Biological and Medical Sciences BSc (Hons) Add to your prospectus

  • Offers study abroad opportunities Offers study abroad opportunities
  • Opportunity to study for a year in China Offers a Year in China

Key information


  • Course length: 3 years
  • UCAS code: C130
  • Year of entry: 2018
  • Typical offer: A-level : ABB / IB : 33 / BTEC : DDD in relevant diploma
life-sciences-4

Module details

Programme Year One

 Depending on your choice of Pathway, some optional modules will be compulsory/unavailable for selection.

Year One Compulsory Modules

  • Molecules and Cells (LIFE101)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims

    After successful completion of this module, students will be able to:

    1. Recognise the basic of structure, composition and function of cells;
    2. Explain core concepts relating to the organisation and specialisation of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses;
    3. Define the cellular components involved in the regulation of key functions such as the generation of energy, movement, cell growth and division and differentiation;
    4. Describe the latest techniques that are used in cell biology to determine cell structure and function;
    5. Develop in students the knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
    Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of the module students will be able to:

    1. Describe how cells arose and their structural features;
    2. Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells;
    3. Identify the different ways cells manipulate energy;
    4. Define the molecular basis of the processes by which cells grow, replicate, communicate, interact with their environment, move and die;
    5. Describe the functional importance of cell specialisation and cooperation in tissues.
  • Evolution (LIFE103)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims

    This module aims to:

    1. Describe fundamental genetic mechanisms that are essential for the function and evolution of life;
    2. Introduce students to fundamental evolutionary concepts and theories, showing how genetic mechanisms help determine the patterns of observed evolution;
    3. Apply evolutionary concepts to a broad selection of areas of Life Sciences;
    4. Develop in students the knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biology.
    Learning Outcomes

    Recall how cells evolved

    ​Identify the causes of evolutionary change in populations

    ​Recognize the consequences of evolutionary change for patterns of biological diversity within and amongst populations

    ​Recall fundamental genetic mechanisms (heredity, mutation, meiosis, sex) and show how they influence evolutionary change in populations

    Recognize the widespread applicability of evolutionary ideas across the Life Sciences

  • Grand Challenges in Biology (LIFE105)
    Level1
    Credit level7.5
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
    Aims
    1. To encourage students to become aware of the themes that are driving biological research in Liverpool and globally;
    2. To engage students with their programme of study;
    3. To excite student interest in their subject and the way it relates to the challenges that face us all;
    4. To foster the development of study skills that will equip students to investigate research topics and communicate their findings and views on them.
    Learning Outcomes

    To identify the grand challenges that face biological scientists

    ​To put into context the advances that science makes possible and the ethical issues associated with meeting the Grand Challenges

    ​To evaluate different approaches to the resolution of scientific questions

    ​To conduct an independent piece of research and report their findings to their peers

  • Experimental Skills in Current Biology (LIFE107)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterWhole Session
    Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
    Aims

    This module aims to:

    1. Introduce students to a range of practical skills and techniques that are of general use in subjects across the Life Sciences;
    2. Explain to students the importance of working safely in the laboratory and to adhere to Health and Safety protocols and good working practices;
    3. Train students how to observe and record experiments, and how to present and analyse data;
    4. Demonstrate the relevance of experimental skills across all biological disciplines and the essential relationship between quantitative skills and key skills;
    Learning OutcomesRecord, evaluate andinterpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures andprotocols​

    Plan and execute a seriesof experiments​

    Use laboratory equipmentcorrectly and safely to generate data​

    Identify, formulate andtest hypotheses in relation to laboratory based experimental design​

    Apply appropriatestatistical tests for data evaluation​

    Demonstrate good laboratorypractice in relation to Health and Safety in the laboratory and good workingpractices​

    ​Demonstrate specific skills in pipetting, microscopy, weighing, serial dilution, spectrophotometer, centrifugation, aseptic technique, standard curve, biological drawing and quantitative analysis (descriptive statistics).

  • Essential Skills for the Life Sciences I (LIFE109)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterWhole Session
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims

    This module aims to:

    1. Develop in students the essential skills that they will require to be competent life scientists;
    2. Enhance the employability prospects of students.
    Learning Outcomes

    Use a range of mathematical and numerical tools to address biological problems

    Structure and communicate ideas effectively, both orally and in writing

    ​Manage time, work to deadlines and prioritise workloads 

    ​Actively participate in groups but be capable of independent work

    ​Find relevant information and use IT effectively

    ​Address the relevance and ideas of others 

    ​Evaluate own performance and working standards 

  • Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences (LIFE102)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims

    After successful completion of this module, students will be able to:

    1. Describe the major dietary components for humans and other organisms, and the processes that result in their digestion and absorption;
    2. Explain the mechanisms and processes that regulate carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism;
    3. Define how imbalances in nutrition can lead to lifestyle diseases and how genetic or infectious diseases can result in impaired ability to generate energy;
    4. Develop knowledge and understanding in biochemistry and biomedicine, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
    Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

    1. Describe the important groups of diseases affecting humans and other organisms;
    2. Explain the processes involved in the control and regulation of metabolism and how their dysfunction results in lifestyle diseases;
    3. Identify the genetic mechanisms that underlie inherited diseases affecting oxygen transport and storage;
    4. Define the processes involved in bacterial and viral infectious disease and the mechanisms that protect organisms from infection.
  • Biochemical Methods (LIFE122)
    Level1
    Credit level7.5
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
    Aims

      This module aims to:

    1. Introduce students to a range of practical skills and analytical techniques that are applicable to many fields of modern biology;
    2. Explain to students the importance of working safely in the laboratory in accord with Health and Safety protocols and good working practices;
    3. Train students how to observe and record experiments, and how to present and analyse data;
    4. Demonstrate the relevance of experimental skills across all biological disciplines and the essential relationship between quantitative skills and key skills;
    5. Develop knowledge and understanding in biochemistry, biotechnology and biomedicine, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
    Learning Outcomes

    Record, evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols;

    Plan and execute a series of experiments;​

    ​Use laboratory equipment correctly and safely to generate data;​

    ​Identify, formulate and test hypotheses in relation to laboratory based experimental design;​

    ​Demonstrate good laboratory practice in relation to Health and Safety in the laboratory and good working practices.​

Year One Optional Modules

  • Biological Chemistry (LIFE104)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims
  • This module aims to develop in students: Knowledge and understanding of the chemical reactions that underpin biological processes
  • ​Awareness of the chemical processes that are required to understand pharmacological principles

  • ​The ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems, in biochemistry, pharmacology and biomedicine.

  • Learning OutcomesApply basic thermodynamic principles to biological systems and energetics

    ​Identify the principles of electronic structure and organic and bioinorganic chemical reactions, and their analysis

    ​Describe the anomalous properties of water and their importance in biological systems

    ​Use the principles of chemical reaction rates to quantify enzymatic reactions and pharmacokinetics

    Explain the application of basic spectroscopic techniques

    ​Describe how these chemical and thermodynamic principles explain key biological mechanisms

  • Introduction to Physiology and Pharmacology (LIFE106)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims

    This module aims to:

    1. Provide students with a grounding in the concepts and principles that underlie human systems biology;
    2. Introduce the concepts of interactions of drugs and other exogenous chemicals on biological processes;
    3. Develop concepts of drug absorption and the relationship between chemical structure and drug action;
    4. Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology and pharmacology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in these disciplines.
    Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of this module, the students will be able to:

    1.  Describe homeostasis and its maintenance;
    2.  Define osmosis and hydrostatic pressure;
    3.  Outline the fundamentals of membrane potentials and how they are influenced;
    4.  Explain the roles played in various body systems in organism maintenance;
    5.  Distinguish how body systems interact in response to external stressors;
    6.  Define the way in which pharmacology is studied and drugs are developed;
    7.  Describe the properties of receptors;
    8.  Identify the chemical interactions between drugs and receptors;
    9.  Define and use the terms absorption, distribution and metabolism of drugs.
  • Applied Genetic and Molecular Technologies (LIFE108)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    AimsThis module aims to:
    1. Provide students with the knowledge and understanding of the structure of nucleic acids and how these molecules encode the properties of cells;
    2. Develop knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms that lead to inheritance in offspring;
    3. Equip students tobe able to describe the basic techniques that are used to experimentally clone genes and analyse their structure and function;
    4. Develop students'' knowledge and understanding in genetics and molecular biology, and their ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems, in these disciplines. 
    5. P.MsoNormal{text-align:justify;margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;font-family:Arial;font-size:10pt;}LI.MsoNormal{text-align:justify;margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;font-family:Arial;font-size:10pt;}DIV.MsoNormal{text-align:justify;margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;font-family:Arial;font-size:10pt;}.MsoChpDefault{font-family:Calibri;font-size:11pt;}.MsoPapDefault{line-height:115%;margin-bottom:10pt;}DIV.WordSection1{page:WordSection1;}Introduce students to the ethical implications of genetic and molecular technologies.
    Learning Outcomes

    Explain the molecular processes that occur to produce variation in the offspring;

    and how to interpret Mendelian and non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance;

    ​Explain how to apply molecular technologies to isolate and characterise nucleic acids and design and interpret basic experiments to clone and analyse genes;

    ​Show how molecular biology technologies might be used to solve problems in biology, food security, veterinary science and medicine;

    ​Develop an appreciation of the ethical issues associated with genetic and molecular technologies.

  • Microbiology (LIFE110)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
    Aims

    This module aims to:

    1. Describe how microbes play crucial roles in maintaining the natural environment;
    2. Explain the role of microbes in disease processes and how the immune system protects against infections;
    3. Highlight the roles of microbes in biotechnological processes;
    4. Develop knowledge and understanding in microbiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in Microbiology.
    Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of this module, the students will be able to:

    1. Identify appropriate techniques for assessing microbial diversity with particular reference to bacteria and fungi;
    2. Describe the structure and significance of microbial communities involving these species;
    3. Explain the physiological properties and adaptations that enable microbes to colonise diverse environments;
    4. Define the roles of microbes as commensals and pathogens and mechanisms by which they interact with the host;
    5. Describe the roles that microbes play in nutrient and biomass recycling;
    6. Define the environmental and biotechnological importance of microbes in specific contexts, including food security and water treatment.

Programme Year Two

 Depending on your choice of Pathway, some optional modules will be compulsory/unavailable for selection.

Year Two Compulsory Modules

  • Essential Skills for the Life Sciences 2 (LIFE223)
    Level2
    Credit level15
    SemesterWhole Session
    Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
    Aims
    1. To further develop the essential life science skills that students will require to succeed in their studies and future careers;

    2. To enhance the career awareness and employability prospects of students;

    3. To enable students to analyse and interpret scientific data and communicate results to a range of audiences.

    Learning Outcomes

    ​Structure and communicate ideas effectively, both orally and in writing;

    Find information through literature searches and use IT effectively to analyse and report findings;​Competently utilise a range of mathematical and numerical skills relevant to all biologists;​Summarise and interpret advanced data using graphs and tables;​Develop and test hypotheses;​Within the context of experimental design and within a range of biological fields, select appropriate quantitative methods to answer questions;​Apply appropriate statistical and other analysis packages to analyse data;​Interpret and evaluate quantitative terms and approaches used in the scientific literature;​

    ​Effectively communicate a biological subject to a lay audience

    Recognise the moral and ethical issues of scientific investigations and discuss ethical standards and professional codes of conduct. ​​

    ​​

  • Techniques in Cell Biology (LIFE227)
    Level2
    Credit level7.5
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
    Aims

    1. Provide students with practical training in theuse of equipment and techniques routinely used in cell biology. 

    2. Enhancestudents acquisition of fundamental research skills; including,information gathering, scientific drawing, report writing andstatistical analyses. 

    3. Provide students with an understanding of theprocesses involved in the collection, interpretation and presentation ofbiological data. ​


    Learning Outcomes​​​​​

    Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols;

    Manage time effectively to plan and execute a series of experiments​Use microscopes and other lab equipment correctly to efficiently andsafely conduct a series of experiments​

    Analyse data, interpret validity and apply statistical analyses;

    Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology

  • E-biology: Informatics for Life Sciences (LIFE225)
    Level2
    Credit level7.5
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
    Aims
    • Provide students with a practical appreciation of the nature and significance of digital data.
    • Expose students to bioinformatics tools used in the analysis of data from areas such as genome sequencing, gene expression and protein structure studies
    • ​Enable students to utilize digital data for understanding higher order phenomena within cells such as metabolism, gene regulation and protein-protein interaction
    • Develop students’ knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology. ​​

      Learning Outcomes

      ​·         Apply informatics tools in the discovery, evaluation and acquisition of biological data.

      ​​

      ·         Analyse and evaluate datasets of broad biological relevance, using tasks and workflows that will prepare them for third-year projects.​


      ·         Use local and web-based tools for data analysis, management and collaborative working.​ ​ ​

      ​·         ​Design research methods in bioinformatics to solve biological problems.​​

    Year Two Optional Modules

    • Principles of Pharmacology (LIFE207)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
    • This module aims to: Develop an understanding of the quantitative aspects of drug action on cellular receptors;

    • Demonstrate the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;

    • Introduce the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, outline the relationship between drug concentration and response, and include an introduction to the principles of toxicity of drugs and their metabolites;

    • Provide knowledge of the molecular biology of receptors;

    • Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve pharmacological problems.

    • Learning OutcomesOn successful completion of this module, the students should be able to: Describe quantitative aspects of drug action;​Define the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;​State key pharmacokinetic concepts such as clearance, volume of distribution, half life and steady state and to solve problems involving these parameters;​Demonstrate the role of drug concentrations in determining response to treatment;​Describe early biochemical events after drug administration that are of toxicological and biochemical significance;​Describe the principles of selective toxicity and their application to both self and non-self targets;​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of pharmacology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​
    • Cell Signalling in Health and Disease (LIFE202)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
      ​This module aims to: 1. Provide students with knowledge and understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to communicate with each other
      ​2. Explain the general principles of these signalling mechanisms and then describe some of these in more detail;
      3. Illustrate how defects in these signalling processes can result in a variety of diseases;
      4. Outline the techniques that are used to investigate and define these pathways and to describe how these techniques are used in drug discovery programmes of research;
      5. Develop in students the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge and understanding, to solve problems in molecular cell biology
        Learning Outcomes

        ​On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

         Describe the fundamental features of a range of common cell signalling mechanisms;

        ​Explain how cell signalling processes may be defective, or modified, in a variety of different diseases;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge of the molecular and biochemical nature and role of the different components of intracellular signalling pathways;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of cell signalling, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems in biological science.

      1. Endocrine and Neuro-physiology (LIFE204)
        Level2
        Credit level15
        SemesterSecond Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
        Aims
      2. ​Explain the essential background knowledge to understand basic neuroscience;

      3. ​Describe the basic principles of operation of nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour;

      4. Provide an understanding of physiological homeostatic regulatory mechanisms, with particular regard to the endocrine and digestive systems;

      5. Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.
      6. Learning Outcomes

        ​Describe the basic principles of the nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour; and the characteristics of nerve cells that allow them facilitate the reception, processing and transmission of information;

        ​Apply the above knowledge to the operation of some of these systems, through all the stages from transduction of a stimulus to conscious perception, the regulatory mechanisms employed by them, their importance in maintaining homeostasis and the consequences of malfunction;

        Demonstrate specific knowledge and critical understanding of physiological functions of the digestive tract and major endocrine glands and apply this to understand the interaction between the digestive, endocrine and nervous system;​

        Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of physiology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve physiological problems.

      7. Virology (LIFE209)
        Level2
        Credit level15
        SemesterFirst Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
        Aims
      8. This module aims to develop in students:  The ability to explain the fundamental features and properties of viruses and viral infections;​
      9. Knowledge and understanding of the use and development of molecular biology technologies in virology;
      10. The capacity to describe problems associated with viruses and their control, and identify positive applications of viruses;​
      11. Knowledge and understanding in virology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in virology.​
      12. Learning OutcomesExplain basic terms and terminologies used in virology and describe virus particle structure;​
        Identify different virus infection life cycles in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, describing the role of key viral proteins in viral life cycles;

        Describe impact of viruses on public health, explain how viruses may spread between different species and the concept of species-barrier;

        Describe the use of diagnostic tools to detect, quantify, and monitor viruses;​Explain the role of immune system in combating viral infections in plants, invertebrates and mammals;​

        Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of virology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​

      13. Drug Action (LIFE206)
        Level2
        Credit level15
        SemesterSecond Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
        Aims
        1. Enable students to develop their understanding of the cardiovascular, endocrine and central nervous systems and the mechanisms by which drugs interact with physiological processes operating within each of these systems;​​
        2. Provide an insight into the mechanisms of immune function and dysfunction, and the actions of drugs that target the immune system;
        3. Give students a grounding in the fundamental principles of signal transduction from metabotropic receptors, and their significance for drug action;​
        4. Provide and overview of the overall drug development process, with a focus on the safety and efficacy tests applied during clinical trials, and the value-for-money tests applied during NICE approval;
        5. Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
          Learning Outcomes

          ​Identify the effects of drugs on the CNS and demonstrate an understanding of how drugs may be used to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders;

          ​Describe the action of drugs in the cardiovascular system and their role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease;

          Compare the effects of drugs on the kidney, the endocrine system and the gastrointestinal tract;Describe the principles underlying the effects of drugs on the immune system and the treatment of autoimmune disease;​Apply knowledge how the signal transduction pathways can be modulated to enhance cancer therapy;​

          Apply the knowledge of the regulatory framework underlying the testing and approval of drugs;

        1. Molecular and Medical Genetics (LIFE208)
          Level2
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
        2. ​This module aims to:

           Introduce students with an interest in genetics and molecular biology to the range of biological mechanisms that control the structure and stability of the genetic material;
        3. ​Describe how changes in the structure and stability of DNA can impact on health and disease;

        4. ​Use examples from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to develop principles that help explain problems associated with medical/clinical genetics;

           
        5. Develop knowledge and understanding in genetics and molecular biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.

        6. Learning Outcomes

          ​On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

           Describe the principles of DNA replication, DNA damage and mutation, DNA repair, DNA recombination, genetic transfer systems and transposition, cell cycle control and cell division, genetic mapping and cytogenetics;

          ​Explain how these processes underpin an understanding of the genetic basis of human health and disease;

          ​Demonstrate that they can solve problems by applying the above knowledge to identify genes underlying disease and the likely causes of DNA mutations;

          ​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of genetics and molecular biology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.

        7. The Immune System in Health and Disease (LIFE221)
          Level2
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          AimsThis module aims to:
          1. ​Develop students’ knowledge of the immune system and its role in protection against disease
          2. Develop in students an appreciation of the importance of different immune mechanisms in different circumstances, and how these can be evaded.
          3. Enable students to evaluate and appreciate the consequences of immune system dysfunctions in disease.​
          Learning Outcomes

          ​Identify the main components of the mammalian immune system

          ​Assess the contribution of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to host defences

          Assess the mechanisms that permit recognition of an infinitely diverse microflora Discuss the impact of malfunction of immune processes on human health, and explain the bases of autoimmunity and allergy together with the mechanisms by which these can be minimised 

          ​Discuss how dysfunction of immune system constituents can cause disease

        8. Practical Human Physiology (LIFE229)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting20:80
          Aims
        9. ​To provide students with a practical training in the study of physiology and how to measure physiological variables;

        10. ​To equip students with the ability to apply appropriate statistical tools to define the normal range of physiological variables;

        11. To develop in students knowledge and understanding in physiology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.

        12. Learning OutcomesOn completion of this module student will be able to: Elucidate the principles of practical physiology;

          ​Measure and interpret the cardiovascular and respiratory variables most commonly dealt with in human physiology;

          Correctly measure volumes to the internationally recognised standard temperature and pressure values.

          Demonstrate the most effective ways of presenting data, including the presentation of a poster.

          Apply statistical concepts of mean, median, mode, standard deviation and standard error, and know the circumstances in which it is appropriate to use a Student''s t-test.

          Design studies, using the techniques acquired, to investigate a physiological principle.​

        13. Practical Pharmacology (LIFE234)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
          Aims​This module aims are:
          1. To give students practical experience in many of the techniques specifically used in the study of Pharmacology​​.
          2. To provide students with a better understanding of relevant pharmacological principles.
          3. To develop in students the ability to evaluate and analyse experimental data.
          Learning Outcomes​To present and interpret qualitative and quantitative pharmacological data and record procedures and protocols accurately.

          ​To explain pharmacological mechanisms underpinning pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug toxicity.

          To plan and execute a series of experiments to explore drug distribution, drug metabolism, drug toxicity, drug receptor interactions and the effects of drugs on behaviour.

          ​To analyse data, interpret validity and apply statistical analyses.

        14. Advanced Biochemical Techniques (LIFE224)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
        15. ​This module aims to:

           Provide students with a practical training in a number of techniques used in biochemistry, including analysis of enzyme activity and stability and protein purification and analysis using chromatography and electrophoresis;​
        16. Develop in students the knowledge, understanding and ability to design experiments, and to apply, evaluate and interpret experimental data to solve problems in biochemistry and molecular cell biology.

        17. Learning Outcomes

          ​Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols;

          ​Develop team-working and individual skills, learn to manage time effectively and use laboratory equipment correctly and safely to generate data;

          Plan and execute a series of biochemical experiments to analyse protein structure and function;​

          Analyse data, interpret its validity and apply statistical analyses.

        18. The Multicellular Organism: Tissues, Development, Regeneration and Aging (LIFE205)
          Level2
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          AimsExtend students'' knowledge of the structure and function of fundamental tissues, such as epithelial and connective tissue and of specialised tissues; 
          Develop students'' ability to discuss the mechanisms by which cells differentiate to form different tissues;
          Equip students to explain the processes that occur during aging with special reference to changes in key tissues such as the brain;
          Develop knowledge and understanding in human biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in that subject.​
          Learning OutcomesClassify and compare the major types of epithelia and, explain the role of cell-cell interactions in tissue structure and the structure and function of fundamental tissues

          Discuss and compare the molecular mechanisms involved in development of selected organs, and their cellular structure and organisation and explain the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regeneration of key organs.Explain and discuss mechanisms of ageing using selected systems as exemplars.

          Describe the experimental basis underpinning the current understanding of tissue biology. ​

        19. From Genes to Proteins (LIFE201)
          Level2
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
        20. This module aims to develop in students: Knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms involved in gene expression and 

          ​how these mechanisms are regulated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

        21. ​The ability to explain how post-translational modifications modify protein structure and function;

        22. ​The ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in genetics.

        23. Learning OutcomesTo explain the processes of transcription and translation and their regulation, the differences between them in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and how these are affected in disease.To elucidate the post-translational events in eukaryotic cells, and how these produce a final functional protein from a primary translation product.

          To evaluate the techniques used to investigate the processes of transcription and translation.

