Published textbook:

Williams, R.G. and M.J. Follows, 2011: Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle:                      Principles and Mechanisms. Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 9780521843690. 416pp.

link to CUP

Published reviews:

  1. 1.Follows, M.J. and R.G. Williams, 2004: Mechanisms Controlling the Air-sea flux of CO2 in the North Atlantic Ocean. In `The ocean carbon cycle and climate' NATO Advanced Study Institute volume, edited by M. Follows and T. Oguz, Kluiver, 217-249. PDF

  1. 2.Williams, R.G. and M.J. Follows, 2003: Physical transport of nutrients and the maintenance of biological production, 19-51, In `Ocean Biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change'. Edited by M. Fasham. Springer. ISBN: 3-540-42398-2 PDF

  1. 3.Williams R.G., 2001: Ocean subduction. In ``Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences'', edited by J.H. Steele, K.K. Turekian and S.A. Thorpe. Academic Press. 1982-1993. PDF

  1. 4.Williams, R.G. and A. Meijers, 2019: Ocean Subduction. In ``Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences'', 3rd edition,  edited by K. Cochran, H. Bokuniewicz and P. Yeager. Academic Press, 141-157, ISBN 978-0-12-813081-0, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.11297-7. PDF

Manuscripts submitted and in preparation:

  1. 1.Gupta, M., R.G. Williams,  J.M. Lauderdale, O. Jahn, C. Hill, S. Dutkiewicz and M.J. Follows, 2022. A nutrient relay sustains subtropical ocean productivity. PNAS, submitted (April).

  2. 2.Vakilifard, N., R.G. Williams, P.B. Holden, K. Turner, N.R. Edwards and D.J. Beerling, 2022. Assessment of negative and positive CO2 emissions on global warming metrics using large ensemble Earth system model simulations, Biogeosciences, submitted (February).

  3. 3.Turner, K.E., R.G. Williams, A. Katavouta and D. Beerling, 2022. The role of climate processes and uncertainties in determining the path of negative emission benefits. Earth’s Future, submitted (June).

  4. 4.Williams, R.G., P. Ceppi, V. Roussenov, A. Katavouta and A. Meijers, 2022. The effect of the Southern Ocean on the global climate response to emissions. Phil. Trans. Royal Society, to be submitted (July).

Publications in Major Journals (Google Scholar and layperson summaries in Kudos):

  1. 1.Fernandez Castro, B., M. Mazloff, R.G. Williams and A.C. Naveira Garabato, 2022. Subtropical contribution to Subantarctic mode waters, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.

  1. 2.Roussenov, V.M., R.G. Williams, M.S. Lozier, N. P. Holliday and D. Smith, 2022. Historical reconstruction of subpolar North Atlantic overturning and its relationship to density. J. Geophys. Res. (Oceans), PDF.

  1. 3.Spingys, C.P., R.G. Williams, R.E. Tuerena, A.C. Naveira Garabato, C. Vic, A. Forryan and J. Sharples, 2021. Observations of nutrient supply by mesoscale eddy stirring and small-scale turbulence in the oligotrophic North Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35, e2021GB007200, doi: 10.1029/2021GB007200. PDF, Link

  1. 4.Williams, R.G., A. Katavouta and V. M. Roussenov, 2021. Regional asymmetries in ocean heat and carbon storage due to dynamic redistribution in climate model projections. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0519.1. PDF,  Link

  1. 5.Katavouta, A. and R.G. Williams, 2021. Ocean carbon cycle feedbacks in CMIP6 models: contributions from different basins. Biogeosciences, doi:10.5194/bg-2020-487. PDF,  Link.

  1. 6.Spingys, C.P., R.G. Williams, J.E. Hopkins, R.A. Hall, J.A. Mattias Green and J. Sharples,      2020. Internal-tide driven tracer transport across the continental slope. J. Geophysical Research (Oceans), 125, 9, doi:10.1029/2019JC015530. Link.

  1. 7.Williams, R.G., P. Ceppi and A. Katavouta, 2020. Controls of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions by physical feedbacks, heat uptake and carbon cycling. Environmental Research Letters, 15, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab97c9, PDF , Link.

          A Conversation article linked to this publication.

  1. 8.Rigby, S.J., R.G. Williams, E.P. Achterberg and A. Tagliabue, 2020. Winter mixing drives basin-scale patterns in ocean resource inventory, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34, doi:10.1029/2019GB006497, link.

