# Physics with Radiation Protection BSc (Hons)

• Offers study abroad opportunities
• Offers a Year in China
• Accredited

## Key information

• Course length: 3 years
• UCAS code: F351
• Year of entry: 2018
• Typical offer: A-level : ABB / IB : 33 / BTEC : Applications considered

### Programme Year One

The first year starts with a one week project to familiarise you with the staff and other students.

There will be two Maths modules in the first year and one in the second year. These are designed to provide the Mathematical skills required by Physics students.

#### Year One Compulsory Modules

• ##### Newtonian Dynamics (PHYS101)
Level 1 15 First Semester 60:40 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of classical mechanics at an elementary level. To provide an introduction to the study of fluids. To introduce the use of elementary vector algebra in the context of mechanics. Demonstrate a basic knowledge of the laws of classical mechanics, and understand physical quantities with magnitudes, directions (where applicable), units and uncertainties. understand physical quantities with magnitudes, directions (where applicable), units and uncertainties. apply the laws of mechanics to statics, linear motion, motion in a plane, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion and gravitation. Apply the laws of mechanics to unseen situations and solve problems.Develop a knowledge and understanding of the analysis of linear and rotational motion.​Develop a knowledge and understanding of the analysis of orbits, gravity, simple harmonic motion and fluid flow.
• ##### Thermal Physics (PHYS102)
Level 1 15 First Semester 60:40 The module aims to make the student familiar with The concepts of Thermal Physics The zeroth, first and second laws of Thermodynamics Heat engines The kinetic theory of gasses Entropy The equation of state Van der Waals equation States of matter and state changes The basis of statistical mechanics Construct a temperature scale and understand how to calibrate a thermometer with that scale​Calculate the heat flow into and work done by a system and how that is constrained by the first law of Thermodynamics ​Analyse the expected performance of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators ​Relate the second law of thermodynamics to the operation of heat engines, particularly the Carnot engine​Understand the kinetic theory of gases and calculate properties of gases including the heat capacity and mean free path​Use the theory of equipartition to relate the structure of the molecules to the measured heat capacity ​Calculate the linear and volume thermal expansions of materials​Understand the basis of entropy and relate this to the second law of thermodynamics andcalculate entropy changes ​Relate the equation of state for a material to the macroscopic properties of the material​Understand the PV and PT diagrams for materials and the phase transitions that occur when changing the state variables for materials ​​​Be able to link the microscopic view of a system to its macroscopic state variables​Be able to demonstrate the equivalence of the Clausius and Kelvin-Planck statements of the second law of thermodynamics.​Be able to derive and use Maxwell''s equations
• ##### Wave Phenomena (PHYS103)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of wave phenomena. To highlight the many diverse areas of physics in which an understanding of waves is crucial. To introduce the concepts of interference and diffraction. Demonstrate an understanding of oscillators. ​Understand the fundamental principles underlying wave phenomena. ​Apply those principles to diverse phenomena. ​Understand wave reflection and transmission, superposition of waves. ​Solve problems on the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in vacuo and in dielectric materials. ​Understand linear and circular polarisation. ​Understand inteference and diffraction effects.  ​Understand lenses and optical instruments. ​Apply Fourier techniques and understand their link to diffraction patterns. ​Understand the basic principles of lasers
• ##### Foundations of Modern Physics (PHYS104)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the theory of special relativity and its experimental proofs. To carry out calculations using relativity and visualise them. To introduce the concepts and the experimental foundations of quantum theory. To carry out simple calculations related to quantum mechanical problem tasks. To show the impact of relativity and quantum theory on contemporary science and society. An understanding why classical mechanics must have failed to describe the properties of light, the motion of objects with speeds close to the speed of light and the properties of microspopic systems.​A basic knowledge on the experimental and theoretical concepts which founded modern physics, i.e. that either relativity or quantum theory or both are needed to explain certain phenomena.​​A knowledge of the postulates of special relativity.​​An understanding of the concept of spacetime, of the relativity of length, time and velocity.​An ability to apply the Lorentz transformation and the concept of Lorentz invariance to simple cases​​An ability to apply the equations of relativistic energy, momentum and rest mass.​​An understanding of the Doppler effect for light and visualisation of relativistic effects.​​An ability to solve problems based on special relativity.​​An understanding why quantum theory is the conceptual framework to understand the microscopic properties of the universe.​​ ​An understanding of the quantum theory of light and the ability to apply the energy-momentum conservation for light, e.g. photo-electric effect, Compton effect.​​An understanding of the structure of atoms and its experimental foundations.​An understanding of Bohr''s theory of the atom and its application to the H-atom including the concept of principal quantum numbers.​​An understanding of de Broglie waves and their statistical interpretation.​​An ability to explain the experimental evidence of de Broglie waves with scattering experiments of electrons, X-rays and neutrons.​​An understanding of the principles of quantum mechanical measurements and Heisenberg''s uncertainty principle.​​ ​An understanding of the identity principle of microscopic particles and the basic idea of quantum (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein) statistics.​​A basic knowledge of contemporary applications of quantum theory and relativity, e.g. nuclear reactor and nuclear fissions, and the impact on our society.​
• ##### Practical Physics I (PHYS106)
Level 1 15 Whole Session 0:100 To provide a core of essential introductory laboratory methods which overlap and develop from A-Level To introduce the basis of experimental techniques in physical measurement, the use of computer techniques in analysis, and to provide experience in doing experiments, keeping records and writing reports. To compliment the core physics program with experimental examples of material taught in the lecture courses. Experienced the practical nature of physics.  ​Developed an awareness of the importance of accurate experimentation, particularly observation, record keeping.  ​ Developed the ability to plan, execute and report on the results of an investigation using appropriate analysis of the data and associated uncertainties  ​Developed the practical and technical skill required for physics experimentation and an appreciation of the importance of a systematic approach to experimental measurement. ​Developed problem solving skills of a practical nature  ​Developed analytical skills in the analysis of the data  ​Developed communication skills in the presentation of the investigation in a clear and logical manner ​Developed investgative skills in performing the experiment and extracting information from various sources with which to compare the results ​Developed the ability to organise their time and meet deadlines  ​Understand the interaction between theory and experiment, in particular the ties to the material presented in the lecture courses.
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists I (PHYS107)
Level 1 15 First Semester 70:30 To ensure all students possess a common level of knowledge and skills irrespective of background. To provide a foundation for the mathematics required by physical scientists. To assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to use the mathematics developed in the module. A good working knowledge of differential and integral calculusFamiliarity with some of the elementary functions common in applied mathematics and science An introductory knowledge of functions of several variablesManipulation of complex numbers and use them to solve simple problems involving fractional powers​An introductory knowledge of seriesA good rudimentary knowledge of simple problems involving statistics: binomial and Poisson distributions, mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists II (PHYS108)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 70:30 To consolidate and extend the understanding of mathematics required for the physical sciences. To develop the student’s ability to apply the mathematical techniques developed in the module to the understanding of physical problems. Ability to manipulate matrices with confidence and use matrix methods to solve simultaneous linear equations.​Familiarity with methods for solving first and second order differential equations in one variable. ​A basic knowledge of vector algebra.A basic understanding of Fourier series and transforms.​​A basic understanding of series methods for the solution of differential equations

### Programme Year Two

In Year Two you will broaden your understanding of Physics and Radiation Protection, with modules designed to ensure you have mastered the full range of Physics concepts.

#### Year Two Compulsory Modules

• ##### Electromagnetism (PHYS201)
Level 2 15 First Semester 70:30 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of electrostatics, magnetostatics, electromagnetism and Maxwell''s equations, and electromagnetic waves. To introduce differential vector analysis in the context of electromagnetism. To introduce circuit principles and analysis (EMF, Ohm''s law, Kirchhoff''s rules, RC and RLC circuits) To introduce the formulation fo Maxwell''s equations in the presence of dielectric and magnetic materials. To develop the ability of students to apply Maxwell''s equations to simple problems involving dielectric and magnetic materials. To develop the concepts of field theories in Physics using electromagnetism as an example. To introduce light as an electromagnetic wave. ​Demonstrate a good knowledge of the laws of electromagnetism and an understanding of the practical meaning of Maxwell''s equations in integral and differential forms. ​Apply differential vector analysis to electromagnetism. ​Demonstrate simple knowledge and understanding of how the presence of matter affects electrostatics and magnetostatics, and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations. ​Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how the laws are altered in the case of non-static electric and magnetic fields and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations.
• ##### Condensed Matter Physics (PHYS202)
Level 2 15 First Semester 70:30 ​ The aims of Phys202 are to introduce the most important and basic concepts in condensed matter physics relating to the different materials we commonly see in the world around us. Condensed matter physics is one of the most active areas of research in modern physics, whose scope is extremely broad. The ultimate aim of this course is to introduce its central ideas and methodology to the students. Condensed matter refers to both liquids and solids and all kinds of other forms of matter in between those two extremes, generally known as “soft matter". While the course will touch on liquids, the emphasis will be on crystalline solids, including some nano-materials. The reason for focusing on crystals is that the periodicity of a crystal is what allows us to make progress in developing a theory for various phenomena in solids based on first principles. Two important concepts are: • the electronic states of electrons in a solid and • the vibrations of atoms in the solid. The description of these ideas basically refer to the theory of electronic band structure and the theory of phonons. These concepts form the basis for understanding a wide range of phenomena including how the atoms bond together to form the crystal, what are some basic statistical properties like specific heat, how electrons move in solids and electronic transport, why are some materials metals and others semiconductors and insulators, and how do solids interact with electromagnetic fields. The course will also introduce optical and magnetic properties in solids, scattering phenomena, thermal conductivity and effect of defects in solids, semiconductors, magnetism and go beyond the free electron model to touch on intriguing effects such as superconductivity. On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to understand the basic concepts of bonding in solids, establish an understanding of electron configuration in atoms and in the condensed matter in terms of bonding, and relating them to band structure description.​Students will be able to understand how solid structures are described mathematically and how material properties can be predicted​. ​Students will be able to establish a foundation in basic crystallography, using Bragg''s law, and understand the concept of the reciprocal lattice.​Students will understand basic transport properties, both electronic and thermal, in solids.​ Students will understand the concept of electron and hole carrier statistics, effective masses and transport in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors​Students will learn the basics of magnetism, the atomic origin and classical treatment of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, quantization of angular momentum and Hund''s rule, and introduced to weak magnetism in solids.​​Students will become familiar to the general language of condensed matter physics, key theories and concepts, ultimately enebling them to read and understand research papers.