          To demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of gene expression, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems in genetics.
        24. Biotechnology (LIFE210)
          Level2
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​Introduce students to the ways in which biology is utilised for commercial purposes;

          2. ​Develop knowledge and understanding of the production of antibiotics, biomass, single cell protein, biopolymers and vaccines;

          3. Develop knowledge and understanding in biotechnology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biotechnology.​

          Learning Outcomes

          Identify the stages required for commercial production of microbial products;

          ​Discuss the problems inherent in isolation, strain improvement and growth of microorganisms on a large scale;

          Explain specific commercial processes via studies of such processes as antibiotic production, large-scale manufacture of enzymes and brewing;​Discuss how understanding of protein structure can lead to the generation of therapeutic   compounds; ​ Interpret how proteins and antibodies may be engineered and produced on an industrial scale for commercial applications;Discuss how useful activities of enzymes may be manipulated and exploited;
        25. Molecular Science (LIFE237)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
        26. ​This module aims to:

          Provide students with practical experience in a number of techniques used in molecular biology;

           
        27. ​Equip student to perform analysis of DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction mapping;

        28. ​Introduce students to PCR based-assays for gene cloning and demonstrate methods used for cloning, and analysing genes

        29. ​Develop in students knowledge and understanding in biomedicine, biotechnology and molecular cell biology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve biomolecular problems.

           
        30. Learning Outcomes

          ​Present, evaluate critically and interpret qualitative and quantitative molecular biological data, and record procedures and protocols accurately;

          ​Plan and execute a series of molecular biology experiments to demonstrate practical skills in molecular biology, use laboratory equipment correctly and safely to generate data and manage their time effectively;

           

          ​Analyse and interpret the validity of experimental data

           
        31. Advanced Genetics Techniques (LIFE226)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
          Aims
          1. Provide students with a practical training that will help them to carry our projects in genetics;

          2. ​Train students in the production and characterisation of specific deletion mutants, mutagen screening, cytogenetics and karyotype analysis, population studies, molecular analysis of genomes and bioinformatics;

          3. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in genetics, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.

          Learning Outcomes

          Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols

          ​Plan and safely execute a series of laboratory experiments to produce and characterise deletion mutants, screen mutagens, analyse karotypes, carry out population studies and molecular analysis of genomes and interogate bioinformatic databases 

          ​Analyse data, interpret validity and apply statistical analyses

        32. Advanced Microbiological Techniques (LIFE228)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
        33. ​This module aims to:

          Provide students with a practical experience in a number of techniques used in microbiology;
        34. ​Develop research skills in microbiology by illustrating key concepts in microbiology;

        35. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in microbiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve microbiological problems.

        36. Learning Outcomes

          ​On successful completion of this module students will be able to:

          Apply a range of techniques for the identification of microorganisms;

          ​Assay cell components of biotechnology interest;

          ​Produce and modify media for production and maintenance of microorganisms;

          ​Work in a group to present data to an educated audience;

          ​Demonstrate problem-solving skills in practical microbiology.

        37. Practical Skills in Tropical Medicine (LIFE236)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims
        38. Enhance knowledge and understanding of the biology and control of parasites of medical importance, and their vectors;
        39. Describe the diagnosis and pathology of parasitic infections; interactions between the environment, humans, mosquitoes and their parasites; techniques for the control of vectors, including susceptibility to insecticides;
        40. Enhance data handling skills and interpretation of experiments; 
        41. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in tropical disease biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.

        42. Learning Outcomes

          ​Detect the presence or absence of parasites in blood and faeces and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used;

          ​Identify the interaction between mosquitoes, their hosts and the environment through a range of experimental approaches;

           Assess the susceptibility to insecticides in larval and adult mosquitoes and unerstand the relevance to the monitoring of control campaigns;

          ​Evaluate the techniques used for understanding the biology and control of selected parasites and their vectors;

          Assimilate, analysis and graphically summarise quantitative data generated by experiments in an accurate and timely manner.

          ​Describe the main immunological techniques for indirectly diagnosing parasite infection

        Programme Year Three

         Depending on your choice of Pathway, some optional modules will be compulsory/unavailable for selection.

