Examples of recent important papers include:

  1. Williams, R.G., A. Katavouta and V. M. Roussenov, 2021. Regional asymmetries in ocean heat and carbon storage due to dynamic redistribution in climate model projections. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0519.1. PDF

  1. Williams, R.G., P. Ceppi and A. Katavouta, 2020. Controls of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions by physical feedbacks, heat uptake and carbon cycling. Environmental Research Letters, 15, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab97c9, PDF

  1. Arora, V.K., A. Katavouta, R.G. Williams, C.D. Jones, V. Brovkin, P. Friedlingstein, J. Schwinger, L. Bopp, O. Boucher et al., 2020. Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 17, 4173-4222, doi:10.5194/bg-2019-473, PDF,

  1. Lozier, M.S., F. Li, S. Bacon, F. Bahr, A. Bower, S. Cunningham, F. de Jong, L. de Steur, Brad de Young, J. Fischer, S. Gray, B. Greenan, N.P. Holliday, A. Houk, L. Houpert, M. Inall, B. Johns, H. Johnson, J. Karstensen, G. Koman, I. LeBras, X. Lin, N. Mackay, D. Marshall, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, R. Pickart, A. Ramsay, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, D. Torres, R.G. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, I. Yashayaev, J. Zhao, 2019. A sea change in our view of overturning - first results from the overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program. Science, 2019, 1 February 2019, 363, 6426, 516-521, doi: 10.1126/science.aau6592. Link to Science webpage

  1. Goodwin, P., A. Katavouta, V.M. Roussenov, G.L. Foster, E.J. Rohling and R.G. Williams, 2018. Pathways to 1.5C and  2C warming based on observational and geological constraints. Nature Geoscience, 11, 102-107, doi: 10.1038/s41561-017-0054-8.

  1. Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, P. Goodwin, L. Resplandy and L. Bopp, 2017. Sensitivity of

          global warming to carbon emissions: effects of heat and carbon uptake in a 

          suite of Earth system models.  Journal of  Climate, 30, 9343-9363,

          doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0468.1. PDF

Collaborators, I work with a wide range of scientists: 

  1. Colleagues in Ocean Sciences at Liverpool University, including Vassil Roussenov, Claire Mahaffey, Jonathan Sharples, Alessandro Tagliabue and Chris Hughes;

  2. Researchers in the National Oceanography Laboratory , including Anna Katavouta, John Huthnance  and Phil Woodworth;

  3. Researchers within the UK, including at Southampton, Phil Goodwin and Alberto Naveira Garabato, at the Hadley Centre, Doug Smith and Chris Jones, Tim Woollings at Oxford University, at Imperial College, Paulo Ceppi, and at the British Antarctic Survey, Dr Andrew Meijers;

  4. Formers members of my research group, including Anna Katavouta (NOC Liverpool), Phil Goodwin (Lecturer, Southampton), and Jonathan Lauderdale (Research fellow, MIT);

  5. International colleagues at MIT, Professor Mick Follows on the modeling of the carbon cycle, at Duke University, Professor Susan Lozier on ocean heat storage and overturning, and at Bern University, Professor Thomas Froelicher, on longterm climate responses to carbon emissions.

My research group includes research fellows, postdoctoral research associates and PhD students: 

  1. Dr Vassil Roussenov, a Research Fellow, an expert of numerical modelling, addressing heat content and sea level change, as well as nutrient cycling and transport;

  2. Dr Anna Katavouta, a researcher addressing the ocean climate response to carbon emissions, involving the uptake of heat and carbon;

  3. Dr Hemant Khatri, a researcher addressing how atmospheric forcing controls the subpolar North Atlantic ocean;

  4. Katherine Turner on the climate response to emissions (together with weathering inputs from David Beerling, Sheffield)

  5. Ciara Pimm on subduction in the Southern Ocean (together with Andrew Meijers and Dan Jones, British Antarctic Survey). 

Previous research associates and PhD students include:

  1. Prof. Dr Guatliero Badin (Lecturer at Hamburg, previously Princeton and Boston)

  2. Dr Clare Bellingham (researcher at National Oceanography Centre)

  3. Dr Phil Goodwin (Lecturer at Southampton, previously NERC fellow at Cambridge),

  4. Dr Rob Hall (UEA lecturer, previously Hawaii),

  5. Dr Anna Hickman (NERC fellow at Southampton, previously Essex & MIT),

  6. Dr Simon Holgate (previously National Oceanography Centre),

  7. Dr Laura Jackson (Hadley Centre, previously Princeton),

  8. Dr Anna Katavouta (National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool),

  9. Dr Katarzyna Kenitz (Scripps, previously Copenhagen)

  10. Dr Jonathan Lauderdale (MIT),

  11. Dr Susan Leadbetter (UK Met Office, previously Duke),

  12. Prof. Claire Mahaffey (Chair at Liverpool, previously Hawaii)

  13. Dr Liping Ma

  14. Dr Sarah Reynolds (Lecturer at Portsmouth)

  15. Dr Shaun Rigby (Hydrographic Office)

  16. Dr Nick Rogan (previously postdoc at GEOMAR)

  17. Dr Carl Spingys (postdoc at Southampton)

  18. Dr Chris Wilson (National Oceanography Centre).

Previous fellows and visitors:

  1. Dr Andrew Barton, a US NSF fellow working on phytoplankton community structure, based at Liverpool for 10 months, linked with Susan Lozier at Duke University.


  1. How is global warming linked by theory to how much carbon is emitted?

  2. How is the pattern of ocean warming responding to changes in atmospheric forcing?

  3. How are ocean carbon, nutrient and trace-metal cycles affected by ocean transport and mixing?

  4. How do carbon feedbacks operate in the ocean?

My research is addressing the following questions: