# Geophysics (Physics) BSc (Hons)

- Course length: 3 years
- UCAS code: F656
- Year of entry: 2018
- Typical offer: A-level : ABB / IB : 33 / BTEC : D*DD

## Honours Select

×This programme offers Honours Select combinations.

## Honours Select 100

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Single Honours (100%).

## Honours Select 75

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Major (75%).

## Honours Select 50

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Joint Honours (50%).

## Honours Select 25

×This programme is available through Honours Select as a Minor (25%).

## Study abroad

×This programme offers study abroad opportunities.

## Year in China

×This programme offers the opportunity to spend a Year in China.

## Accredited

×This programme is accredited.

### Module details

### Programme Year One

Students take the following compulsory modules:

- Study Skills ENVS101
- Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics ENVS112
- Newtonian DynamicsPHYS101
- Foundations of Modern PhysicsPHYS104
- Maths for Physicists 1PHYS107
- Maths for Physicists 2PHYS108

Fieldwork:

1 day in North England (Autumn)

#### Year One Compulsory Modules

##### Study Skills and Gis (earth Science) (ENVS101)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To develop essential study and disciplinary skills required by Environmental Scientists, both for their current studies and future employment.

- Introduce students to key approaches/concepts and ideas in the Earth Sciences
- To help students identify and effectively employ appropriate sources of data and information
- Develop students'' study skills and provide essential training for subsequent years
- Develop students'' personal transferable skills.

To introduce the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to Environmental Science

- To introduce students to computer programming.

**Learning Outcomes**Record field observations and ideas, and write a reflective account.

Plan and structure written work to University standard.

Demonstrate basic GIS interpretation and analysis techniques.

Use IT tools to find accurate and up to date information, including University Library resources.

Develop programming skills for use in later modules.

Develop employability skills through a CV and application letter exercise.

Develop ability to communicate science in a small group.

Demonstrate understanding of UoL Academic Integrity policy.

##### Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics (ENVS112)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**75:25 **Aims**To introduce students to the structure and composition of the Earth, the Earth’s gravitational and magnetic fields, and dynamics within the deep Earth.

To introduce students to the physics of Earth material and the geological time scale.

To introduce students to plate tectonics.**Learning Outcomes**1. Knowledge and Understanding On completion of this module, students should:

a. Have concepts and knowledge of whole Earth structure and composition, Earth’s gravity and magnetic fields, and dynamic processes within the mantle and core.

b. Have concepts and knowledge of the physical properties and behaviour of Earth material.

c. Have concepts and knowledge of the geological time scale and radiometric dating methods.

d. Be able to understand the plate tectonic model and the relationship between plate tectonics and geological and geophysical observations in the major plate tectonic settings.2. Intellectual Abilities On completion of this module, students shouldbe able:

a. to explain and evaluate the relationships between Earth structure, composition, physical behaviour and Earth dynamics;

b. to explain and evaluate the relationships between plate tectonics and geological and geophysical processes and observations in the major plate tectonic settings.3. Subject Based Practical Skills On completion of this module, students should:

a. be able to manipulate geological and geophysical data to help understand Earth structure and processes.

4. General Transferable Skills On completion of this module, students should have developed their skills in:

a. problem solving including simple numerical problems;

b. numeracy through completion of assignments;

c. Information synthesis and collation;

d. time management through regular assignment deadlines.##### Newtonian Dynamics (PHYS101)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**- To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of classical mechanics at an elementary level.
- To provide an introduction to the study of fluids.
- To introduce the use of elementary vector algebra in the context of mechanics.

**Learning Outcomes**Demonstrate a basic knowledge of the laws of classical mechanics, and understand physical quantities with magnitudes, directions (where applicable), units and uncertainties.

- understand physical quantities with magnitudes, directions (where applicable), units and uncertainties.
- apply the laws of mechanics to statics, linear motion, motion in a plane, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion and gravitation.

Apply the laws of mechanics to unseen situations and solve problems.

Develop a knowledge and understanding of the analysis of linear and rotational motion.

Develop a knowledge and understanding of the analysis of orbits, gravity, simple harmonic motion and fluid flow.

##### Foundations of Modern Physics (PHYS104)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**- To introduce the theory of special relativity and its experimental proofs.
- To carry out calculations using relativity and visualise them.
- To introduce the concepts and the experimental foundations of quantum theory.
- To carry out simple calculations related to quantum mechanical problem tasks.
- To show the impact of relativity and quantum theory on contemporary science and society.

**Learning Outcomes**An understanding why classical mechanics must have failed to describe the properties of light, the motion of objects with speeds close to the speed of light and the properties of microspopic systems.

A basic knowledge on the experimental and theoretical concepts which founded modern physics, i.e. that either relativity or quantum theory or both are needed to explain certain phenomena.

A knowledge of the postulates of special relativity.

An understanding of the concept of spacetime, of the relativity of length, time and velocity.

An ability to apply the Lorentz transformation and the concept of Lorentz invariance to simple cases

An ability to apply the equations of relativistic energy, momentum and rest mass.

An understanding of the Doppler effect for light and visualisation of relativistic effects.

An ability to solve problems based on special relativity.

An understanding why quantum theory is the conceptual framework to understand the microscopic properties of the universe.

An understanding of the quantum theory of light and the ability to apply the energy-momentum conservation for light, e.g. photo-electric effect, Compton effect.

An understanding of the structure of atoms and its experimental foundations.

An understanding of Bohr''s theory of the atom and its application to the H-atom including the concept of principal quantum numbers.

An understanding of de Broglie waves and their statistical interpretation.

An ability to explain the experimental evidence of de Broglie waves with scattering experiments of electrons, X-rays and neutrons.

An understanding of the principles of quantum mechanical measurements and Heisenberg''s uncertainty principle.

An understanding of the identity principle of microscopic particles and the basic idea of quantum (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein) statistics.

A basic knowledge of contemporary applications of quantum theory and relativity, e.g. nuclear reactor and nuclear fissions, and the impact on our society.

##### Mathematics for Physicists I (PHYS107)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**To provide a foundation for the mathematics required by physical scientists.

To assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to use the mathematics developed in the module.

**Learning Outcomes**- a good working knowledge of differential and integral calculus
- familiarity with some of the elementary functions common in applied mathematics and science

- an introductory knowledge of functions of several variables

- manipulation of complex numbers and use them to solve simple problems involving fractional powers

- an introductory knowledge of series

- a good rudimentary knowledge of simple problems involving statistics: binomial and Poisson distributions, mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean
##### Mathematics for Physicists II (PHYS108)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**- To consolidate and extend the understanding of mathematics required for the physical sciences.
- To develop the student’s ability to apply the mathematical techniques developed in the module to the understanding of physical problems.

**Learning Outcomes**Ability to manipulate matrices with confidence and use matrix methods to solve simultaneous linear equations. Familiarity with methods for solving first and second order differential equations in one variable.

A basic knowledge of vector algebra.

A basic understanding of Fourier series and transforms.

A basic understanding of series methods for the solution of differential equations

##### Introduction to Structural Geology and Geological Maps (ENVS156)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**80:20 **Aims**To introduce small- and large-scale geological structures.

To introduce the principles of stress and strain.

To introduce stereographic projection techniques.

To use synthetic and real topographic and geological maps to teach a basic understanding of geological maps as representations of geometry and stratigraphy.

**Learning Outcomes**1. Knowledge and Understanding On the successful completion of this module students should:

a. know the geometry and nomenclature of geological structures;

b. understand the appropriate classification schemes for geological structures;

c. understand how selected small-scale structures may be used to interpret the geometry of large-scale structures.

d. recognising common geological map patterns and elements.

e. understanding geological map conventions

f. understanding that 3D geometry can be interpreted from map data.

g. stratigraphic concepts as applied to maps

2. Intellectual Abilities On the successful completion of this module students should:

a. have developed strategies for the description and identification of geological structures;

b. have an appreciation of stress and strain.

c. be able to visualise the 3D interaction of geological surfaces with topography

d. be able to synthesise a sequence of events from information on a geological map

3. Subject Based Practical Skills On the successful completion of this module students should be competent in:

a. the use of the compass-clinometer;

b. the plotting and manipulation of orientation data using stereographic projection;

c. the portrayal of three-dimensional structures in two-dimensions;

d. the interpretation of two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional structures.

e. use of topographic maps: including finding and reading grid references, reading distances and directions, reading topography using contours.

f. the use of structure contours, to map the 3D shape of geologically important surfaces

g. construction of cross sections and generalised vertical successions from geological maps.

h. use of the compass clinometer for recording bearings

4. General Transferable Skills On the successful completion of this module students should have:

a. learnt, by example, how to use textbooks to support their studies.

b. practical use of topographic and geological maps.

c. ability to work neatly and legibly on maps

##### Thermal Physics (PHYS102)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**The module aims to make the student familiar with

- The concepts of Thermal Physics
- The zeroth, first and second laws of Thermodynamics
- Heat engines
- The kinetic theory of gasses
- Entropy
- The equation of state
- Van der Waals equation
- States of matter and state changes
- The basis of statistical mechanics

**Learning Outcomes**Construct a temperature scale and understand how to calibrate a thermometer with that scale

Calculate the heat flow into and work done by a system and how that is constrained by the first law of Thermodynamics

Analyse the expected performance of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators

Relate the second law of thermodynamics to the operation of heat engines, particularly the Carnot engine

Understand the kinetic theory of gases and calculate properties of gases including the heat capacity and mean free path

Use the theory of equipartition to relate the structure of the molecules to the measured heat capacity

Calculate the linear and volume thermal expansions of materials

Understand the basis of entropy and relate this to the second law of thermodynamics andcalculate entropy changesRelate the equation of state for a material to the macroscopic properties of the material

Understand the PV and PT diagrams for materials and the phase transitions that occur when changing the state variables for materials

Be able to link the microscopic view of a system to its macroscopic state variables

### Programme Year Two

Students take the following compulsory modules:

- Geophysical Mathematics and Potential Theory ENVS201
- Exploration Geophysics ENVS216
- Seismology and Computing ENVS229
- Environmental Geophysics ENVS258
- Electromagnetism PHYS201
- Condensed Matter Physics PHYS202
- Quantum and Atomic Physics PHYS203

#### Year Two Compulsory Modules

##### Geophysical Mathematics and Potential Theory (ENVS201)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**40:60 **Aims**To provide mathematical training required for geophysical research, with a specific focus on:

1) Mathematical methods, providing a bridge between year 1 mathematics courses and geophysical applications in year 3 and 4.

2) The application of these methods, with particular emphasis on applied potential theory (gravity and magnetic methods).**Learning Outcomes**Knowledge of mathematical methods appropriate for geophysical science.

Advanced knowledge and understanding of the concepts of gravity and magnetic field potentials, fundamental mathematical framework of potential field theory, and application to data manipulation and interpretation.

The ability to manipulate gravitational and magnetic data using potential field theory.

Report writing from practical exercise, involving synthesising and presenting key conclusions rather than a simple practical report - to mimic professional reporting.

##### Exploration Geophysics (ENVS216)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**This module aims to enable students to gain an understanding in the basic principles and practise of exploration geophysics

**Learning Outcomes**On successful completion of the module, students should be capable of explaining the principles of seismic refraction and reflection, electrical and electromagnetic methods, gravity and magnetic surveying and well logging.

On successful completion of the module students should be able to identify which geophysical technique(s) should be applied to the solution of specific geological and environmental problems.

On successful completion of the module students should be able to carry out simple interpretations of data derived from the application of these geophysical methods.

##### Seismology and Computing (ENVS229)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**- Understanding fundamentals of theoretical and observational seismology.
- Familiarization with basic MATLAB programming.
Understanding of and ability to analyse various seismological data sets.

**Learning Outcomes** 1. Knowledge and Understanding On successful completion of this module students should have knowledge of and understand fundamentals of seismology and its applications, and should have some familiarity in programming in Matlab.

2. Subject Based Practical Skills

On successful completion of this module, students should be able to

a) apply theory and methods to seismological data, analyse seismological data.

b) Programme in MATLAB

On successful completion of this module, students should have developed their skills in:

a) communication (written)

b) numeracy through practicals and homework

c) teamwork in practicals

d) IT literacy, including programming skills, through practicals

e) time management through practicals and homework

- Understanding fundamentals of theoretical and observational seismology.
##### Environmental Geophysics (ENVS258)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**40:60 **Aims**This module aims to build on theory taught in ENVS216 through practical application of methods previously taught. In addition, fundamentals of remote sensing will be taught. The module will equip students with experience in a range of geophysical methods, carrying out surveys and associated data analysis and interpretation. How the various methods can be integrated will also be explored. **Learning Outcomes**Students will learn fundamentals of good survey practice in electrical, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods to make them ready for field-based activity with industry.

Students will learn basics of remote sensing techniques and how to interpret images, including through the use of GIS.##### Electromagnetism (PHYS201)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**- To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of electrostatics, magnetostatics, electromagnetism and Maxwell''s equations, and electromagnetic waves.
- To introduce differential vector analysis in the context of electromagnetism.
- To introduce circuit principles and analysis (EMF, Ohm''s law, Kirchhoff''s rules, RC and RLC circuits)
- To introduce the formulation fo Maxwell''s equations in the presence of dielectric and magnetic materials.
- To develop the ability of students to apply Maxwell''s equations to simple problems involving dielectric and magnetic materials.
- To develop the concepts of field theories in Physics using electromagnetism as an example.
- To introduce light as an electromagnetic wave.

**Learning Outcomes**Demonstrate a good knowledge of the laws of electromagnetism and an understanding of the practical meaning of Maxwell''s equations in integral and differential forms.

Apply differential vector analysis to electromagnetism.

Demonstrate simple knowledge and understanding of how the presence of matter affects electrostatics and magnetostatics, and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations.

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how the laws are altered in the case of non-static electric and magnetic fields and the ability to solve simple problems in these situations.

##### Condensed Matter Physics (PHYS202)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims** The aims of Phys202 are to introduce the most important and basic concepts in condensed matter physics relating to the different materials we commonly see in the world around us. Condensed matter physics is one of the most active areas of research in modern physics, whose scope is extremely broad. The ultimate aim of this course is to introduce its central ideas and methodology to the students.

Condensed matter refers to both liquids and solids and all kinds of other forms of matter in between those two extremes, generally known as “soft matter". While the course will touch on liquids, the emphasis will be on crystalline solids, including some nano-materials. The reason for focusing on crystals is that the periodicity of a crystal is what allows us to make progress in developing a theory for various phenomena in solids based on first principles. Two important concepts are:

• the electronic states of electrons in a solid and

• the vibrations of atoms in the solid.

The description of these ideas basically refer to the theory of electronic band structure and the theory of phonons. These concepts form the basis for understanding a wide range of phenomena including how the atoms bond together to form the crystal, what are some basic statistical properties like specific heat, how electrons move in solids and electronic transport, why are some materials metals and others semiconductors and insulators, and how do solids interact with electromagnetic fields. The course will also introduce optical and magnetic properties in solids, scattering phenomena, thermal conductivity and effect of defects in solids, semiconductors, magnetism and go beyond the free electron model to touch on intriguing effects such as superconductivity.

**Learning Outcomes**On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to understand the basic concepts of bonding in solids, establish an understanding of electron configuration in atoms and in the condensed matter in terms of bonding, and relating them to band structure description.

Students will be able to understand how solid structures are described mathematically and how material properties can be predicted.

Students will be able to establish a foundation in basic crystallography, using Bragg''s law, and understand the concept of the reciprocal lattice.

Students will understand basic transport properties, both electronic and thermal, in solids.

Students will understand the concept of electron and hole carrier statistics, effective masses and transport in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductorsStudents will learn the basics of magnetism, the atomic origin and classical treatment of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, quantization of angular momentum and Hund''s rule, and introduced to weak magnetism in solids.

Students will become familiar to the general language of condensed matter physics, key theories and concepts, ultimately enebling them to read and understand research papers.

##### Quantum and Atomic Physics (PHYS203)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**- To introduce students to the concepts of quantum theory.
- To show how Schrodinger''s equation is applied to particle flux and to bound states.
- To show how quantum ideas provide an understanding of atomic structure.

**Learning Outcomes**At the end of the module the student should have:

- An understanding of the reasons why microscopic systems require quantum description and statistical interpretation.
- Knowledge of the Schrodinger equation and how it is formulated to describe simple physical systems.
- Understanding of the basic technique of using Schrodinger''s equation and ability to determine solutions in simple cases.
- Understanding of how orbital angular momentum is described in quantum mechanics and why there is a need for spin.
- Understanding how the formalism of quantum mechanics describes the structure of atomic hydrogen and, schematically, how more complex atoms are described.

##### Wave Phenomena (PHYS103)

**Level**1 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**- To introduce the fundamental concepts and principles of wave phenomena.
- To highlight the many diverse areas of physics in which an understanding of waves is crucial.
- To introduce the concepts of interference and diffraction.

**Learning Outcomes**At the end of the module the student should be able to:

- Demonstrate an understanding of oscillators.
- Understand the fundamental principles underlying wave phenomena.
- Apply those principles to diverse phenomena.
- Understand wave reflection and transmission, superposition of waves.
- Solve problems on the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in vacuo and in dielectric materials.
- Understand linear and circular polarisation.
- Understand inteference and diffraction effects.
- Understand lenses and optical instruments.
- Apply Fourier techniques and understand their link to diffraction patterns.
- Understand the basic principles of lasers.

### Programme Year Three

Students take the following compulsory modules:

- Geophysical Project ENVS300
- Exploration Geophysics and Signal Processing ENVS343
- Geophysical Exploration Techniques ENVS362

Two options from:

- Ocean Dynamics ENVS332
- Planetary Geophysics ENVS340
- Geophysical Data Modelling ENVS386
- Science communication ENVS393
- Nuclear and Particle Physics PHYS204

Fieldwork:

14 days in Tenerife (winter)

#### Year Three Compulsory Modules

##### Geophysical Project (ENVS300)

**Level**3 **Credit level**30 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To provide a research level training in a specific geophysical subject area.

To develop the student''s ability to work independently.

To develop skills in presenting data and ideas visually, verbally and in written form.

**Learning Outcomes**Demonstrate an ability to followthe research literature to maintain knowledge of the specific field.

Demonstrate the ability to acquire,analyse and evaluate the significance of data in relation to an independentresearch project.

Demonstrate the ability to develop and test hypotheses.

Demonstrate a high-level knowledge of a specific field of Geophysics.

Demonstrate competence in audio-visual presentation through formalpresentations/talks

Demonstrate competance in the organisation and writing of word-processed scientificreports.##### Exploration Geophysics and Signal Processing (ENVS343)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**To provide an understanding of the theory and fundamental principles of signal processing;

To provide an understanding of the principal signal processing techniques and their applications to seismic reflection, refraction and passive seismological time series;

To gain familiarity with an industry standard reflection seismic processing package and the underlying work flows.

**Learning Outcomes**To be able to apply signal processingtechniques to problems in reflection, refraction, and passive seismology.

To identify problems inseismic processing which can be solved by signal processing techniques andevaluate the uncertainties in processed seismic sections.

To be able to use a compuer based seismic processing system and understand the fundamentals of a seismic processing work flow.

To be able to develop signal processing routines in MATLAB and graphical cimmunicate the results.

To gain an understanding of the principle theory and routines of signal processing.

##### Geophysical Exploration Techniques (ENVS362)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**To provide, for geophysics students, an understanding of:

1. The application of geophysical theory to exploration and engineering targets.

2. Practical use and evaluation of geophysical instrumentation, data acquisition, processing and interpretation.

**Learning Outcomes**To develop knowledge of the response of geophysical instruments to a variety of targets. To understand the physical principles, limitations and errors associated with geophysical data aquisition.

To synthesise and interpret multiple complex geophysical data sets within the appropriate geological context.

Develop problem solving skills analogous to working for a major exploration company or geophysical engineering company/consultancy, including planning, logistics, budgeting time and expenditure.

#### Year Three Optional Modules

##### Ocean Dynamics (ENVS332)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**100:0 **Aims**To gain a high level understanding of ocean and atmospheric dynamics:

- To understand the background state of the atmosphere and ocean;
- To address how tracers spread;
- To understand the effects of rotation and how jets and eddies form on a rotating planet;
- To understand how waves influence and interact with the ocean circulation;
- To understand why there are western boundary currents and gyres in ocean basins;
- To understand how topography shapes the deep ocean circulation over the globe.

