graham, and Murray, David (eds.): The hearing eye: jazz & blues influences in African American visual art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, c2009; 366p., col. illus.

Locke, Alain: The new Negro: an interpretation. New York: Boni, 1925; 452p.; includes an essay by W.E.B Du Bois, partly illustrated and designed by Aaron Douglas.

Locke, Alain (ed.): The Negro in art: a pictorial record of the Negro artist and of the Negro theme in art. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1979; 224p., illus.; bibl. p.224. First published in 1940.

Looker, Benjamin: B.A.G.: point from which creation begins: the Black Artists’ Group of St. Louis. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 2004; 316p., illus.; bibl. pp.308–311.

Lovejoy, Paul E. and Trotman, David V. (eds.): Trans-Atlantic dimensions of ethnicity in the African diaspora. London: Continuum, 2003; 289p., illus.; bibl. pp.265–84.

Lucie-Smith, Edward: Latin American art of the 20th century. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004; rev. and expanded ed.; 224p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.216–8. See 1st ed. published 1993.

Lucie-Smith, Edward: Latin American art of the 20th century. London: Thames & Hudson, 1993; 216p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.208–10. See 2004 rev. and expanded ed.

Lucie-Smith, Edward: Race, sex and gender in contemporary art: the rise of minority culture. London: Art Books International, 1994; 224p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.212–217.


Machando, Arlindo: Made in Brasil: três décadas do vídeo brasileiro = three decades of Brazilian video. São Paulo, Illuminuras, 2007; 443p.; bibl. pp.241–249; text in Portuguese with English translations.

Magnin, André (ed.): Contemporary art of Africa. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996; 192p., illus., (some col.); bibl. pp.185–6.

Mandri, Flora Gonzalez: Guarding cultural memory: Afro-Cuban women in literature and the arts. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2006; 232p., illus.; ed. by A. James Arnold; includes works by María Magdalena Compos-Pons and others.

Martínez, Juan A.: Cuban art and national identity: the Vanguardia Painters. Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 1994; 189p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.175–83.

Martis, Adi and Rijnders, Mieke (eds.): Expressionisme en primitivisme in de beeldende kunst van de twintigste eeuw. Heerlen: Open Universiteit Faculteit Cultuurwetenschappen, 1998, 1998; 334p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.300–15.

Maurer, Evan Maclyn: In quest of the myth: an investigation of the relationships between surrealism and primitivism. Ann Arbour: UMI Dissertation Services, 1997; 539p., illus.; bibl. pp.xxix–lxiv; facsimile of thesis (PhD), University of Pennsylvania, 1974.

McConnell, William S. (ed.): Harlem Renaissance. San Diego, Calif.; London: Greenhaven Press, 2003; 224p.; bibl. pp.214–6.

McEvilley, Thomas: Fusion: West African artists at the Venice Biennale. New York: Museum for African Art; Munich: Prestel, 1993; 96p., col. illus.

McEvilley, Thomas: Art & otherness: crisis in cultural identity. New York: McPherson and Co., 1992; 174p.

Mercer, Kobena (ed.): ICA documents 7: Black film, British cinema. London: ICA, 1988; 62p.; includes essays by Coco Fusco and Paul Gilroy, et al., and an interview with the Black Audio Film Collective and Sankofa Film Collective.

Mercer, Kobena: Welcome to the jungle: new positions in black cultural studies. New York and London: Routledge, 1994; 339p., illus.

Mercer, Kobena and Darke, Chris: Isaac Julien. London: Ellipsis, 2001; 88p., illus. (some col.); biog., exhibs. bibl. pp.85–87.

Mercer, Kobena: Cosmopolitan modernisms. London: Institute of International Visual Arts; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005; 208p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.192–203.

Mercer, Kobena (ed.): Exiles, diasporas and strangers. London: Institute of International Visual Arts; Cambridge, Mass.; London: MIT Press, 2008; 224p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.216–8; includes essays on Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Jean-Michel Basquiat and Adrian Piper.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas (ed.): The Visual culture reader. London: Routledge, 1998; 530p., illus; see Part four: ‘Race and identity in colonial and postcolonial culture’, includes essays by Paul Gilroy, Adrian Piper and Coco Fusco et al.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas (ed): Diaspora and visual culture: representing Africans and Jews. London: Routledge, 2000; 264p., illus.

Moody, Cynthia: The works of Ronald Moody: catalogue raisonné. [Bristol: Cynthia Moody, 1998]. Unpublished catalogue raisonné; 2 vol. (70, 70p.), illus.

Mosquera, Gerado: Beyond the fantastic: contemporary art criticism from Latin America. London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 1995; 343p., col. illus.

Mount, Marshall Ward: African art: the years since 1920. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973; 236p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.204–10. Originally published: Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.


Nesbett, Peter T. and Dubois, Michelle (eds.): The complete Jacob Lawrence: Over the line: the art and life of Jacob Lawrence; Jacob Lawrence: paintings, drawings, and murals (1935–1999:): a catalogue raisonné. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press in association with Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project, 2000; 343p., 285p. illus. (some col.); bibl. ‘Jacob Lawrence’ pp.321–43; ‘Over the line’ pp.270–8; see P.J. Karlstrom ‘Modernism, Race, and Community’ in ‘Jacob Lawrence’ pp.229–245. ‘Over the line’ republished as an exhibition catalogue in 2001.

Nuttall, Sarah (ed.): Beautiful ugly: African and diaspora aesthetics. Durham: Duke University Press; The Hague: Prince Claus Fund Library, 2006. 416p., illus. (chiefly col.). 


Oboe, Annalisa and Scacchi, Anna (eds.): Recharting the Black Atlantic: modern cultures, local communities, global connections. New York; London: Routledge, 2008; 423p.; bibl. pp.379–406.

Oguibe, Olu and Enwezor, Okwui (eds.): Reading the contemporary: African art from theory to the marketplace. London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 1999; 432p., illus. (some col.).

Owusu, Kwesi (ed.): Black British culture and society: a text reader. London and New York: Routledge, 2000; 561p., illus.; includes essays by Paul Gilroy et al.

Owusu, Kwesi (ed.): Storms of the heart: an anthology of black arts and culture. London: Camden Press; 1988; 308p., illus.; includes essays by Keith Piper and Donald Rodney, and Sonia Boyce amongst others. 


Pan, David: Primitive renaissance: rethinking German expressionism. Lincoln; London: University of Nebraska Press, 2001; 239p., illus.

Papastergiadis, Nikos (ed.): Mixed belongings and unspecified destinations. Annotations series. London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 1996; 80p., illus.; published in conjunction with a conference held at John Hansard Gallery, University of Southampton, May 1996.

Patton, Sharon F.: African-American art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998; 319p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.283–299.

Peltier, Philippe: “Primitivisme” et art moderne. Actualité des arts plastiques, no.82. Paris: CNDP, 1996; 77p., illus.; bibl. p.67. 1st published 1991.

Picton, John: El Anatsui: a sculpted history of Africa. London: Saffron Books, 1995; 96p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.93–94, biogs., colls., exhibs.

Pierre, José: La sculpture de Cárdenas. Brussels: La Connaissance, 1971; 143p., illus.; biogs., exhibs.

Porter, James A.: Modern Negro art. New York: Dryden Press, 1943; 272p., illus. (85 plates); bibl. pp.183–192.

Poupeye, Veerle: Caribbean Art. London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998; 224p., illus. (some col.).

Powell, Richard J.: Black art and culture in the 20th century. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997. 256p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.237–46; biogs. pp.226–36. See 2002 ed. Black art: a cultural history.

Powell, Richard J.: Black art: a cultural history. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002; rev. and expanded ed.; 272p., illus. (some col.); biogs. pp.242–52, bibl. pp.252–61. See 1st ed. Black art and culture in the 20th century, 1997.

Price, Sally and Price, Richard: Romare Bearden: the Caribbean dimension. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006; 189p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.188–9.



Read, Alan: The Fact of blackness: Frantz Fanon and visual representation. London: Institute of Contemporary Arts; Seattle: Bay Press, 1996, in collaboration with the Institute of International Visual Arts; 211p., illus.; biogs. pp.206–9.

Rhodes, Colin: Primitivism and modern art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1994; 216p., illus. (some col.).

Richardson, Michael: Refusal of the shadow: surrealism and the Caribbean. London: Verso, 1996; 287p.; bibl. pp.281–3.

Riggs, Thomas (ed.): St. James guide to black artists. Detroit; New York; Toronto; London: St. James Press in association with the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, 1997; 625p., illus.; biogs. 


Samaltanos, Katia: Apollinaire: catalyst for primitivism, Picabia, and Duchamp. From the series Studies in the fine arts: the Avant-Garde, No. 45. Ann Arbor: UMIResearch Press, 1984; 228p., illus.; bibl. pp.213–7; revision of 1981 thesis.

Sansi, Roger: Fetishes and Monuments: Afro-Brazilian Art and Culture in the 20th Century. New York; Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007; 176p., illus.; bibl. pp.195–205.

Schwartzman, Myron: Romare Bearden: his life and art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990; 320p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.243–51.

Sealy, Mark (ed.): Vanley Burke: a retrospective. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1993; 88p., illus.

Senghor, Léopold Sédar: Chants d’ombre. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1945; 78p., illus.

Senghor, Léopold Sédar: Anthologie de la nouvelle poesie nègre et malgache de langue francaise. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1948; 227p.; introd. by Jean-Paul Sartre.

Shipp, Steve: Latin American and Caribbean artists of the modern era: a biographical dictionary of more than 12,700 persons. Jeffrsion, N.C., McFarland & Company, 2003; 864p., illus. (some col.), exhibs. pp.804–28, bibl. pp.857–64, biogs.

Shohat, Ella (ed.): Talking visions: multicultural feminism in a transnational age. New York: New Museum of Contemporary Art; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998; 574p., illus.; bibl. pp.533–545.

Shohat, Ella (ed.): Talking visions: multicultural feminism in a transnational age. New York: New Museum of Contemporary Art; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998; 574p., illus.; bibl. pp.533–545.

Sims, Lowery Stokes: Wifredo Lam and the international Avant-Garde, 1923–1982. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002; 281p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.261–7.

Smethurst, James Edward: The Black Arts Movement: literary nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill, N.C.; London: University of North Carolina Press, 2005; 471p.; bibl. pp.[429]–458.

Spring, Chris: Angaza Afrika: African art now. London: Laurence King, 2008; 336p., col. illus.

Stovall, Tyler: Paris noir: African Americans in the city of light. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996; 366p., illus.; bibl. pp.342–7.


Tawadros, Gilane: Sonia Boyce: speaking in tongues. London: Kala Press, 1997; 96p., illus. (some col.); biog. pp.93–5.

Tawadros, Gilane (ed.): Steve Ouditt: Creole in-site: annotations 4. London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 1998; 72p., illus. (some col.); bibl. p.66.

Tawadros, Gilane and Clarke, Victoria (eds.): Run through the jungle: selected writings by Eddie Chambers: annotations 5. London: Institute of International visual Arts, 1999; 140p., illus.; bibl. pp.135–139.

Thompson, Robert Farris: Flash of the spirit: African and Afro-American art and philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1984, c1983; 317 p., illus.; bibl. notes pp.271–[302].

Tidwell, John Edgar and Ragar, Cheryl R. (eds.): Montage of a Dream: The Art and Life of Langston Hughes. Columbia, 2007; 351p.; bibl. pp.319–34.

Twa, Lyndsey Jean: Troubling island: The imagining and imaging of Haiti by African-American artists, 1915–1940. Unpublished thesis, Chapel Hill, 2006; 359p., illus. (some col.).

Tythacott, Louise: Surrealism and the exotic. London: Routledge, 2003; 260p., illus.; bibl. pp.242–52.



Viard, Emile: Haitian Art in the diaspora: a directory of Haitian artists living abroad. [Miami]: Vie et Arts Collections, c.2003; 109p., col. illus.; biogs.

Visonà, Monica Blackmun et al.: A history of art in Africa. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000; 544p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.529–36; See 2008 edition.

Visonà, Monica Blackmu; Poynor, Robin; Cole, Herbert M: A history of art in Africa. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, c2008; 560p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.544–551. See 1st ed. published in 2000.


Wallace, Michele: Black popular culture. Seattle: Bay Press, 1992; 373p., illus.; bibl. pp.347–68; ed. by Gina Dent; includes essays by Paul Gilroy, Isaac Julien, Coco Fusco et al.

Walker, Sheila S.: African roots/American cultures: Africa in the creation of the Americas. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2001; 464p.

Walmsley, Anne: The Caribbean Artists Movement 1966–1972: a literary & cultural history. Discussions in contemporary culture, no. 8. London; Port of Spain: New Beacon Books, 1992; 356p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.347–68;

Walvin, James: Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African diaspora. London; New York: Cassell, 2000; 180p.

Watson, Steven: The Harlem Renaissance: hub of African-American culture, 1920–1930. New York: Pantheon Books, 1995; 224p.

Wentinck, Charles: Moderne und Primitive Kunst. Freiburg im Breisgau, Basel, Vienna: Herder, 1974; 31 p: col. illus.

Wentinck, Charles: Modern and primitive art. Oxford: Phaidon, 1978; 30 p., col. [79]p. of plates, col. illus.; translated by Hilary Davies from 1974 German edition.

Willet, Frank: African art. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002; 272p., illus. (some col.); bibl. pp.262–7.

Williams, Eric Eustace: Capitalism and slavery. New York: Russell & Russell, [1944]; 285p.

Williams, Patrick and Chrisman, Laura (eds.): Colonial discourse and post-colonial theory: a reader. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993; 570p; includes essays by Léopold Sédar Senghor, Frantz Fanon, Aimé Césaire and Paul Gilroy.

Williamson, Sue and Jamal, Ashraf: Art in South Africa: the future present. Cape Town; Johannesburg: David Philip, 1996; 159p., col. illus.

Wintz, C D  and Finkelman, P (eds.): Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Routledge, 2004; 2 vol.





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