• ##### Quantum and Atomic Physics (PHYS203)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 70:30 To introduce students to the concepts of quantum theory. To show how Schrodinger''s equation is applied to particle flux and to bound states. To show how quantum ideas provide an understanding of atomic structure. At the end of the module the student should have: An understanding of the reasons why microscopic systems require quantum description and statistical interpretation. Knowledge of the Schrodinger equation and how it is formulated to describe simple physical systems. Understanding of the basic technique of using Schrodinger''s equation and ability to determine solutions in simple cases. Understanding of how orbital angular momentum is described in quantum mechanics and why there is a need for spin. Understanding how the formalism of quantum mechanics describes the structure of atomic hydrogen and, schematically, how more complex atoms are described.
• ##### Nuclear and Particle Physics (PHYS204)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 70:30 To introduce Rutherford and related scattering. To introduce nuclear size, mass and decay modes To provide some applications and examples of nuclear physics To introduce particle physics, including interactions, reactions and decay To show some recent experimental discoveries To introduce relativistic 4-vectors for applications to collision problems basic understanding of Rutherford, electron on neutron scattering ​understanding of the basic principles that determine nuclear size, mass and decay modes ​knowledge of examples and applications of nuclear physics ​knowledge of elementary particles and their interactions ​basic understanding of relativistic 4-vectors
• ##### Practical Physics II (PHYS206)
Level 2 15 Whole Session 0:100 The aims of the module "Practical Physics II" are to teach how to setup and calibrate equipment; take reliable data; obtain experimental results with associated errors; compare experimental results with theoretical expectations; use computer software for simulation and data analysis; write experimental reports and scientific papers; understand physics in depth by performing experiments; develop practical and technical skills required for electronics experimentation; use electronics in physical and technical applications. The students will acquire systematic understanding of practical physics and learn how to perform experiments using modern techniques.They will understand in details the fundamental physics behind the experiments. They will be trained in data analysis techniques using modern IT packages.​They will be familiar with modern techniques of data acquisition.They will have enhanced ability to plan, execute and report the results of an investigation. ​They will understand the concept of measurement errors and how they propagate to the final results.​They will be able to initiate and carry out projects.
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists III (PHYS207)
Level 2 15 First Semester 70:30 To re-inforce students'' prior knowledge of mathematical techniques To introduce new mathematical techniques for physics modules To enhance students'' problem-solving abilities through structured application of these techniques in physics At the end of the module the student should be able to: Have knowledge of a range of mathematical techniques necessary for physics and astrophysics programmes Be able to apply these mathematical techniques in a range of physics and astrophysics programmes
• ##### Accelerators and Radioisotopes in Medicine (PHYS246)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 100:0 To introduce the students to ionising and non ionising radiation including its origins and production. To introduce the various ways in which radiation interacts with materials. To introduce the different accelerators and isotopes used in medicine and to give examples of their use. A basic knowledge of the origins of radiation and its properties.​​An understanding of ways in which radiation interacts with materials.​An understanding of how accelerators operate and how isotopes are produced.​Knowledge of applications of the use of accelerators and isotopes in medicine.​​​
• ##### Working With Radiation Protection II - Protecting the Environment (PHYS245)
Level 2 15 Whole Session 0:100 ​·         To develop essential research skills ·         To use programming techniques to solve problems in Physics and Radiation Protection applications of physics. ·         To develop skills in modelling the solution to a problem ·         To give students experience of working in small groups to solve a problem ·         To give students further experience of communicating their results using computer packages·         To provide the students with a broad introduction to radiation protection of the environment 1. Master a basic set of research skills2. An improved (from 1st year) knowledge of programming techniques in Matlab ​3. The ability to solve problems using a computer program ​4. Understand the need to plan, properly structure and test computer programs ​5. To be able to set up a model to solve a simple problem ​6. Experience of working in a small group ​7. Improved (from 1st year) communication skills using computer packages (both written, Oral and Poster)​8. An understanding of the principles underlying radiation protection of the environment including environmental risk assessment, RWL and permitting, radioactive waste management and disposal.

### Programme Year Three

The third year comprises a mix of core modules and many optional modules in Radiation Protection. You will undertake a research project with a member of staff on an aspect of Radiation Protection.

#### Year Three Compulsory Modules

• ##### Nuclear Physics (PHYS375)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 100:0 To build on the second year module involving Nuclear Physics To develop an understanding of the modern view of nuclei, how they are modelled and of nuclear decay processes At the end of the module the student should have: Knowledge of evidence for the shell model of nuclei, its development and the successes and failures of the model in explaining nuclear properties ​Knowledge of the collective vibrational and rotational models of nuclei ​Basic knowledge of nuclear decay processes, alpha decay and fission, of gamma-ray transitions and internal conversion ​Knowledge of electromagnetic transitions in nuclei
• ##### Radiation Physics Advanced Practical (PHYS380)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 0:100 To give further training in laboratory techniques, in the use of computer packages for modelling and analysis, and in the use of modern instruments To develop the students'' independent judgement in performing radiation physics experiments To encourage students to research aspects of physics complementary to material met in lectures and tutorials To consolidate the students ability to produce good quality work against realistic deadlines At the end of the module the student should have: Experience of taking physics data with modern equipment Knowledge of some experimental techniques not met in previous laboratory practice Developed a personal responsibility for assuring that data taken is of a high quality Increased skills in data taking and error analysis Increased skills in reporting experiments and an appreciation of the factors needed to produce clear and complete reports Improved skills in the time management and organisation of their experimental procedures to meet deadlines Experience working as an individual
• ##### Communicating Science (PHYS391)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 0:100 To improve science students'' skills in communicating scientific information in a wide range of contexts To develop students'' understanding of some concepts of: Science in general Their particular area of science Other areas of science ​ An ability to communicate more confidently​​ An understanding of some of the key factors in successfulcommunication​An appreciation of the needs of different audiences​​Experience of a variety of written and oral media​​A broader appreciation of science and particular areas ofscience​
• ##### Statistics in Data Analysis (PHYS392)
Level 3 15 First Semester 50:50 To give a theoretical and practical understanding of the statistical principles involved in the analysis and interpretation of data. ​Knowledge of experimental errors and probability distributions  ​The ability to use statistical methods in data analysis  ​The ability to apply statistical analysis to data from a range of sources  ​ Using statistical information to detemine the validity of a hypothesis or experimental measurement

