# Physics MPhys

## Key information

### Module details

Due to the impact of COVID-19 we're changing how the course is delivered.

### Programme Year One

The first year starts with a one week project to familiarise you with the staff and other students. There will be two Maths modules in each of the first two years; these are designed to provide the Mathematical skills required by Physics students.

#### Year One Compulsory Modules

• ##### Dynamics and Relativity (PHYS101)
Level 1 15 First Semester 60:40 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of classical mechanics at an elementary level. To introduce the postulates of Special Relativity and apply the Lorentz transformations. (LO1) Demonstrate a basic knowledge of the laws of classical mechanics and Special Relativity.(LO2) Understand physical quantities with magnitudes, directions (where applicable), units and uncertainties.(LO3) Apply the laws of mechanics to statics, linear motion, motion in a plane, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion and gravitation.(LO4) Apply the laws of relativity to linear motion.(LO5) Develop a knowledge and understanding of the analysis of non-relativistic linear and rotational motion and of relativistic linear motion.(LO6) Develop a knowledge and understanding of the non-relativistic analysis of orbits and gravity.(S1) Problem solving skills.(S2) Analytic skills applied to situations involving mechanical systems.
• ##### Thermal Physics and Properties of Matter (PHYS102)
Level 1 15 First Semester 60:40 The module aims to make the student familiar with • The concepts of Thermal Physics • The zeroth, first and second laws of Thermodynamics • Heat engines • The kinetic theory of gases • Entropy • The equation of state • Van der Waals equation • States of matter and state changes• Mechanical properties of solids • The basis of statistical mechanics (LO1) Be able to link the microscopic view of a system to its macroscopic state variables(LO2) Be able to derive and use Maxwell's relations(LO3) Calculate the linear and volume thermal expansions of materials(LO4) Analyse the expected performance of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators(LO5) Calculate the heat flow into and work done by a system and how that is constrained by the first law of thermodynamics(LO7) Understand the PV and PT diagrams for materials and the phase transitions that occur when changing the state variables for materials(LO9) Use the theory of equipartition to relate the structure of molecules to the measured heat capacity(LO10) Relate the second law of thermodynamics to the operation of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators, particularly the Carnot engine(LO11) Understand the kinetic theory of gases and calculate properties of gases including the heat capacity and mean free path(LO12) Understand the basis of entropy and relate this to the second law of thermodynamics and calculate entropy changes(S1) Problem Solving Skills
• ##### Wave Phenomena (PHYS103)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of wave phenomena. To highlight the many diverse areas of physics in which an understanding of waves is crucial. To introduce the concepts of interference and diffraction. (LO1) At the end of the module, the should be able to:Demonstrate an understanding of oscillators.(LO2) Understand the fundamental principles underlying wave phenomena.(LO3) Apply those principles to diverse phenomena.(LO4) Understand wave reflection and transmission, superposition of waves.(LO5) Solve problems on the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in vacuo and in dielectric materials.(LO6) Understand linear and circular polarisation.(LO7) Understand inteference and diffraction effects.(LO8) Understand lenses and optical instruments.(LO9) Apply Fourier techniques and understand their link to diffraction patterns.(LO10) Understand the basic principles of lasers(S1) Problem solving
• ##### Foundations of Quantum Physics (PHYS104)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the concepts and the experimental foundations of quantum theory. To carry out simple calculations related to quantum mechanical problem tasks. To show the impact of quantum theory on contemporary science. (LO1) An understanding why classical mechanics must have failed to describe the properties of light, and the properties of microspopic systems.(LO2) An understanding of why quantum theory is the conceptual framework required to explain the behaviour of the universe.(LO3) A basic knowledge on the experimental and theoretical concepts which founded modern physics, i.e. quantum theory needed to explain certain phenomena.(LO4) An understanding of the quantum theory of light and the ability to apply energy-momentum conservation in the explanation of phenomena such as the. photo-electric effect and the Compton effect.(LO5) An understanding of de Broglie waves and their interpretation.(LO6) An ability to explain the experimental evidence for de Broglie waves, for example through the scattering of electrons, X-rays and neutrons.(LO7) An understanding of the principles of quantum mechanical measurements and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.(LO8) An understanding of the identity principle of microscopic particles and the basic idea of quantum (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein) statistics.(LO9) An understanding why quantum theory is the conceptual framework to understand the microscopic properties of the universe.(LO10) A basic knowledge of contemporary applications of quantum theory and their impact on our society.(LO11) A basic understanding of the Schrodinger equation.(LO12) An understanding of de Broglie waves and their statistical interpretation.(LO13) An understanding of Bohr's theory of the atom and its application to the H-atom including the concept of principal quantum numbers.(S1) Problem solving skills relating to quantum phenomena.
• ##### Introduction to Computational Physics (PHYS105)
Level 1 7.5 Whole Session 0:100 To develop the ability to break down physical problems into steps amenable to solution using algorithms To develop skills in using computers to perform and run algorithms To introduce techniques for analysing and presenting data To introduce elemenatry Monte Carlo techniques To introduce basic computer algebra To illustrate the insight into physics which can be obtained using computational methods (LO1) Ability to produce algorithms to solve simple physical problems.(LO2) Ability to program and use simple algorithms on a computer(LO3) Ability to analyse and present physical data(LO4) Ability to produce simple Monte Carlo models(LO5) Ability to carry out basic symbolic manipulations using a computer(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Communication skills(S3) IT skills
• ##### Practical Physics I (PHYS106)
Level 1 15 Whole Session 0:100 To provide a core of essential introductory laboratory methods which overlap and develop from A-Level; to introduce the basis of experimental techniques in physical measurement, the use of computer techniques in analysis, and to provide experience in doing experiments, keeping records and writing reports; to complement the core physics program with experimental examples of material taught in the lecture courses. (LO1) An awareness of the importance of accurate experimentation, particularly observation and record keeping.(LO2) An ability to plan, execute and report on the results of an investigation using appropriate analysis of the data and associated uncertainties.(LO3) An ability to organise their time and meet deadlines.(LO4) An understanding of the interaction between theory and experiment, in particular the ties to the material presented in the lecture courses.(LO5) Experience of the practical nature of physics.(LO6) Developed analytical skills in the analysis of the data(LO7) Developed communication skills in the presentation of the investigation in a clear and logical manner(LO8) Developed investgative skills in performing the experiment and extracting information from various sources with which to compare the results(LO9) Developed the ability to organise their time and meet deadlines(LO10) Understand the interaction between theory and experiment, in particular the ties to the material presented in the lecture courses.(S1) Practical and technical skill required for physics experimentation and an appreciation of the importance of a systematic approach to experimental measurement.(S2) Problem solving skills of a practical nature.(S3) Communication skills in the presentation of the investigation in a clear and logical manner.(S4) Analytical skills in the analysis of the data.(S5) Investgative skills in performing the experiment and extracting information from various sources with which to compare the results.
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists I (PHYS107)
Level 1 15 First Semester 60:40 To provide a foundation for the mathematics required by physical scientists. To assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to use the mathematics developed in the module. (LO1) A good working knowledge of differential and integral calculus(LO2) Familiarity with some of the elementary functions common in applied mathematics and science(LO3) An introductory knowledge of functions of several variables(LO4) Manipulation of complex numbers and use them to solve simple problems involving fractional powers(LO5) An introductory knowledge of series(LO6) A good rudimentary knowledge of simple problems involving statistics: binomial and Poisson distributions, mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean(S1) Problem solving skills
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists II (PHYS108)
Level 1 15 Second Semester 60:40 To consolidate and extend the understanding of mathematics required for the physical sciences. To develop the student’s ability to apply the mathematical techniques developed in the module to the understanding of physical problems. (LO1) Ability to manipulate matrices with confidence and use matrix methods to solve simultaneous linear equations.(LO2) Familiarity with methods for solving first and second order differential equations in one variable.(LO3) A basic knowledge of vector algebra.(LO4) A basic understanding of Fourier series and transforms.(LO5) A basic understanding of series methods for the solution of differential equations(S1) Numeracy(S2) Problem solving skills(S3) Teamwork

#### Year One Optional Modules

• ##### Introduction to Medical Physics (PHYS115)
Level 1 7.5 Second Semester 70:30 To provide the students with a broad introduction to medical physics To provide the students with the physics basis for measurement techniques used in medicine To develop skills in mathematical calculations directly related to Medical Physics. To develop the broad physics knowledge required for Medical Physics (LO1) Basic understanding of the underlying physics properties and ideas that are utilised in medical physics(LO2) Basic knowledge of the physics involved in measurement techniques used in medicine(LO3) Understanding of the techniques used in measurements in medical applications(LO4) Ability to solve simple problems in medical physics(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Communication skills(S3) IT skills
• ##### Introduction to Nuclear Science (PHYS135)
Level 1 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 This module will provide students with a broad introduction to the physics of nuclear science. It will also provide the students with the physics basis for measurements used in nuclear science. (LO1) Basic understanding of the underlying physics properties and ideas that are utilised in nuclear science(LO2) Basic knowledge of the physics involved in measurement techniques used in nuclear science(LO3) Understanding of the techniques used in measurements in nuclear applications(LO4) Ability to solve simple problems in nuclear science(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Communication skills(S3) IT skills
• ##### Introduction to Astrophysics (PHYS155)
Level 1 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 To provide students with a broad introduction to astronomy and the constituents of the universe To explain how observations support our understanding of stars, galaxies, and the Universe as a whole To introduce students to the methods by which astronomers measure the brightness, properties and distance of astronomical objects (LO1) A basic knowledge of the structure and constituents of the Universe ranging in scale from the Solar System to clusters of galaxies(LO2) Ability to outline the methods which astronomers employ to gather and analyse data(LO3) Understanding of the techniques of measurement of brightness and distance of astronomical objects(LO4) Knowledge of the current cosmological model and the evidence supporting it(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Communication skills(S3) IT skills

### Programme Year Two

In year two you will broaden your understanding of Physics, with modules designed to ensure you have mastered the full range of Physics concepts.

#### Year Two Compulsory Modules

• ##### Electromagnetism I (PHYS201)
Level 2 15 First Semester 60:40 To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of electrostatics, magnetostatics, electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic waves; to introduce differential vector analysis in the context of electromagnetism; to introduce circuit principles and analysis (EMF, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's rules, RC and RLC circuits); to introduce the formulation fo Maxwell's equations in the presence of dielectric and magnetic materials; to develop the ability of students to apply Maxwell's equations to simple problems involving dielectric and magnetic materials; to develop the concepts of field theories in Physics using electromagnetism as an example; to introduce light as an electromagnetic wave. (LO1) Demonstrate a good knowledge of the laws of electromagnetism and an understanding of the practical meaning of Maxwell's equations in integral and differential forms.(LO2) Apply differential vector analysis to electromagnetism.(LO3) Demonstrate simple knowledge and understanding of how the presence of matter affects electrostatics and magnetostatics, and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations.(LO4) Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how the laws are altered in the case of non-static electric and magnetic fields and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations.(S1) Problem solving skills.(S2) Analytic skills applied to the study of electromagnetic phenomena.(S3) Mathematical skills applied for the development of deep intuition on electromagnetic phenomena and to the study of physical systems.
• ##### Condensed Matter Physics (PHYS202)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 60:40 The aims of this module are to introduce the most important and basic concepts in condensed matter physics relating to the different materials we commonly see in the world around us. Condensed matter physics is one of the most active areas of research in modern physics, whose scope is extremely broad. The ultimate aim of this module is to introduce its central ideas and methodology to the students. (LO1) Students will have the knowledge and skills to understand the basic concepts of bonding in solids, establish an understanding of electron configuration in atoms and in the condensed matter in terms of bonding, and relating them to band structure description.(LO2) Students will be able to understand how solid structures are described mathematically and how material properties can be predicted.(LO3) Students will be able to establish a foundation in basic crystallography, using Bragg's law, and understand the concept of the reciprocal lattice.(LO4) Students will understand basic transport properties, both electronic and thermal, in solids.(LO5) Students will understand the concept of electron and hole carrier statistics, effective masses and transport in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors(LO6) Students will learn the basics of magnetism, the atomic origin and classical treatment of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, quantization of angular momentum and Hund's rule, and introduced to weak magnetism in solids.(LO7) Students will become familiar to the general language of condensed matter physics, key theories and concepts, ultimately enebling them to read and understand research papers.
• ##### Quantum and Atomic Physics I (PHYS203)
Level 2 15 First Semester 60:40 To introduce students to the concepts of quantum theory. To show how Schrodinger's equation is applied to bound states (well potentials, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atoms, multi-electron atoms) and particle flux (scattering) . To show how quantum ideas provide an understanding of atomic structure. (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have an understanding of the reasons why microscopic systems require quantum description and statistical interpretation.(LO2) At the end of the module the student should have knowledge of the Schrodinger equation and how it is formulated to describe simple physical systems.(LO3) At the end of the module the student should have understanding of the basic technique of using Schrodinger's equation and ability to determine solutions in simple cases.(LO4) At the end of the module the student should have understanding of how orbital angular momentum is described in quantum mechanics and why there is a need for spin.(LO5) At the end of the module the student should have understanding how the formalism of quantum mechanics describes the structure of atomic hydrogen and, schematically, how more complex atoms are described.
• ##### Nuclear and Particle Physics (PHYS204)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce Rutherford and related scattering; to introduce nuclear size, mass and decay modes; to provide some applications and examples of nuclear physics; to introduce particle physics, including interactions, reactions and decay; to show some recent experimental discoveries; to introduce relativistic 4-vectors for applications to collision problems. (LO1) A basic understanding of Rutherford, electron on neutron scattering.(LO2) An understanding of the basic principles that determine nuclear size, mass and decay modes.(LO3) The knowledge of examples and applications of nuclear physics.(LO4) An understanding of the basic properties of particles and their interactions(LO5) An understanding of conservation laws and their role in particle decays and reactions(LO6) A basic understanding of relativistic 4-vectors(LO7) A basic understanding of drawing Feynman diagrams. Knowledge of some particle physics results: neutrino physics, measurement of top quark and W masses, structure of the proton(LO8) Knowledge of particle physics results: Large hadron collider, cosmic microwave background, dark matter, super-symmetry
• ##### Computational Physics (PHYS205)
Level 2 15 Whole Session 0:100 To revise and further develop Python programming skills.To develop the ability to devise new and apply existing algorithms to solve physical problems.To develop the ability to clearly and efficiently implement algorithms using Python.To develop skills in modelling physical situations and problems using computational techniques.To develop students' skills in small-group working, including planning and coordinating group work.To further develop written and oral communication skills. (LO1) Knowledge of basic Python programming techniques.(LO2) An appreciation of a range of algorithms appropriate to, and some experience of devising simple algorithms for, the solution of physical problems.(LO3) A basic understanding of the requirements for writing efficient and comprehensible Python programs.Some experience of working in and managing small groups.(LO4) An understanding of how results can be communicated in a clear and interesting manner, on a poster, in a written report and orally.(S1) Programming in Python(S2) Problem solving
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists III (PHYS207)
Level 2 15 First Semester 60:40 To re-inforce students' prior knowledge of mathematical techniques To introduce new mathematical techniques for physics modules To enhance students' problem-solving abilities through structured application of these techniques in physics (LO1) At the end of the module the student should be able to: Have knowledge of a range of mathematical techniques necessary for physics and astrophysics programmes Be able to apply these mathematical techniques in a range of physics and astrophysics programmes(S1) Numeracy/computational skills - Reason with numbers/mathematical concepts(S2) Numeracy/computational skills - Problem solving

#### Year Two Optional Modules

• ##### Accelerators and Radioisotopes in Medicine (PHYS246)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the students to ionising and non ionising radiation including its origins and production; to introduce the various ways in which radiation interacts with materials; to introduce the different accelerators and isotopes used in medicine and to give examples of their use. (LO1) A basic knowledge of the origins of radiation and its properties.(LO2) An understanding of ways in which radiation interacts with materials.(LO3) An understanding of how accelerators operate and how isotopes are produced.(LO4) Knowledge of applications of the use of accelerators and isotopes in medicine.(S1) Problem solving skills
• ##### Mathematics for Physicists IV (PHYS208)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 60:40 To reinforce students' prior knowledge of mathematical techniques; to introduce new mathematical techniques for physics modules; to enhance students' problem-solving abilities through structured application of these techniques in physics. (LO1) To have the knowledge of a range of advanced mathematical techniques necessary for physics and astrophysics programmes.(LO2) To be able to apply these mathematical techniques in a range of physics and astrophysics programmes.(S1) Numeracy/computational skills.(S2) Problem solving.
• ##### Stellar Physics (PHYS251)
Level 2 15 Second Semester 60:40 To provide students with an understanding of the physical processes which determine all aspects of thestructure and evolution of stars, from their birth to their death.To enable students to determine the basic physical properties of stars via observation (e.g.determination of temperatures, masses and radii etc. using continuum fluxes, broad-band colours, lineprofiles etc). (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have knowledge of how the basic physical properties of stars can be determined from observation.(LO2) At the end of the module the student should have an understanding of how stellar structure can be probed using observable quantities and simple physical principles.(LO3) At the end of the module a student should have an understanding of the changes in structure and energy sources for stars throughout their lives.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Communication skills(S3) Numeracy

### Programme Year Three

With the core physics modules completed in the first two years there is now considerable scope to choose amongst the optional modules available, mostly based around the research interests of the departmental staff.

#### Year Three Compulsory Modules

• ##### Computational Modelling (PHYS305)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 0:100 • To revise Python programming skills and reinforce object-oriented concepts and methods of a high-level Object-oriented programming language.• To apply Python for the computational modelling of physical phenomena and solution of complex physics problems using Monte Carlo techniques and numerical integration.• To further develop the ability to efficiently implement algorithms using Python and verify the results.• To give students experience of working independently and in small groups on an original problem.• To give students an opportunity to display the high quality of their work, initiative and ingenuity.• To give students experience of report writing displaying high standards of composition and production.• To give an opportunity for students to further develop and display oral communication skills. (LO1) Acquire a deep knowledge of a high level programming language including object-oriented elements.(LO2) Gain experience how to apply computational methods to the solution of physics problems, including the set up of a complex model of physical phenomena or experimental situation(LO3) Experience in researching literature and other sources of relevant information(LO4) Experience in testing model against data from experiment or literature(LO5) Improved ability to organise and manage time.(LO6) Improved skills in report writing.(LO7) Improved skills in explaining project under questioning.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Teamwork(S3) Organisational skills(S4) Communication skills(S5) IT skills
• ##### Quantum and Atomic Physics II (PHYS361)
Level 3 15 First Semester 60:40 To build on the second year module on Quantum and Atomic Physics. To develop the formalism of quantum mechanics.To develop an understanding that atoms are quantum systems.To enable the student to follow elementary quantum mechanical arguments in the literature (LO1) Understanding of the role of wavefunctions, operators, eigenvalue equations, symmetries, compatibility/non-compatibility of observables and perturbation theory in quantum mechanical theory.(LO2) An ability to solve straightforward problems - different bound states and perturbing interactions.(LO3) Developed knowledge and understanding of the quantum mechanical description of atoms - single particle levels, coupled angular momentum, fine structure, transition selection rules.(LO4) Developed a working knowledge of interactions, electron configurations and coupling in atoms.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Analytic skills applied to quantum systems
• ##### Electromagnetism II (PHYS370)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 100:0 To build on first and second year modules on electricity, magnetism and waves by understanding a range of electromagnetic phenomena in terms of Maxwell's equations; to understand the properties of solutions to the wave equation for electromagnetic fields in free space, in matter (non-dispersive and dispersive dielectrics, and conductors); to understand the behaviour of electromagnetic waves at boundaries; to understand the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines; to understand the properties of electric dipole radiation; to introduce an explicity covariant formulation of electromagnetism in special relativity'o further develop students' problem-solving and analytic skills. (LO1) An understanding of the properties of solutions to the wave equation for electromagnetic fields in free space and in matter (non-dispersive and dispersive dielectrics, and conductors).(LO2) An understanding of the behaviour of electromagnetic waves at boundaries.(LO3) An understanding of the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.(LO4) An understanding of the properties of electric dipole radiation.(LO5) The ability to explain an explicity covariant formulation of electromagnetism in special relativity.(S1) Problem solving skills.(S2) Numeracy.
• ##### Statistical Physics (PHYS393)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 60:40 • To build on material presented in earlier Thermal Physics and Quantum Mechanics courses• To develop the statistical treatment of quantum systems• To use theoretical techniques to predict experimental observables• To introduce the basic principles governing the behaviour of liquid helium and superconductors in cooling techniques (LO1) Understanding of the statistical basis of entropy and temperature(LO2) Ability to devise expressions for observables, (heat capacity, magnetisation) from statistical treatment of quantum systems(LO3) Understanding of Maxwell Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose Einstein gases
• ##### Computational Modelling (PHYS305)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 0:100 • To revise Python programming skills and reinforce object-oriented concepts and methods of a high-level Object-oriented programming language.• To apply Python for the computational modelling of physical phenomena and solution of complex physics problems using Monte Carlo techniques and numerical integration.• To further develop the ability to efficiently implement algorithms using Python and verify the results.• To give students experience of working independently and in small groups on an original problem.• To give students an opportunity to display the high quality of their work, initiative and ingenuity.• To give students experience of report writing displaying high standards of composition and production.• To give an opportunity for students to further develop and display oral communication skills. (LO1) Acquire a deep knowledge of a high level programming language including object-oriented elements.(LO2) Gain experience how to apply computational methods to the solution of physics problems, including the set up of a complex model of physical phenomena or experimental situation(LO3) Experience in researching literature and other sources of relevant information(LO4) Experience in testing model against data from experiment or literature(LO5) Improved ability to organise and manage time.(LO6) Improved skills in report writing.(LO7) Improved skills in explaining project under questioning.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Teamwork(S3) Organisational skills(S4) Communication skills(S5) IT skills

#### Year Three Optional Modules

• ##### Physics Internship (PHYS309)
Level 3 15 Whole Session 0:100 Provide students with an insight into the process of scientific research and debate or communicating science in a STEM-related setting different from the University of Liverpool;Expose students to new research, cultural and working environments;Develop the confidence to work independently and in a team, to effectively and efficiently apply science to attain a STEM-related goal;Develop students’ ability to communicate scientific concepts and findings in a variety of formats;Develop students' employability skills. (LO1) to maintain accurate records of experiments or classroom related experiences, and reliable and comprehensive account of any methodologies used(LO2) to prepare and deliver oral presentations to high scientific and professional standards that describes the experiences during the internship, the research objectives and the rationale behind the project design.(LO3) to write a professional report on the project priorities, the internal and external drivers of the project strategy and the potential impact of the project on the local and wider community.(LO4) to analyse and evaluate data, information and experiences and to draw valid conclusions while working in a professional environment.(LO5) to identify and articulate their personal and professional transferable skills and connect them to their employability.
• ##### Nuclear Physics (PHYS375)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 60:40 To build on the second year module involving Nuclear Physics; to develop an understanding of the modern view of nuclei, how they are modelled and of nuclear decay processes. (LO1) Knowledge of evidence for the shell model of nuclei, its development and the successes and failures of the model in explaining nuclear properties.(LO2) Knowledge of the collective vibrational and rotational models of nuclei.(LO3) Basic knowledge of nuclear decay processes, alpha decay and fission, of gamma-ray transitions and internal conversion.(LO4) Knowledge of electromagnetic transitions in nuclei.(S1) How to use mathematics to describe the physical world.(S2) How to tackle problems in physics and formulate an appropriate solution.(S3) How to compare results critically with predictions from theory.
• ##### Particle Physics (PHYS377)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 To build on the second year module Nuclear and Particle Physics To develop an understanding of the modern view of particles, of their interactions and the Standard Model (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have: Basic understanding of relativistic kinematics (as applied to collisions, decay processes and cross sections)(LO2) Descriptive knowledge of the Standard Model using a non rigorous Feynman diagram approach(LO3) Knowledge of the fundamental particles of the Standard Model and the experimental evidence for the Standard Model(LO4) Knowledge of conservation laws and discrete symmetries(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Numeracy
• ##### Solid State Physics (PHYS363)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 60:40 To develop concepts introduced in Year 1 and Year 2 modules which relate to solids; to consolidate concepts related to crystal structure; to introduce the concept of reciprocal space and diffraction; to enable the students to apply these concepts to the description of crystals,transport properties and the electronic structure of condensed matter; to illustrate the use of these concepts in scientific research in condensed matter; to introduce various other solids. (LO1) Familiarity with the crystalline nature of both perfect and real materials.(LO2) An understanding of the fundamental principles of the properties of condensed matter.(LO3) An appreciation of the relationship between the real space and the reciprocal space view of the properties of crystalline matter.(LO4) An ability to describe the crystal structure and electronic structure of matter(LO5) An awareness of current physics research in condensed matter.(S1) An ability to describe the crystal structure and electronic structure of matter.
• ##### Materials Physics and Characterisation (PHYS387)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 60:40 • To teach the properties and methods of preparation of a range of materials of scientific and technological importance • To develop an understanding of the experimental techniques of materials characterisation • To introduce materials such as amorphous solids, liquid crystals and polymers and to develop an understanding of the relationship between structure and physical properties for such materials • To illustrate the concepts and principles by reference to examples (LO1) An understanding of the atomic structure in crystalline and amorphous materials(LO2) Knowledge of the methods used for preparing single crystals and amorphous materials(LO3) Knowledge of the experimental techniques used in materials characterisation(LO4) Knowledge of the physical properties of superconducting, liquid crystal and polymer materials(LO5) An appreciation of the factors involved in the design of biomaterials(S1) Problem solving skills
• ##### Magnetic Properties of Solids (PHYS399)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 Students will develop an understanding of the phenomena and fundamental mechanisms of magnetism in condensed matter. They will be able to assess and compare the quantum mechanical interactions at play in different solids, and their impact on observable magnetic properties. (LO1) Atomic structure basis for magnetic moments.(LO2) Definition of Magnetisation, magnetic susceptibility, diamagnetism, paramagnetism(LO3) Magnetic moments of ions.(LO4) Crystal fields and local environments(LO5) Magnetic ordering, M vs T curve.(LO6) Types of magnetic order: Ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism.(LO7) Quantum origin of magnetism
• ##### Semiconductor Applications (PHYS389)
Level 3 7.5 First Semester 60:40 To develop the physics concepts describing semiconductors in sufficient details for the purpose of understanding the construction and operation of common semiconductor devices (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have: Knowledge of the basic theory of p-n junctions Knowledge of the structure and function of a variety of semiconductor devices An overview of semiconductor device manufacturing processes Knowledge of the basic processes involved in the interaction of radiation with matter Understanding the application of semiconductors in Nuclear and Particle physics
• ##### Statistics for Physics Analysis (PHYS392)
Level 3 15 First Semester 50:50 To give a theoretical and practical understanding of the statistical principles involved in the analysis and interpretation of data. To give practice in analysing data by computer program. To show how to write code to solve problems in data analysis. (LO1) Knowledge of experimental errors and probability distributions(LO2) The ability to use statistical methods in data analysis(LO3) The ability to apply statistical analysis to data from a range of sources(LO4) Using statistical information to determine the validity of a hypothesis or experimental measurement(LO5) The ability to write code to analyse data sets(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Numeracy(S3) Digital scholarship participating in emerging academic, professional and research practices that depend on digital systems(S4) IT skills
• ##### Energy Generation and Storage (PHYS372)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 The module aims to enable students to understand physical concepts related to key sources of energy generation and to carry out related analysis. (LO1) Learned the fundamental physical principles underlying energy production using conventional and renewable energy sources(LO2) Studied the applications of these principles in the design issues power generation(LO3) An appreciation of the role of mathematics in modelling power generation(LO4) Developed problem solving skills based on the material presented(LO5) Developed an appreciation of the problems of supplying the required future energy needs and the scope and issues associated with the different possible methods
• ##### Nuclear Power (PHYS376)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 100:0 To develop an ability which allows educated and well informed opinions to be formed by the next generation of physicists on a wide range of issues in the context of the future energy needs of man. To describe and understand methods of utilising renewable energy sources such as hydropower, tidal power, wave power, wind power and solar power. To give knowledge and understanding of the design and operation of nuclear reactors To give knowledge and understanding of nuclear fusion as a source of power To give knowledge and understanding relevant to overall safety in the nuclear power industry To describe the origin of environmental radioactivity and understand the effects of radiation on humans (LO1) Learned the fundamental physical principles underlying nuclear fission and fusion reactors(LO2) Studied the applications of these principles in the design issues power generation(LO3) An appreciation of the role of mathematics in modelling power generation(LO4) Learned the fundamental physical principles concerning the origin and consequences of environmental radioactivity(LO5) Developed an awareness of the safety issues involved in exposure to radiation(LO6) Developed problem solving skills based on the material presented(LO7) Developed an appreciation of the problems of supplying the required future energy needs and the scope and issues associated with the different possible methods
• ##### Medical Applications (PHYS384)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the physics principles of radiation therapy and treatment planning; to understand interactions of radiation with biological materials and detectors; to understand the need for modelling in radiobiological applications; to obtain a knowledge of imaging modalities used for diagnosis and treatment verification; to construct a simple model of a radiation therapy application. (LO1) To understand the principles of radiotherapy and treatment planning.(LO2) To develop a knowledge of radiation transport and the interaction of radiation with biological tissue.(LO3) to understand the need for Monte Carlo modelling and beam modelling(LO4) to have a knowledge of the principles of common imaging modalities used in medicine(LO5) to have a basic understanding of radiobiology(LO6) to have experience developing a simple radiotherapy treatment plan(S1) Problem solving skills.
• ##### Stellar Atmospheres (PHYS352)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 80:20 To provide students with an understanding of the properties of the light  emitted by stars, of the effect of expanding atmospheres and of the  relevance for Supernovae. To enable students to determine the basic phy sical properties of stars  from observational data (e.g. Temp, Radius, Mass, composition) and the  properties of expanding media (stellar winds: velocity, mass-loss rate;  Supernovae: velocity, mass, kinetic energy, nucleosynthesis) (LO1) Knowledge of how the physical properties of stars and supernovae can be determined from spectroscopic observations.(LO2) An understanding of how the interaction between radiation and matter determines the observable properties of stars.(LO3) An understanding of how radiation propagates through a medium (a gas), affecting its properties(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Analytic skills applied to stellar atmospheres
• ##### Planetary Physics (PHYS355)
Level 3 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 To provide a background in Geophysics and solar system planetary science towards the understanding of exoplanet system research; to introduce methods of exoplanet detection, and current physical understanding of exoplanet systems. (LO1) Understanding of the principles of physics applied to understanding the interior of the Earth.(LO2) Understanding of theories of solar system formation and evolution, including orbital evolution.(LO3) Understanding of models of the interiors, atmospheres and magnetospheres of planets in the solar system.(LO4) Understanding and application of methods of exoplanet detection.(LO5) Introduction to planetary study of non-solar system bodies.(S1) Problem solving skills.(S2) Numeracy.(S3) IT skills.
• ##### Physics of Galaxies (PHYS373)
Level 3 15 First Semester 60:40 To provide students with a broad overview of these complex yet fundamental systems which interact at one end with the physics of stars and the interstellar medium and at the other with cosmology and the nature of large-scale structures in the Universe; to develop in students an understanding of how the various distinct components in galaxies evolve and interact. (LO1) Interpret physically the properties of normal galaxies along the Hubble sequence(LO2) Account for the stellar, gas, dust and dark matter content of galaxies(LO3) Describe the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context.(LO4) Analyze the structure and dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, using advanced classical mechanics and Newtonian gravity.(LO5) Apply fundamental physics to calculate the dynamical state of groups and clusters of galaxies, their intracluster gas, and their dark matter content.(LO6) Describe large-scale structure in the Universe, the nature of the first galaxies, and their implications for dark matter and cosmology.(LO7) Identify, summarise and present the content of research papers relevant for the field of galactic astronomy(S1) Organisational skills(S2) Problem solving skills(S3) Communication skills
• ##### Relativity and Cosmology (PHYS374)
Level 3 15 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce the ideas of general relativity and demonstrate its relevance to modern astrophysics; to provide students with a full and rounded introduction to modern observational cosmology; to develop the basic theoretical background required to understand and appreciate the significance of recent results from facilities such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. (LO1) The ability to explain the relationship between Newtonian gravity and Einstein's General Relativity (GR).(LO2) Understanding of the concept of curved space time and knowledge of metrics.(LO3) A broad and up-to-date knowledge of the basic ideas, most important discoveries and outstanding problems in modern cosmology.(LO4) Knowledge of how simple cosmological models of the universe are constructed.(LO5) The ability to calculate physical parameters and make observational predictions for a range of such models.
• ##### Chaos and Dynamical Systems (MATH322)
Level 3 15 First Semester 50:50 To develop expertise in dynamical systems in general and study particular systems in detail. (LO1) After completing the module students will be able to understand the possible behaviour of dynamical systems with particular attention to chaotic motion;(LO2) After completing the module students will be familiar with techniques for extracting fixed points and exploring the behaviour near such fixed points;(LO3) After completing the module students will understand how fractal sets arise and how to characterise them.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Numeracy
• ##### Relativity (MATH326)
Level 3 15 First Semester 50:50 (i) To introduce the physical principles behind Special and General Relativity and their main consequences;(ii) To develop the competence in the mathematical framework of the subjects - Lorentz transformation and Minkowski space-time, semi-Riemannian geometry and curved space-time, symmetries and conservation laws, Variational principles.(iii) To develop the understanding of the dynamics of particles and of the Maxwell field in Minkowski space-time, and of particles in curved space-time(iv) To develop the knowledge of tests of General Relativity, including the classical tests (perihelion shift, gravitational deflection of light)(v) To understand the basic concepts of black holes and (time permitting) relativistic cosmology and gravitational waves. (LO1) To be proficient at calculations involving Lorentz transformations, the kinematical and dynamical quantities associated to particles in Minkowski space-times, and the application of the conservation law for the four-momentum to scattering processes.(LO2) To know the relativistically covariant form of the Maxwell equations .(LO3) To know the action principles for relativistic particles, the Maxwell field and the gravitational field.(LO4) To be proficient at calculations in semi-Riemannian geometry as far as needed for General Relativity, including calculations involving general coordinate transformations, tensor fields, covariant derivatives, parallel transport, geodesics and curvature.(LO5) To understand the arguments leading to the Einstein's field equations and how Newton's law of gravity arises as a limiting(LO6) To be able to calculate the trajectories of bodies in a Schwarzschild space-time.(S1) problem solving skills(S2) numeracy

### Programme Year Four

In the final year of the course you will have considerable flexibility to choose between the many optional modules based around various physics research areas. You will also undertake an extended project with a member of staff, normally in their research area.

#### Year Four Compulsory Modules

• ##### Project (mphys) (PHYS498)
Level M 30 Whole Session 0:100 To give students experience of working independently on an original problem to give students an opportunity to be involved in scientific research To encourage learning, understanding and application of a particular physics subject.To give students an opportunity to display qualities such as initiative and ingenuity.To improve students ability to keep daily records of the work in hand and its outcomes To develop students' competence in scientific communication, both in oral and written form. (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have: Experience of participation in planning all aspects of the work Experience researching literature and other sources of relevant information Experience of the practical nature of physics(LO2) The student should have improved practical and technical skills to carrying out physics investigations(LO3) The student will gain an appreciation of a selected area of current physics research(LO4) The student should have an ability to organise and manage time and to plan, execute and report on the results of an investigation(S1) Skills in scientific analysis and scientific writing

#### Year Four Optional Modules

• ##### Classical Mechanics (PHYS470)
Level M 15 First Semester 60:40 To provide students with an awareness of the physical principles that can be applied to understand important features of classical (i.e. non-quantum) mechanical systems. To provide students with techniques that can be applied to derive and solve the equations of motion for various types of classical mechanical systems, including systems of particles and fields. To develop students' understanding of the fundamental relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in physics. To reinforce students’ knowledge of quantum mechanics, by developing and exploring the application of closely-related concepts in classical mechanics. (LO1) Students should know the physical principles underlying the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics, in particular Newton's laws of motion and Hamilton’s principle, and should be able to explain the significance of Hamilton's principles in classical and modern physics.(LO2) Students should be able to apply the Euler-Lagrange equations and Hamilton’s equations (as appropriate) to derive the equations of motion for specific dynamical systems, including complex nonlinear systems.(LO3) Students should be able to use advanced concepts in classical mechanics to describe the connection between symmetries and conservation laws.(LO4) Students should be able to apply advanced techniques, including conservation laws, canonical transformations, generating functions, perturbation theory etc. to describe important features of various dynamical systems (including systems of particles and fields) and to solve the equations of motion in specific cases.(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Numeracy(S3) Communication skills
• ##### Advanced Quantum Physics (PHYS480)
Level M 15 First Semester 60:40 To build on Y3 module on Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics (PHYS203) with the intention of providing breadth and depth in the understanding of the commonly used aspects of Quantum mechanics. To develop an understanding of the ideas of perturbation theory for complex quantum systems and of Fermi's Golden Rule. To develop an understanding of the techniques used to describe the scattering of particles. To demonstrate creation and annihilation operators using the harmonic oscillator as an example. To develop skills which enable numerical calculation of real physical quantum problem. To encourage enquiry into the philosophy of quantum theory including its explanation of classical mechanics. (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have: Understanding of advanced quantum mechanical calculations (operators in matrix form, Dirac notation, etc.). Understanding of perturbation techniques. Understanding of transition and other matrix elements. Understanding of phase space factors. Understanding of partial wave techniques. Understanding of basic cross section calculations(LO2) Understanding of examples of state-of-the art quantum physics experiments.(LO3) Understanding of the implications of quantum physics in our daily lives(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) Analytic skills applied to quantum systems.(S3) Communicating advanced physics problems.
• ##### Astrophysics Research Skills (PHYS496)
Level M 7.5 First Semester 0:100 To demonstrate and provide experience of key aspects of professional practice in scientific research-related careers other than the research itself, such as peer review, proposal development, experimental design, and public communication of research results. To provide the opportunity for students to deepen their background understanding of specific astrophysics topics, especially those related to their final-year project. To develop the ability of the student to think critically about published scientific results, dealing with the objective criticism of existing articles, papers and lecture/seminar presentations, as well as the creation of new material and to communicate results and ideas in astrophysics at a range of technical levels. To help students bridge the gap between understanding undergraduate texts and dissecting a journal paper, while at the same time emphasising the importance of being able to communicate ideas concisely and clearly at a simpler level (LO1) The ability to create their own articles, research proposals, discussions, etc., building on the experience gained during the module, and to use this experience beyond the module content.(LO2) The critical-thinking skills needed to form evidence-based arguments and communicate these persuasively in a wide range of contexts from peer review to formal proposal writing.(LO3) The ability to understand and objectively critique current arguments in astrophysics and communicate these appropriately at a range of levels up to to research seminars and proposals.(LO4) An understanding of professional practice in science research(LO5) A deeper knowledge of current topics in modern astrophysics(S1) Communication skills(S2) Organisational skills(S3) Communication (oral, written and visual) - Influencing skills – argumentation(S4) Information skills - Information accessing:[Locating relevant information] [Identifying and evaluating information sources]
• ##### Magnetic Structure and Function (PHYS497)
Level M 7.5 First Semester 100:0 p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal{margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:8.0pt;margin-left:0cm;line-height:107%;font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;}.MsoChpDefault{font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;}.MsoPapDefault{margin-bottom:8.0pt;line-height:107%;}@page WordSection1{size:612.0pt 792.0pt;margin:72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt;}div.WordSection1{page:WordSection1;} To build on the third year module Condensed Matter Physics  To develop an understanding of the phenomena and fundamental mechanisms of magnetism in condensed matter (LO1) Have a basic understanding of the quantum origin of magnetism and magnetic moments.(LO2) Understand the concept of magnetic order and the role of exchange interactions.(LO3) Be able to identify the properties associated with various types of magnetism.(LO4) Be able to explain the cause of magnetic phenomena such as hysteresis and domain formation.
• ##### Accelerator Physics (PHYS481)
Level M 7.5 First Semester 60:40 To build on modules on electricity, magnetism and waves;To study the functional principle of different types of particle accelerators and their science and societal applications;To study the generation of ion and electron beams;To study the layout and the design of simple ion and electron optics;To study basic concepts in radio frequency engineering and technology;To understand the motion of beams of charged particles and their control (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have: An understanding of the description of the motion of charged particles in complex electromagnetic fields; An understanding of different types of accelerators, in which energy range and for which purposes they are utilised; An understanding of the generation and technical exploitation of synchrotron radiation; An understanding of the concept and the necessity of beam cooling.(S1) Presentation of recent research results in accelerator R&D through a scientific poster; learning about a new area through group discussions
• ##### Nanoscale Physics and Technology (PHYS499)
Level M 7.5 Second Semester 100:0 • To introduce the emerging fields of nanoscale physics and nanotechnology • To describe experimental techniques for probing physical properties of nanostructured materials • To describe the novel size-dependent electronic, optical, magnetic and chemical properties of nanoscale materials • To describe several ‘hot topics' in nanoscience research • To develop students' problem-solving, investigative, communication and analytic skills through appropriate assignments for tutorials and a literature project. (LO1) The ability to explain how and why nanoscale systems form.(LO2) The ability to describe how nanoscale systems may be probed experimentally and compare different techniques in terms of strengths and weaknesses.(LO3) The ability to explain and apply the fundamental principles that govern nanoscale systems.(LO4) The ability to describe potential applications and to discuss their wider applications.(S1) Critical thinking and problem solving - Critical analysis(S2) Communication (oral, written and visual) - Presentation skills – oral(S3) Communication (oral, written and visual) - Report writing(S4) Critical thinking and problem solving - Evaluation