  1. 9.Arora, V.K., A. Katavouta, R.G. Williams, C.D. Jones, V. Brovkin, P. Friedlingstein, J. Schwinger, L. Bopp, O. Boucher et al., 2020. Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 17, 4173-4222, doi:10.5194/bg-2019-473, PDF,  link.

  1. 10.Ma L., T. Woollings, R.G. Williams, D. Smith and N. Dunstone, 2020. How does the winter jet stream affect surface temperature, heat flux and sea ice in the North Atlantic? Journal of Climate, 33, 3711-3730, doi: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0247.1. PDF

  1. 11.Williams, R.G., A. Katavouta and P. Goodwin, 2019. Carbon-cycle feedbacks operating in the climate system. Current Climate Change Reports, 5(4), 282-295, Springer,  doi: 10.1007/s40641-019-00144-9. PDF

  1. 12.Tuerena, R.E., R.G. Williams, C. Mahaffey, J.A.M. Green, C. Vic, A Naveira-Garabato, A. Forryan and J. Sharples, 2019. Internal tides drive nutrient fluxes into the deep chlorophyll maximum over mid-ocean ridges, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, doi: 10.1029/2019GB006214. PDF

  1. 13.Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams, V. Roussenov and A. Katavouta, 2019. Climate sensitivity from both physical and carbon cycle feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 7554-7564, doi: 10.1029/2019GL082887. PDF

  1. 14.Katavouta, A., R.G. Williams and P. Goodwin, 2019. The effect of ocean ventilation on the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. J. Climate, 32, 5085-5105, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0829.1. PDF

  1. 15.Lozier, M.S., F. Li, S. Bacon, F. Bahr, A. Bower, S. Cunningham, F. de Jong, L. de Steur, Brad de Young, J. Fischer, S. Gray, B. Greenan, N.P. Holliday, A. Houk, L. Houpert, M. Inall, B. Johns, H. Johnson, J. Karstensen, G. Koman, I. LeBras, X. Lin, N. Mackay, D. Marshall, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, R. Pickart, A. Ramsay, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, D. Torres, R.G. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, I. Yashayaev, J. Zhao, 2019. A sea change in our view of overturning - first results from the overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program. Science, 2019, 1 February 2019, 363, 6426, 516-521, doi: 10.1126/science.aau6592. Link to Science webpage

  1. 16.Katavouta, A., R.G. Williams, P. Goodwin and V. Roussenov, 2018. Reconciling   atmospheric and oceanic views of the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 6205-6214, PDF

          See layperson summary

  1. 17.Goodwin, P., A. Katavouta, V.M. Roussenov, G.L. Foster, E.J. Rohling and R.G. Williams,2018. Pathways to 1.5C and  2C warming based on observational and geological constraints. Nature Geoscience, 11, 102-107, doi: 10.1038/s41561-017-0054-8. PDF

       See NERC Planet Earth article for spring/summer 2018. PDF

       See layperson summary 

       See Press release  

       See linked poster at Ocean Science

  1. 18.Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, T.L. Froelicher and P. Goodwin, 2017. Drivers of continued surface warming after cessation of carbon emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, PDF

        See layperson summary

        See Research Feature article on our work (‘Oceans as moderators of the carbon cycle and

        our climate’, published 29 November 2017)

  1. 19.Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, P. Goodwin, L. Resplandy and L. Bopp, 2017. Sensitivity of

          global warming to carbon emissions: effects of heat and carbon uptake in a 

          suite of Earth system models.  Journal of  Climate, 30, 9343-9363,

          doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0468.1. PDF

          See layperson summary

  1. 20.Lauderdale, J.M., R.G. Williams, D.R. Munday and D.P. Marshall, 2017. The impact of Southern Ocean residual upwelling on atmospheric CO2 on centennial and millennial timescales. Climate Dynamics, 48, 1611-1631. doi: 10.1007/s00382-016-3163-y. PDF

          See layperson summary

  1. 21.Lozier M.S., Bacon S., Bower A.S., Cunningham S.A., de Jong M.F., de Steur L., DeYoung B., Fischer J., Gary S.F., Greenan B.J.W., Heimbach P., Holliday N.P., Houpert L., Inall M.E., Johns W.E., Johnson H.L., Karstensen J., Li F., Lin X, Mackay N, Marshall D.P., Mercier H, Myers P.G., Pickart R.S., Pillar H.R., Straneo F., Thierry V., Weller R.A., Williams R.G., Wilson C., Yang J., Zhao J. and Zika J.D., 2017. Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program: a new international ocean observing system. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 737-752. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0057.1.

