Introduction to Solid State Chemistry (10 lectures by Dr. Sam Chong)
- Basic concepts in crystalline solids (builds on CHEM111)What is a crystal? – lattices, unit cells, symmetry
- Describing crystal structures – fractional coordinates, Miller indices
- Close packing of spheres in me
- Simple ionic solids derived from close-packed structures
- Rationalising structure types using radius ratio rule, and its limitations
- Diffraction characterisation of crystalline solids
- Interference of waves, Braggs'' law
- Concept of the reciprocal lattice, relation to the direct lattice and diffraction
- Diffraction intensities and systematic absences
- Experimental aspects of X-ray diffraction and uses of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD
- Application of concepts to indexing PXRD patterns and deducing lattice centring
- Limitations and complementary experimental methods (scattering, spectroscopy, imaging and microscopy techniques - continued in Manufacturing Materials)
- Solid state structures of functional inorganic materials
- Structure-function relationships and applications of functional crystalline solids
- Polymorphism - concept and examples in ionic solids, contrasts in physical properties
- Spinels - normal vs. inverse structures and contributing factors
- Perovskites - use of tolerance factor to predict perovskite distortion
- Covalent solids - properties and structures of carbon allotropes
- Framework solids - structures and properties of zeolites, metal-organic frameworks
- Introducing complexity
- Hybrid structures (MOFs, hybrid perovskites, fullerides)
- Structure of the YBCO high temp
erature superconductor as a perovskite superstructure
- Structure of point and extended defects
- Doping, non-stoichiometry and disorder
- Influence of defect structure on functional properties and applications (examples from ionic conduction, MOFs)
Manufacturing Materials (10 lectures by Dr. Colin Crick)
- Structure-function Relationship
- Review solid-state bonding models (covalent, ionic, metallic), and contrast differences with molecular bonding.
- Structure-function relationship, how structure can determine a materi
- Electrons in Solids
- Qualitative description of distinction between metals, semi-conductors, and insulators (atomic vs. molecular electronic structure).
- Density of states and Fermi energy, and experimental evidence for these concepts.
- Conductivity (Carrier density and temperature dependence).
- Electronic structure of simple metals and transition metals.
- Band gap manipulation (Semi-conductor doping / Silicon vs. III/V systems).
- Mott-Hubbard insulators and the breakdown of the band model.
- Functional Polymers
- Characteristics required for enhanced function, includes; conductive polymers, biomimetic (stimuli-responsive, self-healing, and self-cleaning), and tuning optical property control.
- Engineering approaches for desired characters; low-cost, eco-friendly, an
d environmental endurance.
- Fabrication of Materials
- Deposition of thin films via lithography (including; Self-assembled monolayers), chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition, and doping approaches. Includes looking at growth mechanisms.
- Network forming reactions, including sol-gel methods (e.g. SiO2 templating) and thermoset polymers (contrast with thermoplastics).
- Characterisation of Materials
- Probing electronic structure; semiconductor analysis (resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, and contact resistance), and band gap measurement.
- Advance structural analysis, includes; consideration of local vs. bulk analysis; electron diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
- Probing the morphology of materials; optical microscope (confocal), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.
- Quantifying materials composition; energy/wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (W/EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
- Real-World Application of Materials
- Industrially relevant materials fabrication, includes; energy-efficient glass, microfabrication – semiconductor circuit boards / lab-on-a-chip, and injection moulding
Magnetic materials (10 lectures by Dr. Lucy Clark)
- Synthesis of inorganic solids
- Compare polycrystalline and single crystal samples and the advantages and disadvantages of their syntheses
- Outline methods for synthesis of polycrystalline samples
- Consider the difference in experimental conditions requir
ed for direct synthesis in the solid-state vs. in solution
- Develop overview of single crystal growth methods
- Introduction to magnetochemistry
- Introduce the concept that solids contain magnetic moments that interact with one another in a variety of different ways, giving rise to a diverse range of exciting and useful bulk materials properties
- Describe several key manifestations and applications of magnetism as well as compare orders of magnitude of magnetic field strengths
- Familiarise with units of magnetism
- The origin of magnetism in materials
- Revisit spin and orbital angular momenta and their relevant quantum numbers and magnetic moments
- Introduce the Bohr magneton as a convenient unit for atomic magnetism
- Magnetic moments of is
olated atoms or ions
- Describe the coupling of spin and orbital angular momenta and revise Hund’s rules to arrive at ground state magnetic moments and term symbols of rare-earth ions
- Describe the effects of crystal fields and orbital quenching of magnetic moments of 3d transition metals to arrive at a spin-only formula
- Compare calculated and observed magnetic moments of rare-earth and transition metal ions
- Magnetisation and magnetic susceptibility
- Classify diamagnets and paramagnets by the sign and temperature-dependence of their magnetic susceptibilities and compare some common materials
- For paramagnetism, demonstrate Curie’s Law and how – through the measurement of bulk magnetic susceptibility – we can determine the atomic magnetic moment of a material
- Magnetic interactions in the solid state
- Compare ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic states, with examples, that can be produced via magnetic interactions
- Consider the energy scale of the dipolar interaction to show that this is too low in energy to account for the high-temperature magnetic order observed in many magnetic materials
- Describe the concept of exchange to derive the Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Outline how exchange can occur directly, but more frequently indirectly through the indirect superexchange mechanism
- Make use of orbital overlap diagrams to show how 90 º and 180 º bonding interactions lead to ferro- and antiferromagnetic orders, respectively
- Measuring magnetic order in solids
- Give an overview of magnetometry techniques and the capabilities for measuring magnetisation at the University of Liverpool
- Describe how neutrons are very useful for studying magnetic materials
- Introduction to multiferroic materials
- Introduce the concept that coupling the order of spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom in materials presents a major grand challenge in modern solid-state chemistry research
- Define the concepts of ferroelectricity and ferroelasticity in analogy with ferromagnetism and detail the technological importance of coupling ferroic orders of solids