#### Year Three Optional Modules

• ##### Condensed Matter Physics (PHYS202)
Level 2 15 First Semester 70:30 ​ The aims of Phys202 are to introduce the most important and basic concepts in condensed matter physics relating to the different materials we commonly see in the world around us. Condensed matter physics is one of the most active areas of research in modern physics, whose scope is extremely broad. The ultimate aim of this course is to introduce its central ideas and methodology to the students. Condensed matter refers to both liquids and solids and all kinds of other forms of matter in between those two extremes, generally known as “soft matter". While the course will touch on liquids, the emphasis will be on crystalline solids, including some nano-materials. The reason for focusing on crystals is that the periodicity of a crystal is what allows us to make progress in developing a theory for various phenomena in solids based on first principles. Two important concepts are: • the electronic states of electrons in a solid and • the vibrations of atoms in the solid. The description of these ideas basically refer to the theory of electronic band structure and the theory of phonons. These concepts form the basis for understanding a wide range of phenomena including how the atoms bond together to form the crystal, what are some basic statistical properties like specific heat, how electrons move in solids and electronic transport, why are some materials metals and others semiconductors and insulators, and how do solids interact with electromagnetic fields. The course will also introduce optical and magnetic properties in solids, scattering phenomena, thermal conductivity and effect of defects in solids, semiconductors, magnetism and go beyond the free electron model to touch on intriguing effects such as superconductivity. On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to understand the basic concepts of bonding in solids, establish an understanding of electron configuration in atoms and in the condensed matter in terms of bonding, and relating them to band structure description.​Students will be able to understand how solid structures are described mathematically and how material properties can be predicted​. ​Students will be able to establish a foundation in basic crystallography, using Bragg''s law, and understand the concept of the reciprocal lattice.​Students will understand basic transport properties, both electronic and thermal, in solids.​ Students will understand the concept of electron and hole carrier statistics, effective masses and transport in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors​Students will learn the basics of magnetism, the atomic origin and classical treatment of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, quantization of angular momentum and Hund''s rule, and introduced to weak magnetism in solids.​​Students will become familiar to the general language of condensed matter physics, key theories and concepts, ultimately enebling them to read and understand research papers.
• ##### Introduction to Particle Physics (PHYS377)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 100:0 To build on the second year module involving Nuclear and Particle Physics To develop an understanding of the modern view of particles, of their interactions and the Standard Model At the end of the module the student should have: Basic understanding of relativistic kinematics (as applied to collisions, decay processes and cross sections) ​Descriptive knowledge of the Standard Model using a non rigorous Feynman diagram approach​Knowledge of the fundamental particles of the Standard Model and the experimental evidence for the Standard Model ​Knowledge of conservation laws and discrete symmetries
• ##### Surface Physics (PHYS381)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 100:0 Develop a syllabus to describe the properties of surfacesConvey an understanding of the physical properties of SurfacesProvide knowledge  of a raneg of surface characterisation techniquesIllustrate surface processes and their relevance to technologies explain how the presence of the surface alters physical properties such as atomic an electronic structure​ choose the right characterisation technique to assess different surface properties have gained an  appreciation of surface processes and their relevance to the modification of surface properties​be able to describe surface alterations and processes using the right terminology
• ##### Physics of Life (PHYS382)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 100:0 To introduce students to the physical principles needed to address important problems such as climate change, the loss of biodiversity, the understanding of ecological systems, the growth of resistance to antibiotics, the challenge of sustainable development and the study of disease. These problems offer excellent opportunities for rewarding careers.​ ​ ​An understanding of the conditions necessary for life to evolve in a universe.​​An understanding of the thermodynamics and organization of living things.​​​​​Familiarity with physical techniques used in the study of biological systems. ​
• ##### Radiation Therapy Applications (PHYS384)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 80:20 To introduce the physics principles of radiation therapy and treatment planning. To understand interactions of radiation with biological materials and detectors. To understand the need for modelling in radiobiological applications. To obtain a knowledge of electron transport. To construct a simple model of a radiation therapy application. to understand the principles of radiotherapy and treatment planningto develop a knowledge of radiation transport and the interaction of radiation with biological tissue​​to understand the need for Monte Carlo modelling and beam modelling​to have a knowledge of electron transport​​to have a basic understanding of radiobiology​to have experience developing a simple radiotherapy treatment plan

The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.

#### Teaching and Learning

Our research-led teaching ensures you are taught the latest advances in cutting-edge physics research. Lectures introduce and provide the details of the various areas of physics and related subjects. You will be working in tutorials and problem-solving workshops, which are another crucial element in the learning process, where you put your knowledge into practice. They help you to develop a working knowledge and understanding of physics. All of the lecturers also perform world class research and use this to enhance their teaching.

Most work takes place in small groups with a tutor or in a larger class where staff provide help as needed. Practical work is an integral part of the programmes, and ranges from training in basic laboratory skills in the first two years to a research project in the third or fourth year. You will undertake an extended project on a research topic with a member of staff who will mentor you. By the end of the degree you will be well prepared to tackle problems in any area and present yourself and your work both in writing and in person. In the first two years students take maths modules which provide the support all students need to understand the physics topics.