**Learning Outcomes**Students will acquire knowledge of key concepts in ocean and atmosphere dynamics.

Students will learn to appreciate the approximate nature of theoretical ideas, and the strengths and weaknesses of such ideas as explanations of observed phenomena.

Students will develop mathematical skills in scale analysis of differential equations to isolate the essential phenomena.

Students will acquire experience in combining quantitative and qualitative understanding of dynamics to give clear explanations of observed phenomena in the ocean and atmosphere.

Students will develop an understanding of the factors controling fluid flows on a range of rotating planets.

##### Planetary Geophysics (ENVS340)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**- Detailed and comprehensive understanding of the structure, composition and dynamic behaviour of the Earth and an appreciation of the way multiple geophysical disciplines combine to contribute to our understanding of the Earth and solar system.
Awareness of research frontiers in the subject area and the activities underway to advance these.

**Learning Outcomes**Will understand current theories regarding the formation of the solar system.

Will understand current theories and controversies regarding the structure and dynamics of Earth from mantle to core including fundamentals of Earth models and the methods used to study planetary interiors. Will be able to compare and contrast the Earth to the other planets in the solar system.Will be able to integrate and synthesise, to some degree, different facts and arguments to derive unified conclusions concerning planetary structures and dynamics. Will be capable of analysing geophysical datasets in Matlab and Unix. Will be able to critically analyse and develop basic inferences from recent publications in the peer-reviewed literature. ##### Geophysical Data Modelling (ENVS386)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims**Ability to create geophysical models from data. Practical experience in inversion of mathematically linear problems, with knowledge of how to approach more general nonlinear problems.

Understanding of the limitations of such models, and how they should be interpreted, with particular reference to model non-uniqueness and instability. Optimisation theory, and its application to interpretation of geophysical models. Time series analysis with non-Fourier methods.

Understanding of basic statistics, confidence.

**Learning Outcomes**Knowledge and understanding of:

a) Eigenvalue analysis and its application to data analysis

b) Implications of model existence, uniqueness for interpretation.

c) Basic statistics, including confidence testing, central limit theory

Interpretation of statistical results and Geophysical modelling of real data sets

Ability to invert a large data set to give a geophysical model

Programming skills, in particular the ability to work in a unix/linux environment with shell programming.

##### Science Communication (ENVS393)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Whole Session **Exam:Coursework weighting**0:100 **Aims**Provide key transferable skills to undergraduates, including: communication, presentation, practical classroom skills and team working.

Provide classoom based experience for undergraduates who are considering teaching as a potential career

Encourage a new generation of STEM teachers.

Provide role models for pupils within schools located in areas of high deprivation.

Increase University of Liverpool widening participation activites within merseyside.

**Learning Outcomes**Have an understanding of the UK educational system and relevant teaching and learning styles.

Have an understanding of the Widening Participation Agenda

Have an understanding of relevant STEM subjects and activities that would link into the National Curriculum

Develop appropriate STEM activities for KS2 and KS3 school groups that link with the National Curriculum

Reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of the outreach acivities and their delivery

Be able to apply the relevant protocols and safeguarding practice when delivering within a school setting

Be able to apply practical knowledge of effective delivery styles when engaging with primary or secondary aged pupils

Have experience of planning the delivery of a project

Have experience of team working

Have experience of science communication in a variety of situations

##### Nuclear and Particle Physics (PHYS204)

**Level**2 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**- To introduce Rutherford and related scattering.
- To introduce nuclear size, mass and decay modes
- To provide some applications and examples of nuclear physics
- To introduce particle physics, including interactions, reactions and decay
- To show some recent experimental discoveries
- To introduce relativistic 4-vectors for applications to collision problems

**Learning Outcomes**At the end of the module the student should have:

- basic understanding of Rutherford, electron on neutron scattering
- understanding of the basic principles that determine nuclear size, mass and decay modes
- knowledge of examples and applications of nuclear physics
- knowledge of elementary particles and their interactions
- basic understanding of relativistic 4-vectors

##### Quantitative Tectonics (ENVS314)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**First Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**70:30 **Aims**This module aims to impart a detailed understanding of lithospheric-scale active tectonics, and the ability to carry out mathematical calculations to understand and analyse tectonic processes.