  1. 22.Woodworth, P.L., M.A. Morales Maqueda, W.R. Gehrels, V.M. Roussenov, R.G. Williams, and C.W. Hughes, 2016. Variations in the difference between mean sea level measured either side of Cape Hatteras and their relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climate Dynamics, 49, 2451-2469, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3464-1. PDF

  1. 23.Lauderdale, J.M., S. Dutkiewicz, R.G. Williams and M.J. Follows, 2016. Quantifying  the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, 983-999, doi:10.1002/2016GB005400. PDF

  1. 24.Rogan, N., E.P. Achterberg, F.A.C. Le Moigne, C. Marsay, A. Tagliabue and R.G. Williams, 2016. Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 2732-2740, doi/10.1002/2016GL067905.

  1. 25.Williams, R.G., P. Goodwin, V.M. Roussenov and L. Bopp, 2016. A framework to understand the Transient Climate Response to Emissions. Environmental Research Letters, 11, Focus on Cumulative Emissions, Global Carbon Budgets and the Implications for Climate Mitigation Targets, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015003. PDF

         See layperson summary

  1. 26.Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, M.S. Lozier and D. Smith, 2015. Mechanisms of heat content and thermocline change in the subtropical and subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 28, 24, 9803-9815, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0097.1. PDF

          See layperson summary

  1. 27.Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams and A. Ridgwell, 2015. Sensitivity of climate to cumulative carbon emissions due to compensation of ocean heat and carbon uptake. Nature Geoscience, 8, 29-34, doi:10.1038/ngeo2304. PDF


        See layperson summary

        See linked article The Conversation, 2 December 2014.

        See linked poster at poster_warming_carbon_agu_2014.pdf

  1. 28.Barton, A.D., M.S. Lozier and R.G. Williams, 2015. Physical controls of variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities. Limnology and Oceanography, 60,1, 181-197, doi:10.1002/lno.10011. PDF

  1. 29.Woodworth, P.L., M.A. Morales Maqueda, V.M. Roussenov, R.G. Williams and C.W. Hughes, 2014. Mean sea-level variability along the northeast American Atlantic coast and the roles of the wind and overturning circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2014JC010520. PDF

  1. 30.Tagliabue, A., R.G. Williams, N. Rogan, E.P. Achterberg and P. Boyd, 2014. A ventilation-based  framework to explain the regeneration-scavenging balance of iron on the Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 7227-7236, doi: 10.1002/2014GL061066. PDF

  1. 31.Reynolds, S., C. Mahaffey, V. Roussenov and R.G. Williams, 2014.  Evidence for production and lateral transport of dissolved organic phosphorus in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, 805-824, doi:10.1002/2013GB004801. PDF

  1. 32.Barton, A.D., B.A. Ward, R.G. Williams and M.J. Follows, 2014. The impact of fine-scale turbulence on phytoplankton community structure. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments, 4, 34-49. doi: 10.1215/21573689-2651533  PDF

  1. 33.Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, D. Smith and M.S. Lozier, 2014. Decadal evolution of ocean thermal anomalies in the North Atlantic: the effects of Ekman, overturning, and horizontal transport. Journal of Climate, 27, 2, 698-719. PDF 

         see layperson summary

  1. 34.Kenitz, K., R.G. Williams, J. Sharples, O. Selsol and V.N. Biktashev, 2013. The paradox of the plankton: species competition and nutrient feedback sustain phytoplankton diversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 490, 107-119. doi: 10.3354/meps10452  PDF

  1. 35.Badin, G., R.G. Williams, Z. Jing and L. Wu, 2013. Water-mass transformation in the Southern Ocean diagnosed from observations: contrasting effects of air-sea fluxes and diapycnal mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 43, 7, 1472-1484. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0216.1  PDF

  1. 36.Lauderdale, J.M., A.C. Naveira Garabato, K.I.C. Oliver, M.J. Follows and R.G. Williams, 2013. Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO2. Climate Dynamics, 41,7-8,2145-2164. doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1650-3. PDF

          See layperson summary

  1. 37.Hall, R. A., J. M. Huthnance, and R. G. Williams, 2013. Internal wave reflection on shelf slopes with depth-varying stratification. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 43, 248-258. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-0192.1.  PDF

  1. 38.Williams, R.G., P. Goodwin, A. Ridgwell and P.L. Woodworth, 2012. How warming and steric sea level rise relate to cumulative carbon emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L19715. doi:10.1029/2012GL052771. PDF

  1. 39.Williams, R.G., 2012. Centennial warming of ocean boundary currents. Nature Climate Change, News and Views, 2, 149-150. PDF

  1. 40.Woodworth, P.L., Foden, P.R., Jones, D.S., Pugh, J., Holgate, S.J., Hibbert, A., Blackman, D.L., Bellingham, C.R., Roussenov, V.M. and Williams, R.G. 2012. Sea level changes at Ascension Island in the last half century. African Journal of Marine Science, 34, 443–452, doi:10.2989/1814232X.2012.689623. PDF

  1. 41.Williams, R.G., 2011. Ocean eddies and plankton blooms. Nature Geoscience, News and Views, 4, 11, 739-740. PDF

  1. 42.Williams, R.G., E. McDonagh, V.M. Roussenov, S. Torres-Valdes, B. King, R. Sanders and D.A. Hansell, 2011. Nutrient streams in the North Atlantic: Advective pathways of inorganic and organic nutrients. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB4008, doi:10.1029/2010GB003853, 16 pages. PDF

  1. 43.Palter, J.B., M.S. Lozier, J.L. Sarmiento and R.G. Williams, 2011. The supply of excess phosphate across the Gulf Stream and the maintenance of subtropical nitrogen fixation. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB4007, doi:10.1029/2010GB003955, 14 pages. PDF

  1. 44.Hall, R., J. Huthnance and R.G. Williams, 2011. Internal tides, nonlinear internal wave trains and mixing in the Faroe-Shetland Channel. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, C03008, doi:10.1029/2010JC006213 (15 pages). PDF

  1. 45.Badin, G., R.G. Williams and J. Sharples, 2010. Water-mass transformation in the shelf seas. Journal of Marine Research, 68, 189-214. PDF

  1. 46.Wilson, C., B. Sinha and R.G. Williams, 2010. The shaping of storm tracks by mountains and ocean dynamics. Weather, 65, 12, 320-323. PDF

  1. 47. Lozier, M.S., V. Roussenov, M.S.C. Reed and R.G. Williams, 2010.  Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Nature Geoscience,728-734. Link for personal copy .

  1. 48. Hickman, A.E., S. Dutkiewicz, R.G. Williams and M.J. Follows, 2010. Modelling the effects of chromatic adaptation on phytoplankton community structure in the oligotrophic environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 406, 1--17, Feature Article. PDF

  1. 49.Badin, G. and R.G. Williams, 2010. On the buoyancy forcing and residual circulation in the Southern Ocean: the feedback from Ekman and eddy transfer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 40, 295-310. PDF

  1. 50. Badin, G., R.G. Williams, J.T. Holt and L.J. Fernand, 2009. Are mesoscale eddies in shelf seas formed by baroclinic instability of tidal fronts? Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C10021, doi:10.1029/2009JC005340. PDF

  1. 51.Torres-Valdes, S., V. Roussenov, R. Sanders, S. Reynolds, X. Pan, R. Mather, A. Landolfi, G.A. Wolff, E.P. Achterberg and R.G. Williams, 2009. Distribution of dissolved organic nutrients and their effect on export production over the Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2008GB003389. PDF .

  1. 52.Wilson, C., B. Sinha and R. G. Williams, 2009. The effect of ocean dynamics and orography on atmospheric storm tracks. Journal of Climate, 22, 13, 2389-3702. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2651.1. PDF

  1. 53.Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams, A. Ridgwell and M.J. Follows, 2009. Climate sensitivity to the carbon cycle modulated by past and future changes in ocean chemistry. Nature Geosciences, doi:10.1038/ngeo416. Link for personal copy .

  1. 54.Goodwin, P., M.J. Follows and R.G. Williams, 2008. Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions and ocean processes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB3030, doi:10.1029/2008GB003184. PDF

  1. 55.Mather, R.L., S.E. Reynolds, G.A. Wolff, R.G. Williams, S. Torres-Valdes, E.M.S. Woodward, A. Landolfi, X. Pan, R. Sanders and E.P. Achterberg, 2008. Phosphorus cycling in the North and South Atlantic Ocean subtropical gyres. Nature Geosciences, 1, July 2008, 439-443, doi:10.1038/ngeo232. Link for personal copy .

