Examples of recent important papers include:

  1. Williams, R.G., P. Ceppi and A. Katavouta, 2019. Controls of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions: effects of physical feedbacks, heat uptake, saturation of radiative forcing and carbon cycling. Environmental Research Letters, submitted (December).

  1. Arora, V.K., A.Katavouta, R.G. Williams, C.D. Jones, V. Brovkin, P. Friedlingstein, J. Schwinger, L. Bopp, O. Boucher, P. Cadule, M. A Chamberlain, J. R. Christian, C. Delire, R.A Fisher, T. Hajima, T. Ilyina, E. Joetzjer, M. Kawamiya, C. Koven, J. Krasting, R.M. Law, D.M. Lawrence, A. Lenton, K. Lindsay, J. Pongratz, T. Raddatz, R. Séférian, K. Tachiiri, J. F. Tjiputra, A. Wiltshire, T. Wu, and T. Ziehn, 2019. Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, submitted (December).

  1. Lozier, M.S., F. Li, S. Bacon, F. Bahr, A. Bower, S. Cunningham, F. de Jong, L. de Steur, Brad de Young, J. Fischer, S. Gray, B. Greenan, N.P. Holliday, A. Houk, L. Houpert, M. Inall, B. Johns, H. Johnson, J. Karstensen, G. Koman, I. LeBras, X. Lin, N. Mackay, D. Marshall, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, R. Pickart, A. Ramsay, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, D. Torres, R.G. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, I. Yashayaev, J. Zhao, 2019. A sea change in our view of overturning - first results from the overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program. Science, 2019, 1 February 2019, 363, 6426, 516-521, doi: 10.1126/science.aau6592..

  1. Goodwin, P., A. Katavouta, V.M. Roussenov, G.L. Foster, E.J. Rohling and R.G. Williams, 2018. Pathways to 1.5C and  2C warming based on observational and geological constraints. Nature Geoscience, 11, 102-107, doi: 10.1038/s41561-017-0054-8.

  1. Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, P. Goodwin, L. Resplandy and L. Bopp, 2017. Sensitivity of

          global warming to carbon emissions: effects of heat and carbon uptake in a 

          suite of Earth system models.  Journal of  Climate, 30, 9343-9363,

          doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0468.1. PDF

  1. Williams, R.G., P. Goodwin, V.M. Roussenov and L. Bopp, 2016. A framework to understand the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. Environmental Research Letters, 11, Focus on Cumulative Emissions, Global Carbon Budgets and the Implications for Climate Mitigation Targets, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015003. PDF

  1. Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams and A. Ridgwell, 2015. Sensitivity of climate to cumulative carbon emissions due to compensation of ocean heat and carbon uptake. Nature Geoscience, 8, 29-34, doi:10.1038/ngeo2304. PDF

  1. Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, D. Smith and M.S. Lozier, 2014. Decadal evolution of ocean thermal anomalies in the North Atlantic: the effects of Ekman, overturning, and horizontal transport. Journal of Climate, 27, 2, 698-719. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00234. PDF

         see linked videos at UK OSNAP

Collaborators, I work with a wide range of scientists: 

  1. Colleagues in Ocean Sciences at Liverpool University, including Vassil Roussenov, Andy Heath, Claire Mahaffey, Jonathan Sharples, Alessandro Tagliabue and Chris Hughes;

  2. Researchers in the National Oceanography Laboratory , including Anna Katavouta, John Huthnance  and Phil Woodworth;

  3. Researchers within the UK, including at Southampton, Phil Goodwin and Alberto Naveira Garabato, at the Hadley Centre, Doug Smith and Chris Jones, Tim Woollings at Oxford University and at the British Antarctic Survey, Dr Andrew Meijers;

  4. Formers members of my research group, including Anna Katavouta (NOC Liverpool), Phil Goodwin (Lecturer, Southampton), and Jonathan Lauderdale (Research fellow, MIT);

  5. International colleagues at MIT, Professor Mick Follows on the modeling of the carbon cycle, at Duke University, Professor Susan Lozier on ocean heat storage and overturning, and at Bern University, Professor Thomas Froelicher, on longterm climate responses to carbon emissions.

My research group includes research fellows, postdoctoral research associates and PhD students: 

  1. Dr Vassil Roussenov, a Research Fellow, an expert of numerical modelling, addresssing heat content and sea level change, as well as nutrient cycling and transport;

  2. Dr Andy Heath, a Research Fellow, provides expertise in making engaging science animations for the wider community;

  3. Liping Ma examining atmospheric regimes and effects on ocean heat content (supervised with Tim Woollings, Oxford with input from Doug Smith, Hadley Centre).

  4. Katherine Turner on the climate response to emissions (together with weathering inputs from David Beerling, Sheffield and materials science inputs from Andy Cooper)

  5. Shaun Rigby on ventilated transfer of iron (together with Alessandro Tagliabue and Eric Achterberg)

  6. Ciara Pimm on subduction in the Southern Ocean (together with Andrew Meijers and Dan Jones, British Antarctic Survey). 

Previous research associates and PhD students include:

  1. Prof. Dr Guatliero Badin (Lecturer at Hamburg, previously Princeton and Boston)

  2. Dr Clare Bellingham (researcher at National Oceanography Centre)

  3. Dr Phil Goodwin (Lecturer at Southampton, previously NERC fellow at Cambridge),

  4. Dr Rob Hall (UEA lecturer, previously Hawaii),

  5. Dr Anna Hickman (NERC fellow at Southampton, previously Essex & MIT),

  6. Dr Simon Holgate (previously National Oceanography Centre),

  7. Dr Laura Jackson (Hadley Centre, previously Princeton),

  8. Dr Anna Katavouta (National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool),

  9. Dr Katarzyna Kenitz (Scripps, previously Copenhagen)

  10. Dr Jonathan Lauderdale (MIT),

  11. Dr Susan Leadbetter (UK Met Office, previously Duke),

  12. Prof. Claire Mahaffey (Chair at Liverpool, previously Hawaii)

  13. Dr Sarah Reynolds (Lecturer at Portsmouth)

  14. Dr Nick Rogan (previously postdoc at GEOMAR)

  15. Dr Carl Spingys (postdoc at Southampton)

  16. Dr Chris Wilson (National Oceanography Centre).

Previous fellows and visitors:

  1. Dr Andrew Barton, a US NSF fellow working on phytoplankton community structure, based at Liverpool for 10 months, linked with Susan Lozier at Duke University.


  1. How is global warming linked by theory to how much carbon is emitted?

  2. How is the pattern of ocean warming responding to changes in atmospheric forcing?

  3. How are ocean carbon, nutrient and trace-metal cycles affected by ocean transport and mixing?

  4. How do carbon feedbacks operate in the ocean?

My research is addressing the following questions: