Sailing Directions from Point Lynas to Liverpool


Here is a transcript of the 1840 sailing directions to the Dee Estuary. Original spellings are retained, direction is given as magnetic bearings (variation 26° west); some fractions have been rewritten as decimals. Page numbers, illustrations and appendices refer to the original.
See original images.

For information on the Rock and Horse Channels, Helbre Swash and more on Lighthouses and the Northwest Lightship: see here

Denham's chart (sketch for orientation, East up) of the Dee:



It should be premised that the flats extend 5 miles westward of the bar. The bar means that ridge indication which, in an under-water shelf of 9 and 12 feet depth, unites the western extremity of the West Hoyle Bank (that stretches across the month of the Dee) with the western spit of Middle Patch; which patch is more or less connected with the main flat shore in 6 and 9 feet knowls and ridges of sand, mixed with fine gravel and shells. This inshore nest of shoals range off 3.5 miles from Rhyl, (a town on the eastern point of the Voryd,) abreast of which the outer margin of these Chester Flats is marked, where the tail of Middle Patch unites, by a 'can-buoy,' chequered black and white, with perch, (marked N.W. Patch,) a very important buoy in thick weather, as guarding the rounding or crossing point of 8 feet danger, when approaching the Voryd entrance from the northward; but should it be adrift, you are cleared by bringing St. Asaph's Cathedral and Rhyddlan Church in one, bearing south.
  The Voryd (united with the Clywd) breaks into the sea through the marshes of Rhyddlan 7 miles westward of Point of Air, taking a tortuous course to low-water mark of a mile outlay; the gutter is denoted by four black log-buoys on the eastern hand, and two perches on the western; each changed in position, but in same order, as the course fluctuates. It is immediately round the western point of entrance that a small quay is erected, affording shelter and good layer, with 13 feet at high-water springs, and 9 at neaps. Small craft get in at 4 hours' flood, and track up to Rhyddlan-bridge, lying two miles on a south trend. The principal intercourse is by steamer from Liverpool, with passengers and goods, for the watering town of Rhyl, and those proceeding to Conway and Bangor through Abergayle. The steamers, by managing to leave Liverpool at three-quarter ebb in strong westerly gales, or at low water in moderate weather, pass along shore by Hoylake, Helbre, and Point of Air, to arrive at high water, before which it is scarcely approachable. The tide here flows upon full and change 10:37, rising, in the bed of river abreast of jetty, 15 feet on equinoctial springs, 13 ordinary springs, and 11 upon neaps; and its entrance, opening on line of shore, is rendered to the eye by a telegraph and large farm, situated on the western point of the entrance.

Chester Bar

Chester Bar, before defined, lies upon the following relative bearings and distances, viz. from
Point Lynas S by E 1/4E ... 28 miles.
Great Ormshead E by S 1/2 S ... 12.5 miles.
Voryd Telegraph NE 1/4 E ... 5 miles
Voel Nante Telegraph .N by W ... 5miles
N.W. Light-ship W 1/4 S ... 7.5 miles
Point of Air-Lighthouse. NW 1/4 N ... 5.75 miles

These bearings refer to the Bar Buoy; a large black nun-buoy, marked 'Bar' which lies in 12 feet at low water, denoting the northern danger-side of the bar, and the western spit of West Hoyle, to clear which (if rounding from the northward and eastward when the buoy may be adrift) you have a sensitive leading-mark afforded, by bringing a remarkable blue peak, many miles inland, on with the western slope of Moel Hira Hill, bearing S.3/4W. [view K], and hauling in across the bar directly the Point of Air Lighthouse bears S.E. upon which bearing, the southern shoulder of Heswell Hill should appear a sail's breadth (1 point, or 11°) open northeastward of the Lighthouse (F1) [view L]. These marks or buoy will guard you from that fatally-remote sand called 'Blaney Patch,' or bank, upon which the Lord Blaney, steamer, was wrecked, with all hands, in December, 1833, on the night the N.W. Light-ship was driven from her moorings: whilst, however, She retains her station, you are clear of all (within the range of her lights) so long as Crosby Light (red) is open to the northward of her, say a handspike's length, i.e. 1/4 of a point, or 2° on the sextant. Besides Point of Air Light, the Trinity Board provide 26 buoys in this estuary, 14 of which, as a part of my recommendation in 1835, were added in June, 1836, and 2 more in March, 1838. - [See Notices in Appendix.,]

NW entry to Dee (Welch Channel)

The principal features serving to identify this N.E. shoulder of Flintshire, and forming the main-land margin of the Welch Channel, are, first, the smoking ore works of Tal-y-goch, abruptly rising from a long plain in the west; then Gwanysgaer Height (694 feet altitude); then, a mile eastward, Voel Nante Telegraph (777 feet altitude); and 1/3 of a mile on same profile, further eastward, 'St. Elmos' white summer-house (787 feet altitude); and, on the slope of the continuous ridge 1.5 mile, still eastward, fronts you, upon a north-western aspect, the noble free-stone coloured mansion of Sir Edward Mostyn, Bart, called Talacre. It is on the highwater shore between, but beneath the two last-named objects, St. Elmos and Talacre, that the life-boat house, etc. (belonging to the Liverpool Dock Trust establishment) presents itself, at 1.75 mile west of the lighthouse. Off this boat-house, and the whole line of flat coast-line, the low-water shore outlays in send-beach 1/2 a mile, upon a fair trend of west, to Rhyl. This flat strand may be said to connect itself with the bar and West Hoyle, in twelve and six-feet flats, upon which lies that dangerous ridge and spits, known as the 'middle Patch' and 'Earwig.' This ridge springs out from the low-water shore directly under, and due north of, St. Elmos; the twisting spit at its inner extreme is called the 'Earwig,' and is marked by a chequered black and white nun-buoy, between which and the main, coasters pass in 12 feet water at one-quarter flood, but there is as little as 6 feet at low water. The buoy and spit-end lie in 3 feet water, and is but 1/3 of a mile from low-water mark: from this buoy, the Middle Patch begins to dry up 2 feet, at 1/2 of a mile N.W. upon which trend it ranges, at 1/4 of a mile wide, for 1.5 mile, and then flattens off to the N.W. by W. in 6 and 10 feet water for 3 miles further, where it is marked by the perched canbuoy, chequered black and white, already described.

Anchorages: Mostyn Deep, Wild Road, Dawpool

It is between the Middle Patch and west end of West Hoyle that the Welch Channel into the Dee is formed, deepening inwards from the bar to as much as 12 fathoms at low water, and preserving a width of 3/4 of a mile up to and round Point of Air, until the lighthouse bears W. by N.1/3N. when the apparently broad waters of the estuary (3 and 4 miles at high water) are divided into three channels or deeps, viz. Mostyn Deep, Salisbury Gut, and Dalpool Deep, neither of which lead to any landing-place at low water.
  Nor is Dalpool approachable at all, until one-quarter flood, being encompassed by a ridge of sand called Salisbury Bank, which stretches for 2 miles a 1/4 of a mile wide, and drying up 8 and 10 feet in the line of stream, directly midway between shore and shore; its upper end unites in a run of sand with the upper or eastern shoulder of Great Salisbury Bank, shutting in Dalpool by a bar of but 3 and 4 feet water, called Salisbury Bar, and its lower end unites round in 6 and 3 feet flats with the southern shoulder of 'West Hoyle' and 'Lime Wharf,' off Helbre Island, thus rendering Dalpool actually a pool during 3 hours upon every spring tide; but as it retains 3 to 4 fathoms at low water, good holding ground, it is resorted to as a tide-stopping place, and, indeed, as a refuge under strong north-easters, being accessible from Liverpool Bay up Helbre Swash; moreover, vessels consigned to Chester transfer their cargoes to flats from this anchorage.
  Salisbury Deep is formed by the Salisbury Bank (described above) on the east and Great Salisbury Bank on the west, and will only be referred to as a channel to Dalpool at tide time. 'Mostyn Deep' lies between the Great Salisbury Bank and low-water margin of Mostyn shore, which shore trends south from Point of Air, outlaying high-water mark 1.25 mile, composed of sand and mud. The Great Salisbury or middle Bank is of hard sand, drying up 18 feet above low-water level, stretching diagonally towards Point of Air, from the very throat of the low-water estuary, viz. abreast of Parkgate, beginning with a breadth of 1 mile and continuously at half-a-mile, for a five-mile trend, and abruptly terminating in 4 fathoms water, with a perched can (chequered black and white) buoy, denoting its termination, and bearing from the lighthouse E.S.E. 1.75 mile; upon which line the main low-water shore outlays the lighthouse 1 mile, and is guarded by a red nun-buoy, (marked S.E. Air).
  It is immediately between and above the line of these two buoys, that the much resorted-to anchorage of Wild Road is situated; in fact, the whole 3 miles of Mostyn Deep, of which Wild Road is the entrance, affords excellent shelter for any number or size of ships; the ground is good, the water averaging 6 fathoms, the working room from side to side better than 1/3 of a mile, with a near breakwater to the N.E. and S.E. in Great Salisbury, and the whole north and north-western aspect covered by West Hoyle, which stretches right across and overlaps the western point of the Dee estuary, being a 7-mile continuous sand by 2 broad, and drying up, above low-water level, 17 feet. The strength of tide in Wild Road does not exceed 3.5 knots, and it is quite easy of access after crossing Chester Bar, already alluded to, 7 miles below, and which we will proceed to do, merely premising that the system of buoyage, like the Mersey, denotes by letters and figures the ground they occupy: the red buoys guard the starboard hand when running in; the black buoys the larboard hand; and those chequered, or with perch, mark such middle banks and spits as may be passed on either hand upon the line of stream.   No distinct pilots hover about the bar; the Liverpool pilots are expected to take charge up to Wild Road and Dalpool, (pronounced Dawpool), where, as also at Helbre Island, Chester pilots may be got for the upper reaches, if bound to Mostyn, Bagillt, Flint, or up Chester Cut.


The Liverpool tide-gauge table, at
page 24 of this book, will apply to this navigation by deducting 2 feet water from the results of that table, if on the ebb tide, and adding 2 feet if on the flood. It is high water at full and change at Point of Air, 10:44.; equinoctial springs rise 31 feet; ordinary springs, 28 feet; and neaps, 22 feet. The half-tide level datum is 15.5 feet.

Chester bar at night

To cross Chester Bar and proceed into Wild Road anchorage at night, it must be a leading wind, unless after half-flood, when you may work in over Middle Patch in 13 feet; your chief guidance being an expert lead, never bringing the light southward of S.E. nor stand on for a moment after shoaling your water to the northward, the Hoyle Bank being so steep-to; but prefer the main, which shelves off until you arrive within the limits of the red and lower light, when the main sands are as abrupt; with a beating or slant wind, however, it is sure to be free from swell, and you may borrow until shoaling a cast. With a leading wind your first care is to bring Point of Air Light S.E. and right a-head; you will shoal gradually from 5 and 6 fathoms, 2 miles outside, to 2 fathoms on the bar, when Crosby Light (red) will have opened 1/2 a point southward of the N.W. Light-ship; it occupies but an instant in crossing, being but a cable's run, when you deepen 3 feet and 6, continuing to do so until you have run 2 miles, when your water will shoal up again to 2 fathoms; a few casts, whilst crossing the edge of a flat which stretches 1/2 a mile from the West Hoyle into the Welch Channel, where you now are, and as soon as you deepen again, haul up from S.E. to E. by S.1/2 S. to avoid closing with the the main, (F2) when you will soon find yourself losing the upper briqht light, and the lower-chamber red light opening out, with 11 and 12 fathoms under you; observe when the red light masks or bears S.W. and haul S.S.E.1/4E. edging gradually to a south course, which will bring on shelving soundings off main shore on your starboard hand, and any time after the principal light (upper and bright) bears N.W. you may round to the eastward and let go your anchor in 8 fathoms, stiff ground, in Wild Road, sheltered from all sea that, even at high water, could affect 'ground tackle,' and from whence, in daylight, you can, if so bound, proceed to Liverpool at half-flood, by way of Hoylake, the wind being leading so long as any westing is in it.

Chester Bar by Day

To cross Chester Bar with daylight, you have the bearing-course and Heswell Land in conjunction with Point of Air Lighthouse, viz. the lighthouse open of the southern shoulder a good sail's breadth, i.e. one point of the compass, or 11° on the sextant, and bearing S.E. [view L]. This line of direction will carry you two cables southward of the black nun bar-buoy, and you will be on the shoalest part (12 feet low-water springs) directly the buoy draws on your larboard quarter, bearing south, and the long line of heavy breakers trending N.W. abeam of you from the dry high-back of West Hoyle over your larboard cat-head, with the short breakers of Middle Patch on your starboard beam and bow, will at once point out the channel water, giving the chequered black and white nun-buoy of Earwig, a broad berth of a mile to the southward, bringing the lighthouse a point on the starboard bow as you advance, and looking out for the next buoy, a red nun (marked Air), which guards the steep low-water edge of sand beach 1/2 a mile directly off (N.E.) the lighthouse in 4 fathoms; passing this buoy on the starboard beam and keeping away S.S.E.1/4E. another red nun-buoy (marked S.E. Air) will appear, and must also be left on the starboard hand. This buoy lies in 2.5 fathoms, close to the low-water margin of main shore. Your course now will according as depend on your intention, whether bound to Wild Road anchorage merely, to Mostyn Quay, or to Flint Reach and Chester Cut, by way of Mostyn Deep; or intending to bring up in Dalpool: if the latter, you must be sure it is not earlier than half-flood, nor later than half-ebb, according to which you should bring up abreast of S.E. Air Buoy, to enable you to weather the spit of Great Salisbury on the flood time. If for Wild Road, then edge from S.E. Air Buoy south, leaving the perched black and white chequered buoy (marked 'Saly- Mid.') two cables on your larboard hand, and bringing up, as soon as the lighthouse bears N. W. From this position you can drop up Mostyn Deep for smoother water, on a S.E. by S. course, for 2.5 miles, by merely keeping between the black buoys which guard the edge of Great Salisbury, and the red on the margin of the main low-water shore, called 'Mostyn Bank;' but I would not go higher than the red buoy, (marked M 2).
  The previous red buoy (M 1) guards the low-water edge of main, and points out the entrance to Mostyn Gut, an artificial channel of 1 mile long, direct up Mostyn Bank to a quay, at right angles to the deep upon a trend of W.S.W. This channel is marked along its southern or larboard-hand edge by broom-headed perches, admitting two vessels only abreast, and affording but 5 feet water up to the quay at 5 hours' flood; nor exceeding 12 feet upon springs and 6 upon neaps, high-water, alongside the coal stages. Mostyn Quay is situated 3 miles S. by E.1/4E. of Point of Air, on the western shore of the Dee, and immediately connected with the turnpike-road which skirts the adjoining hills, and winds along the highwater mark from Flint, Bagillt, Dee-bank Quay, Greenfield, and Llanack-y-mor, all smelting stations; each of which are so remote from the main channel course, (the Bagillt Bank driving it off 2 miles,) that but spring tides afford direct shipments from their several jetties. Mostyn Quay, therefore, may be called the principal shipping place below trading Chester Cut, and it does ship off, in vessels of 100 and 120 tons, quantities of coal and metal, and can accommodate, in a dock, from 20 to 25 vessels at a time, in 12 feet water. High water, full and change 10:40. Liverpool steamers, by leaving at two hours flood, can make a pretty direct passage to Mostyn Quay down the Rock Channel, through Hoylake, and through a four-feet swatchway which divides the southern shoulder of West Hoyle from Salisbury Bank, and marked by a red can-buoy, called 'Welchman's Gut,' which buoy must be left on the northern hand; or, if absent, bring Hoylake Parsonage (white) on with north end of Middle Helbre Island, (E.1/2N.) until the white toll-house at Mostyn Quay bears S.W.1/2S. when you can shape that course, and cut off the distance of rounding Great Salisbury Spit, by taking direct through Salisbury Swatchway, only taking care to give the black nun-buoy, which marks the deep side of swatch, half a cable berth on the southern hand; the same course, allowing a little for tide on beam, leads to entrance-buoy at Mostyn Gut. This swatch way having 10 feet at half-tide, and obviating the rounding of Salisbury Spit against a flood-tide, is often the means of a steamer effecting a landing and shipment on the same tide, by the saving of time alone.

Further in to western side of Dee Estuary

Should you be bound to Dee-bank Quay, or Bagillt, or Flint Jetty, from the Mostyn Deep anchorage, you can proceed up the deep E by S 1/2S. from M 2, red, and at the distance of 1 mile, the spit buoy of Bug Swash, a nun, with perch, and chequered red and white, M 3. This buoy marks the fork-spit which divides the course of the remainder, or cul de sac, of Mostyn Deep from Bug Swash. Bug Swash is a crooked narrow half-tideway, connecting Mostyn Deep with Flint Deep, of only a cable wide, and upon a changeable trend of SSE 3 miles long. Three buoys partially mark its course; 2 black, B 1 and B 2, point out the two steep-edge curves of Great Salisbury on the eastern hand, and above them, on the western hand, is a red buoy, M 3, guarding the eastern elbow of Bagillt Bank, which here outlays the high-water mark 2 miles. Between these two last buoys, and, indeed, abreast of B 1, pools of 2 fathoms are retained at low water; but intervening shallows of 5 feet will permit coasters to traverse the swash until two hours' flood, and then beware of the protruding elbows, as the tide rushes 5 and 6 knots.
  This swash extends 3/4 of a mile S. by E. from the red buoy B 3, carrying but 6 feet, and concluding in 2 feet water at the fork-spit of Great Salisbury, where the river-course ascends in S.S.W. trend to Flint Castle, prominent to view at 3 miles distance; and like all the other jetty places on this western shore of Dee, conspicuous by tall smelting chimneys. This course of 3 miles is literally up the inclined Flint Deep gutter-bed of the river-water, without any tidal water between four hours' ebb and two hours' flood: it is scarcely a cable wide, but is assisted by 2 buoys; a red one (marked Elbow) the first mile denoting the edge of Bagillt Bank on the west, and a black buoy (marked Flint) the second mile, denoting the edge of 'Neston Sands,' on the east side. Of course these variable channels, Bug Swash and Flint Gutter, can only be navigated by local coasters, either to the entrance of Chester Cut, or to Flint Jetty, where 16 feet on springs, and 8 upon neaps, enable tidal intercourse, flowing upon full and change 10:51.
  The gutter, which connects with the main channel, sweeps Dee-bank Wharf, and pours over Bagillt Bank for 2 miles, in a southern curve from the junction-fork of Bug Swash and Flint Deep; it is marked at its entrance and on its south edge by broom-head perches, that are changed in position, but in the same order, as the gutter varies; and at 1/2 a mile from high-water mark, a branch gutter is forced by a fence up to Bagillt Quay, where small craft can lie and take in coal, pig lead, or land ore, etc.; the approach admitting 4 feet water between three-quarter flood and first-quarter ebb, during which time a ferry-boat generally effects a trip to and fro with passengers and cattle, between Bagillt and Parkgate, a much resorted-to bathing-place, lying directly across the estuary on the Cheshire shore, upon the bearing of E.1/2 N. 3.5 miles; 1 mile above which (Denhall), the estuary is indeed fordable direct to Flint Castle from half-ebb to half-flood.

Eastern side of Dee

Since we anchored abreast of S.E. Buoy off Point of Air, the western branch of the Dee navigation has been availed of, and all its connecting gutters, with the shipping places up to Flint, described. We will now proceed from the same tide-stopping anchorage up by Salisbury Gut Bar and Dalpool to Parkgate or Flint. Now, if 12 feet water will answer your draft, you may weigh at two hours' flood, when you will not find less than 14 feet between all the buoys. Your first care is to pass a cable's length northward of the perched black and white chequered buoy, (marked ' Saly- Mid.') which points out the fork-spit that divides Salisbury Gut from Mostyn Deep, bearing from Buoy ('S.E. Air') E. This gut trends S.S.E.3/4E. 2.5 miles, carrying 4 and 5 fathoms at low water; it is 1/4 of a mile wide at the upper and narrowest part, with a black can-buoy guarding its eastern side (marked 'Saly- Bk') and lying upon the steep western elbow of the Salisbury Bank; leaving that buoy on the larboard hand, another buoy, black and white chequered, presents itself, (marked 'Saly Bar,') at once denoting the southern extreme of Bank and the north end of Salisbury Bar, a red buoy (marked also Saly Bar), 3/4 of a mile SE of the chequered buoy, denotes the south end of this ridge or bar and by hauling eastward between them you are instantly in Dalpool Deep with an increase of 3 fathoms water and, if designing to take up anchorage: for shelter - shift of wind - to go down channel - or unloading into Flats - you should be prepared for rounding up to the northward and dropping anchor at once, before the five knot tide can hurry you up southward of the red bar buoy.   Here, with Kirby Church bearing NE by E and with Grange Mill just open of the cliff-end, nearly on same bearing, and 1 mile abreast of you, you will have 4 fathoms stiff ground, 1/3 of a mile swinging room, and protected even at high water from much cable straining by the projection of Lime Wharf and high part of West Hoyle, in the northern aspect, and the over-lapping of Salisbury Banks, to the westward. But if bound higher up to discharge a coaster's cargo in Parkgate Deep, you must keep a SE course which is the trend of the deep and course of stream; and 2/3 of a mile on the eastern hand, a black can buoy marked Cawdy, guards the low water projection of main shore, which here presents a patch and elbow feature of Skear or loose rocky bed, called Cawdy Blacks, exactly 1/2 a mile off the cliffs; giving this buoy a cable berth, on larboard hand, and still closing with the main upon a SE course, you come to a black and while can buoy, called Deeps; which on leaving close upon your starboard hand, and steering South and S by E (parallel to the cliffs 1/4 of a mile abreast) leads up Parkgate Deep where you may anchor in 14 feet at low water or drop up the in-shore gutter to Parkgate-terrace to lie in 4 feet water, or ground, as your object may propose.
  If, however, you are bound to Flint Deep, the Deeps buoy must be left on the larboard hand, steering S 1/2E, which will bring you to a red can buoy (marked Gt Saly) 1.25 mile farther up, lying at the eastern elbow of Great Salisbury, denoting the western side of this Flint Deep, where 12 feet water is retained at low water. From this buoy, your course of S by W will bring you up this, two cable wide, deep to another buoy, chequered red and white, (and marked Flint Deeps) 1 mile distant, guarding the western or starboard hand upon the SE elbow of the Great Salisbury, from whence a SW course, in 1/2 a mile run, brings you to the Fork spit Buoy, red nun with perch, which divides the Flint stream from the Bug Swatch; to which buoy our first route, up the western branch, brought us. It need only be remarked that courses and bearings given in our ascent, or inward-bounder, apply to the outward-bound craft, by simply reversing, for the ebb is subservient to the same channel-directed stream as the flood, with mutual exception, viz: the last quarter flood has tendency to draw over the southern margins of channels and the first quarter ebb to draw over the northern margins.

Helbre Swatch

There is another less tortuous and, to vessels from the northward, much shorter passage into the Dee. It has been fully described at page 89 as the Helbre Swatch; it will therefore suffice merely to revert to its leading features here: the best water on its bar is 10 feet at low water springs, 18 low water neaps, or 25 feet at half tide, but as the flats intercepting Dalpool do not admit 12 feet draft until two hours flood, the bar can only be considered as an impediment to vessels seeking shelter in a gale at north or west. The bar lies 3/4 of a mile S 1/2 E of the NW Light ship. It would be day-light, of course, as a single light bearing astern cannot guide you any distance between shoals. If thick weather, you have 3 quartered red and white nun buoys on the starboard hand and 3 black can buoys on the larboard, all marked HE, but if clear weather, the two Helbre Beacons represented in view J (and plate of elevation figures) brought in line (on bearing of S 1/2E) will lead you up until abreast of HE 3 red and white buoy, when you must haul south westward round to Mostyn Deep through the Welchman's Gut or, for Dalpool, upon a SSW course for two miles. The black nun buoy (marked Seldom Seen(F3)) guarding that patch of rock at the western elbow of the Helbre Strand called Lime wharf should appear on your larboard hand with Grange Mill and Kirby Church in one, bearing east; from thence haul SE for one mile which will place you at the same anchorage in Dalpool, a 1/4 of a mile NNW of Salisbury bar Buoy, red, already described and conducted to in page 115 [above].

Should you be too early upon tide, or mayhap on a falling tide, anchor when you have approached Helbre Island, so as to have the Upper Hoylake Lighthouse and Bidston Lighthouse in one, E by S 3/4 S or, when Hoylake Hotel locks with northern extreme of Helbre Island, bearing E by S 1/2 S, coaxing up as close as possible to the high shoulder of West Hoyle Bank which will be high up (17 feet above low water level) on your starboard hand affording you perfect shelter until half flood, when you will have 17 feet water into Hoylake! across to Mostyn Deep! or up to Dalpool.


F1: Point of Air Lighthouse (a London Trinity House Light) is situated at the rounding elbow of the western arm of the Dee estuary in latitude 53° 21' 26" N longitude 30° 19' 14" W forming the north eastern point of Flintshire. It stands very low close to high water mark, flanked by the continuous low sand hills which fringe Gronant Moor, extending one mile out from the heights. Its figure is that of a cylindrical thick set tower, with red top and painted in broad red and white courses alternately down to a basement which resembles an inverted saucer, the spring tide surf washing around it. Its light is of a fixed bright character and so masked as not to throw any light in the direction of the NW Light ship. It first fills all the Chester flats and bar region from W to NW by N when it pretty suddenly masks. It then fills all the Dee water space from Helbre Island E to SSE though, in order to assist coasters or any vessels rounding it in the Welsh Channel, whilst passing through the obscured portion of upper light, a red light is exhibited from a lower chamber 8 feet above high water level, but the upper reflectors are elevated above mean level of tide 63 feet, ranging 9 miles westward and visible 13 from a ship's deck.

F2: The stranger should be apprised, and the occasional trader reminded, of the deceptive effect of this line of coast at night. The high land appears as if sloping steeply to the water-line; whereas, the marsh land and beach outlie a mile and a-half.

F3: Called Seldom Seen from being so often sanded over.