• ##### Physics of Life (PHYS482)
Level M 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 To introduce students to the physical principles needed to address important problems such as climate change, the loss of biodiversity, the understanding of ecological systems, the growth of resistance to antibiotics, the challenge of sustainable development and the study of disease. These problems offer excellent opportunities for rewarding careers. (LO1) An understanding of the conditions necessary for life to evolve in a universe.(LO2) An understanding of the thermodynamics and organization of living things.(LO3) Familiarity with physical techniques used in the study of biological systems.(LO4) An understanding of current ideas of how life may have evolved on earth.(LO5) An understanding of how the earth’s climate has varied over geological time.(S1) Problem solving skills.
• ##### Advanced Nuclear Physics (PHYS490)
Level M 15 Second Semester 100:0 To build on the year 3 modules on Nuclear Physics To offer an insight into current ideas about the description of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter (LO1) Knowledge of the basic properties of nuclear forces and the experimental evidence upon which these are based(LO2) Knowledge of the factors governing nuclear shapes(LO3) Understanding of the origin of pairing forces and the effect of these and rotational forces on nuclear behaviour(LO4) An overview of phenomena observed for exotic nuclei far from the line of nuclear stability(LO5) Knowledge of astrophysical nucleosynthesis processes(LO6) Knowledge of phases of nuclear matter
• ##### Neutrinos and Dark Matter (PHYS492)
Level M 7.5 Second Semester 60:40 To build on PHYS377 to provide an understanding of neutrino physics and dark matter, including key experimental methods used in their detection.  To provide an understanding of the low background experimental techniques that underpin both areas (LO1) Understand neutrino physics including spin, flavour, neutrino oscillations, sterile neutrinos,  neutrinoless double beta decay, dirac and majorana neutrinos, leptogenisis and cosmic neutrinos(LO2) Understand dark matter including evidence, DM models including WMPS and axions, direct detection, indirect detection, DM detection at colliders(LO3) Understand low background experimental techniques including, underground laboratories, cosmic muons, Th chains and K, Radon, Spallation and activation, neutrons
• ##### Advanced Particle Physics (PHYS493)
Level M 15 Second Semester 60:40 To build on the Year 3 module PHYS377 Particle Physics to give the student a deeper understanding of the Standard Model of Particle Physics and the basic extensions to review the detectors and accelerator technology available to investigate the questions posed by the Standard Model and its extensions. (LO1) An understanding of the Standard Model and its extensions. This will be placed in context of the understanding of the origin of the universe, its properties and its physical laws(LO2) An understanding of how present and future detector and accelerator technology will be applied to investigate the development of the Standard Model(LO2) An understanding of how present and future detector and accelerator technology will be applied to investigate the development of the Standard Model(LO3) An understanding of the effects of symmetries on particle properties(LO4) Ablity to caclulate decay rates for particles(S1) Problem solving skills(S2) International awareness(S3) Organisational skills(S4) Problem solving/ critical thinking/ creativity analysing facts and situations and applying creative thinking to develop appropriate solutions.
• ##### Stellar Populations (PHYS483)
Level M 15 First Semester 0:100 To build upon the students' knowledge of stellar evolution and describe techniques currently employed to investigate the evolution of stellar populations in the universe. To provide the physical background underlying these techniques, and study their application to observations of Galactic and extra galactic stellar systems. (LO1) An understanding of the evolution with age and chemical composition of the Colour-Magnitude-Diagrams of resolved stellar populations.(LO2) Methods to estimate distances, ages and initial chemical compostions of resolved stellar populations.(LO3) An understanding of the evolution with age and chemical composition of the  integrated photometric properties of stellar populations.(LO4) An understanding of the evolution of integrated spectral features of stellar populations with age and chemical composition.(LO5) Knowledge of age and chemical composition diagnostics from integrated photometry and spectroscopy of stellar populations.(S1) Communication (oral, written and visual) - Presentation skills – oral(S2) Information skills - Critical reading(S3) Research skills - All Information skills(S4) Communication (oral, written and visual) - Academic writing (inc. referencing skills)(S5) Improving own learning/performance - Personal action planning
• ##### Elements of Stellar Dynamics (PHYS484)
Level M 7.5 First Semester 60:40 To show that there is more to gravity than Newton's law. This will provide the students with a basic understanding of the dynamics of systems containing millions and billions of point-like gravitating bodies: stars in stellar clusters and galaxies. (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have the ability to show how dynamical processes shape the structure of galaxies and stellar clusters(LO2) Describe the motion of stars in stellar systems(LO3) Apply orbital analysis to stellar systems(LO4) Demonstrate an understanding of the implications of the continuity equation(S1) Problem solving skills
• ##### Physics of the Radiative Universe (PHYS485)
Level M 15 Second Semester 60:40 - Understand the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium and its consequences on radiation- To see how physical phenomena can be applied and used to explain the appearance and spectra of celestial objects. - To introduce Einstein's A and B coefficients - To introduce several important radiation mechanisms at work in a variety of astronomical sources - To understand the major physical phenomena at work in non-stellar astronomical sources. Such as HII regions, giant radio lobes, supernova remnants (LO1) At the end of the module the student should have the ability to - Relate observable quantities to physical conditions and mechanism(s)(LO2) - Describe and calculate the emergent flux and spectrum for several mechanisms (e.g.Bremsstrahlung, synchrotron, Compton effect)(LO3) - Apply this knowledge to understand the properties and behaviour of different objects (active galaxies, neutron stars, H II regions, gamma-ray bursts)(LO4) - Describe the physics of a few important line ratios in HII regions(LO5) - Understand several cooling and heating mechanisms in astrophysical plasmas(LO6) - Describe and use the concept of Eddington luminosity in several different situations(LO7) - Use measurements of the HI 21cm line to deduce astrophysical information(LO8) - Understand the basic physics of gamma-ray bursts(S1) Problem solving skills
• ##### Time Domain Astrophysics (PHYS453)
Level M 7.5 Second Semester 0:100 The main aim of this module is to develop an understanding of the variable/transient Universe, and the techniques and facilities used to investigate this realm. Particularly, a good understanding of the physical processes driving phenomena such as, for example, explosive transients, will be sought, along with an appreciation of the wider importance and impact of such systems. (LO1) Demonstrate a detailed knowledge and understanding of time-domain astrophysics(LO2) Use the course content to coherently describe the physical nature of variable/transient astrophysical phenomena (e.g. SNe, GRBs)(LO3) Show familiarity with the specific observational techniques and facilities used to identify and study variable/transient phenomena(LO4) Conduct independent literature search to gain understanding of an additional time-domain phenomenon

The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.

#### Teaching and Learning

Our research-led teaching ensures you are taught the latest advances in cutting-edge physics research. Lectures introduce and provide the details of the various areas of physics and related subjects. You will be working in tutorials and problem-solving workshops, which are another crucial element in the learning process, where you put your knowledge into practice. They help you to develop a working knowledge and understanding of physics. All of the lecturers also perform world class research and use this to enhance their teaching.

Most work takes place in small groups with a tutor or in a larger class where staff provide help as needed. Practical work is an integral part of the programmes, and ranges from training in basic laboratory skills in the first two years to a research project in the third or fourth year. You will undertake an extended project on a research topic with a member of staff who will mentor you. By the end of the degree you will be well prepared to tackle problems in any area and present yourself and your work both in writing and in person. In the first two years students take maths modules which provide the support all students need to understand the physics topics.