  1. 56.Lozier, S., S. Leadbetter, R.G. Williams, V. Roussenov, M.S.C. Reed and N.J. Moore, 2008. The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat content change in the North Atlantic. Science, 319, 5864, 800-803, doi: 10.1126/science.1146436. Link for personal copy

  1. 57.Roussenov, V., R.G. Williams, C.W. Hughes and R.J. Bingham, 2008. Boundary wave communication of bottom pressure and overturning changes for the North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C08042, doi:10.1029/2007JC004501. PDF

  1. 58.Bingham, R.J., C.W. Hughes, V. Roussenov and R.G. Williams, 2007. Meridional coherence of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L23606, doi:10.1029/2007GL031731. PDF

  1. 59.Reynolds, S.E., R.L. Mather, G.A. Wolff, R.G. Williams, A. Llandolfi, R. Sanders and E.M.S. Woodward, 2007: How widespread and important is N2 fixation in the North Atlantic Ocean? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB4015, doi:10.1029/2006GB002886. PDF

  1. 60.Leadbetter, S.J., R.G. Williams, E.L. McDonagh and B.A. King, 2007: A twenty year reversal in water mass trends in the subtropical North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L12608, doi:10.1029/2007GL029957. PDF

  1. 61.Williams, R.G., C. Wilson and C.W. Hughes, 2007: Ocean and atmosphere storm tracks: the role of eddy forcing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37, 2267-2289. PDF

  1. 62.Goodwin, P., R.G. Williams, M.J. Follows and S. Dutkiewicz, 2007: Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/GB002810. PDF

  1. 63.Robinson C et al. including Williams RG and 10 others, 2006: The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Programme: a contextual view 1995 – 2005. Deep-Sea Research II, 53,(14-16), 1485-1515. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.05.015.

  1. 64.Jackson, L, C.W. Hughes and R.G. Williams, 2006: Topographic control of basin and channel flows: the role of bottom pressure torques and friction. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36, 1786-1805. PDF

  1. 65.Roussenov, V., R.G. Williams, C. Mahaffey and G.A. Wolff, 2006: Does the transport of dissolved organic nutrients affect export production in the Atlantic Ocean? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, doi:10.1029/2005GB00210. PDF

  1. 66.Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov and M.J. Follows, 2006: Nutrient Streams and their induction into the mixed layer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB1016, doi: 10.1029/2005GB002586 (18 pages). PDF

  1. 67.Wilson, C. and R.G. Williams, 2006: When are eddy tracer fluxes directed down gradient? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36, 2, 189-201. PDF

  1. 68.Roussenov, V., R.G. Williams, M.J. Follows, and R.M. Key, 2004: Role of bottom water transport and diapycnic mixing in determining the radiocarbon distribution in the Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C06015, doi:10.1029/2003JC002188 (18 pages). PDF

  1. 69.Mahaffey, C., R.G. Williams, G.A. Wolff and W. Anderson, 2004: The physical supply of nutrients to phytoplankton in the Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, GB1034, doi:10.1029/2003GB002129 (12 pages). PDF

  1. 70.Wilson, C. and R.G. Williams, 2004: Why are eddy fluxes of potential vorticity difficult to parameterise? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34, 1, 142-155. PDF

  1. 71.Mahaffey, C., R.G. Williams, G.A. Wolff, N. Mahowald, W. Anderson and M. Woodward, 2003: Biogeochemical signatures of nitrogen fixation in the eastern North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, vol 30, No. 6, doi:10.1029/2002GL016542 (4 pages). PDF

  1. 72.Williams, R.G. and V. Roussenov, 2003: The role of sloping boundaries in forming potential vorticity contrasts in the ocean interior. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33, 633-648. PDF

  1. 73.Roussenov, V., R.G. Williams and J.E. O'Dwyer, 2002: Formation of low potential vorticity over the deep Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 1811-1823. PDF

  1. 74.Williams, R.G., K. Day, V. Roussenov and R. Woods, 2002: The role of the overturning circulation in determining the potential vorticity over the abyssal ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, C10, 3170, doi:10.1029/2001JC001094. PDF

