My laboratory is committed to improving our understanding of aquatic animal biology and welfare using an integrative approach. My research specifically addresses questions in animal personality, dominance-subordinate relationships, nociception or pain, and the way these are influenced by environmental stress and adaptation. Current funding aims to improve the detection, assessment and alleviation of stress and ill health in fish and to investigate the replacement of adult fish by non-sentient forms to reduce the numbers of animals used. Although fundamentally important, these topics are relevant to welfare problems in laboratory housed fish and the ornamental fish industry. My laboratory also investigates intraspecific variation in behaviour and physiology linked to climate change using a variety of model species including cnidarians, crustaceans, fish and birds.