        Year Three Compulsory Modules

        • Advanced Skills in Biological and Medical Sciences (LIFE365)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterWhole Session
          Exam:Coursework weighting35:65
          Aims
          1. ​To enable students to evaluate the scientific literature and to apply these skills to presentations in various formats in groups and individually​
          2. ​To enhance the problem-solving skills of students, by data analysis exercises in relation to experimental methods in biological and medical sciences, including epidemiology

          3. ​To provide advice and guidance for career development and employability

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To analyse, summarise, present and critically review evidence from scientific publications

          ​To access and query bioinformatics databases and to analyse, integrate and interpret biomedical experimental data 


          To work in groups to produce and present a scientific poster ​

          ​​To use the web and social media to access and communicate scientific information to both expert and lay audiences

          ​​

        • Research Project (LIFE363)
          Level3
          Credit level30
          SemesterWhole Session
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
          1. ​To provide students with an insight into and experience of the process of scientific research and debate

          2. ​To develop in students the confidence to work independently and with others, to effectively and efficiently achieve a scientific aim

          3. ​To further develop students'' ability to communicate scientific concepts and findings in a variety of formats

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To plan and execute a piece of scientific research, in a responsible, safe and ethical manner

          ​To analyse and critically evaluate data, information, literature and observations, and draw valid conclusions

          To appropriately communicate findings, in a variety of formats (oral, written reports) to supervisor, research staff and peers

          ​To maintain a clear and accurate record of work and progress

          ​To critically evaluate and report upon relevant scientific literature

          ​To evaluate own performance and working standards by reflection, and place work in a wider scientific context 

        Year Three Optional Modules

        • Cell Signalling in Health and Disease (LIFE305)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims
        • ​To describe advanced concepts that are fundamental to modern ideas in biophysics and cell signalling from a systems physiology perspective covering both physiology and disease

        • To develop in students the ability to access, collate, critically evaluate and discuss (in writing) the modern literature in cell signalling
        • ​To enable students to acquire the skills required for interpretation of cell signalling experimental data and to integrate this knowledge in a physiological context

        • Learning Outcomes

          ​To explain current understanding of how cells receive information and transmit this along distinct pathways to generate different physiological responses

          ​To critically discuss how post-translational modifications mediate information transfer, how the major kinase and second messenger pathways are stimulated and how they function in normal cells

          ​To appraise the pathophysiological consequences of dysregulated cell signalling

        • Biochemical Messengers and Signal Transduction (LIFE304)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims

           To enable students to evaluate and describe the latest knowledge and ideas on how cells respond to external signals and how signalling information is transferred within and between cells To develop in students an understanding of the range of different strategies used by cells for generating and interpreting signalling information, including their outcomes To introduce students to current knowledge of the molecular and biochemical events that lead from receptor occupancy to changes in gene expression and phenotype, with links to human diseases explained  
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To compare, in both written and graphical formats, the multiple molecular processes underlying transduction of information, the key extracellular and intracellular players 

          ​To assess the consequences of expression changes or mutations in signalling proteins in the context of different diseases 

          ​To appraise the features of the major components and modules of signalling pathways

          ​To evaluate the usefulness of signalling proteins as targets for rational drug design

           ​
        • Understanding Disease: An Integrated Approach (LIFE375)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims

          ​To provide students with knowledge of the mechanistic basis of selected diseases, including relevant biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, cell signalling and pathophysiology.

          To develop in students an understanding of the basis for current therapies for selected diseases, and to allow students to review and critique novel treatments.  

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To analyse in detail the mechanistic basis for the development of selected diseases

          ​To critically evaluate theories and evidence for proposed disease mechanisms

          ​To examine the rationale behind current treatment regimes

          ​To evaluate recent research findings relating to disease and apply these to development of new therapies

        • Molecular, Clinical and Translational Cancer (LIFE373)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims
          •        To enable students to develop anunderstanding of the biological mechanisms underpinning cancer and itstreatment.
          •        To provide an opportunity for in-depthanalysis of pathogenesis and progression of two major types of cancer(carcinoma and leukaemia/lymphoma) using examples from cutting edge Universityof Liverpool research (Haemato-oncology, Head and Neck Cancer and PancreaticCancer).
          •       To provide the students with anopportunity to explore and discuss the principles involved in cancer detection,diagnosis and therapy.
          Learning Outcomes

          Tocritically evaluate phenotypic behaviours of a cancer cell using biochemicalknowledge of cellular functions, in order to identify possible points oftherapeutic intervention.

          Tomatch environmental DNA damage, DNA repair, viral infection and alteredoncogene/tumour suppressor gene function to the pathological consequences forthe patients.

          Tocritically appraise discovery pathways for new diagnostic and prognostic cancerbiomarkers

          Toanalyse biochemical pathways likely to become novel therapeutic targets in thenear future, with particular attention to enzyme inhibitors.