A subsidiary aim is to improve MATLAB programming skills initially acquired in ENVS229.

**Learning Outcomes** Intellectual Abilities

On successful completion of this module, students should be able to

a) Understand principles and details of active tectonic processes

b) Apply mathematical methods to describe tectonic processes

c) Apply methods and theory to tectonic data Subject Based Practical Skills On successful completion of this module, students should be able to

a) Set up simple models to simulate tectonic processes

a) Programme fluently in MATLAB to solve geophysical problems.

##### Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Tsunami Geophysics (ENVS388)

**Level**3 **Credit level**15 **Semester**Second Semester **Exam:Coursework weighting**60:40 **Aims** To provide the students with:

• A thorough understanding of thechallenges and practices in collecting and analyzing Geophysical time series

• Knowledge of the wide varietyof earthquake signals that occur in nature, including volcanic seismic sourcesand non-volcanic tremors

• Knowledge of the structure ofthe Earth in tectonically active regions, and volcanic and geothermal areas.Understanding of the methods to infer the Earth’s structure using seismic data.

• Understanding the temporal andspatial evolution of seismicity before, during, and after large earthquakes andvolcanic eruptions. Outline knowledge of the use of this information in earlywarning and hazard mitigation schemes.

• Knowledge of mechanical models for earthquake and volcano deformation,and their validation using geophysical observations

• Understanding of surface volcanic processes (pyroclastic density currents and ash plumes) bymeans of geophysical data analyses and numerical modeling

• Understanding tsunami generation and the use of earthquake data in tsunamiearly warning.

**Learning Outcomes**1.Knowledge and Understanding

Oncompletion of this module, students should have advanced knowledge andunderstanding of: (a) Geophysical instrumentation and its use in differentenvironment. Good practices for data collection, archival, and processing. (b)Methods to assess the structure of the Earth in tectonically active, volcanicand geothermal regions. (c) Models of earthquake generation, seismicityevolution, and Earth deformation on active faults and volcanic regions. (d)Models of volcanic processes, including magma storage at depth, magma migrationand eruption at the surface. (e) Models and observation of surface andatmospheric processes during volcanic eruptions. (f) The tsunami genicpotential of large earthquakes

2. Intellectual Abilities

On completion of this module, students should have demonstrated the: (a) evaluate the linkage between geophysical evidence and hypotheses for earthquake and volcanic processes. (b) Demonstrate a thorough perspective of the way in which geophysical observations can inform investigation and monitoring of geological processes. (c) Ability to evaluate and validate analytical models of earthquake and volcanic processes. (d) Ability to assess the evolution and impact of earthquakes sequences, volcanic eruptions and tsunami processes using geophysical signals. 3. Subject Based Practical Skills

On completion of this module, students should have developed competence in: (a) Manipulation, reduction and interpretation of geophysical data. (b) Modeling of various geophysical processes using computer software packages. 4. General Transferable Skills

On completion of this module, students should have developed their skills in:(a) numeracy through manipulation and visualisation of data using Fortran, Python, and Matlab. (b) Graphical communication. (c) Written and oral communication through report preparation using Microsoft Word and Power Point.

The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.

#### Teaching and Learning

Teaching takes place through lectures, practicals, workshops, seminars, tutorials and fieldwork, with an emphasis on learning through doing. The award-winning Central Teaching Laboratories, provide a state-of-the-art facility for undergraduate practical work. Students value the learning opportunities provided by field classes, including the rapid and detailed feedback on performance.

You will typically receive 15-20 hours of formal teaching each week, and complete between 50 and 100 days of residential fieldwork over the course of their programme. In Years Three and Four you will carry out independent research projects on a topic and location of your choice. All projects are supervised by a member of staff who will meet with you on a weekly, or more frequent, basis.

A number of the School’s degree programmes involve laboratory and field work. The field work is carried out in various locations, ranging from inner city to coastal and mountainous environments. We consider applications from prospective students with disabilities on the same basis as all other students, and reasonable adjustments will be considered to address barriers to access.