  1. 75.McLaren, A.J. and R.G. Williams, 2001: Interannual variations in the thermodynamics of subduction over the North Atlantic. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 11, 3284-3294. PDF

  1. 76.Roussenov, V., R.G. Williams and W. Roether, 2001: Comparing the overflow of dense water in isopycnic and cartesian models with tracer observations in the eastern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Research part 1, 48/5, 1255-1277. PDF

  1. 77.Lee, M.M. and R.G. Williams, 2000: The role of eddies in the isopycnic transfer of nutrients and their impact on biological production. Journal of Marine Research, 58, 895-917. PDF

  1. 78.O'Dwyer, J.E., R.G. Williams, J. Lacasce and K. Speer, 2000: Does the potential vorticity distribution constrain the spreading of floats in the North Atlantic? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30, 721-732. PDF

  1. 79.Stratford, K., R.G. Williams, and P. Myers, 2000: The impact of the circulation on sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 683-695. PDF

  1. 80.Williams, R.G., A.J McLaren and M.J. Follows, 2000: Estimating the convective supply of nitrate and implied variability in export production over the North Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 1299-1313. PDF

  1. 81.Marshall, D.P., R.G. Williams and M.-M. Lee, 1999: The relation between eddy-induced transport and isopycnic gradients of potential vorticity. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 1571-1578. PDF

  1. 82.Nurser, A.J.G., R.A. Marsh and R.G. Williams, 1999: Diagnosing formation rates of water masses from air-sea fluxes and surface mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 1468-1487. PDF

  1. 83.Williams, R.G. and M. Pennington, 1999: Combining altimetry with a thermocline model to examine the transport over the North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, C8, 18269-18280. PDF

  1. 84.Williams, R.G. and M.J. Follows, 1998: Eddies make ocean deserts bloom. Nature,'News and Views', 394, 228-229.

  1. 85.Williams, R.G. and M.J. Follows, 1998: The Ekman transfer of nutrients and maintenance of new production over the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, 45, 461-489. PDF

  1. 86.Stratford, K., R.G. Williams and P.G. Drakopoulos, 1998: Estimating climatological age from a model derived oxygen-age relationship in the Mediterranean. Journal of Marine Systems, 18, 215-226. PDF

  1. 87.Lee, M.-M., D.P. Marshall and R.G. Williams, 1997: On the eddy transfer of tracers: diffusive or advective? Journal of Marine Research, 55, 3, 1-24. PDF.

  1. 88.O'Dwyer, J. and R.G. Williams, 1997: The climatological distribution of potential vorticity over the abyssal ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 2488-2505. PDF

  1. 89.Stratford, K. and R.G. Williams, 1997: A tracer study of the formation, dispersal and renewal of Levantine Intermediate Water. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 12539-12549. PDF .

  1. 90.Follows, M.J., R.G. Williams, and J.C. Marshall, 1996: The Solubility pump of Carbon in the Subtropical Gyre of the North Atlantic. Journal of Marine Research, 54, 4, 605-630. PDF.

  1. 91.Hood, S. and R.G. Williams, 1996: On frontal and ventilated models of the main thermocline. Journal of Marine Research, 54, 2, 211-238. Abstract.

  1. 92.Williams, R.G., M.A. Spall and J.C. Marshall, 1995: Does Stommel's Mixed-Layer `Demon' work? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 3089-3102. PDF

  1. 93.Lascaratos, A., R.G. Williams, and E. Tragou, 1993: A Mixed-layer Study of the Formation of Levantine Intermediate Water. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, C8, 14739-14749. PDF

  1. 94.Marshall, J.C., A.J.G. Nurser, and R.G. Williams, 1993: Inferring the Subduction Rate and Period over the North Atlantic. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23, 1315-1329. PDF

  1. 95.Williams, R.G., 1991: The Role of the Mixed Layer in Setting the Potential Vorticity of the Main Thermocline. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 21, 1803-1814. PDF

  1. 96.Nurser, A.J.G. and R.G. Williams, 1990: Cooling the Parsons' Model of the Separated Gulf Stream. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 20, 1974-1979. PDF

  1. 97.Williams, R.G., 1989: The Influence of Air-Sea Interaction on the Ventilated Thermocline. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19, 1255-1267. PDF

  1. 98.Williams, R.G., 1988: Modification of Ocean Eddies by Air-Sea Interaction. Journal of Geophysical Research, 93, 15523-15533. PDF