        • Cardiovascular and Respiratory Pharmacology (LIFE313)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​To provide students with the opportunity to develop advanced knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular and respiratory pharmacology​

          2. ​To develop in students an awareness of how dysfunction in these systems can be treated with current drugs, and how improved understanding can lead to improved drugs

          3. ​​​To raise awareness of the specific problems associated with drug side-effects in the cardiovascular system, and the approaches taken to test for these in drug development

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically discuss the pathophysiology of major cardiovascular andrespiratory diseases

          ​To appraise current knowledge of the mechanisms of action and side-effects of current drugsat the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic levels in health and disease

          ​​​​To discussthe latest understanding of principles underlying the development of new drugsfor the treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases

        • Neuromuscular Physiology and Disease (LIFE311)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​To describe the concepts that are fundamental to modern ideas in understanding the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases

          2. ​To provide students with the ability to access, collate and critically discuss (in writing) the modern literature and experimental data relating to muscles, neurons and related diseases

          3. To develop in students the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret their knowledge and understanding in neuromuscular physiology and disease to solve complex problems in physiology and disease ​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To discuss concepts fundamental to modern ideas in the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases, from the molecular level to systems level understanding

          ​To interpret and evaluate modern literature containing the latest experimental data in muscles, neurons and related diseases

          ​To critically review and solve complex problems concerning the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases 

        • Human and Clinical Genetics (LIFE321)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims
          1. ​​To develop in students an advanced understanding of modern medical genetics by expanding on fundamental principles introduced at level 5
          2. ​To explain a variety of genetic phenomena that affect human health and introduce a critical awareness of ethical considerations raised by advances in clinical genetics

          3. ​​To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in genetics, and ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To discuss in detail the molecular and genetic causes of chromosomal mutation and geneticinstability and the candidate genes linked with the formation of abnormalphenotypes

          ​​To examine variedapproaches to the identification of loci associated with clinical manifestations and abnormal humanphenotypes

          ​​To appraise the growing importance of modern molecular genetics in the understanding and treatment of heritable forms of human disease

          ​​To evaluate the prospects for, andimplications of, high throughput genotyping and sequencing for moleculardiagnostics in the post-genomic era

          ​​​To critically discuss the consequences and ethical issues associated with genetic screening and testing at both an individual and population level

        • Genes and Cancer (LIFE302)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​1. To develop students’ understanding of how cancer occurs and the role of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in the development of human cancer

           2. To develop students'' understanding of what are the hallmarks of cancer and what are the therapeutical strategies and limitations  3. To develop students’ ability to apply their knowledge and understanding, to critically evaluate and interpret the published literature in the field of cancer biology
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To explain the molecular and cellular basis of cancer formation

          ​To appraise the biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours 

          ​To explain the current therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment

          ​To critically evaluate how technologies such as transcriptomics and bio-informatics have shaped our knowledge of the mechanism of cancer progression

          ​To synthesise information, critically review evidence to support conclusions, and define complex problems by applying appropriate knowledge and skills in the area of genes and cancer

        • Molecular Medicine (LIFE306)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​To describe to students the molecularpathogenesis of disease and how knowing the molecular pathogenesis guides thedevelopment of both diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

          To use selected topics, such asselected inherited or autoimmune disorders, to describe specific diseaseprocesses.

           

          Todevelop in students knowledge and deep understanding of biochemistryand biomedicine, and the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpretthis knowledge to solve complex biological and biomedical problems.​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​The student will critically evaluate the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, with a special focus on selected inherited, autoimmune and multifactorial disorders

          ​The student will use identification of the molecular pathogenesis of disease to inform the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. 

          ​The student will appraise principles and methods of disease diagnosis 


          The student will critically evaluate the usefulness of phenotypic and genotypic approaches to screening in a post-genomic context

          ​The student will appraise the latest developments in post-genomic science and computational biology for the development of therapeutic approaches

           ​​

          ​The student will discern the usefulness of "biological" drugs as opposed to small molecule drugs


          The student will analyse our current understanding of stem cell therapeutics​

        • Cancer Pharmacology (LIFE314)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​To provide an explanation of current understanding of cancer development and progression and how this is exploited in the rational design of drugs to target cancer.

          To explain to students the latest knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs and the potential for side-effects, drug toxicity and drug-resistance.
           To develop in students a critical understanding of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of modern cancer drugs.
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the pathophysiological process of cancerdevelopment and progression​

          To critically evaluate the rationale for the design and mechanism ofaction of anti-cancer agents​

          ​To assess  the potential fortoxicity and side-effects and drug resistance in anti-cancer drugs​

          ​To evaluate current ideas on the mechanisms of drug-resistance incancer therapy

           

          ​To critically evaluate scientific literature and clinical dataregarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of anti-cancer therapy inpatients


        • Molecular Toxicology (LIFE316)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​1. To familiarize students with current concepts of mechanisms by which cells are killed by toxic chemicals with particular emphasis on drugs

           2. To develop in students an understanding of the main defence mechanisms that cells possess to protect them against chemical toxicity 3. To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in pharmacology , and ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the principal ways in which cells are killed by drugs

          ​To appraise current knowledge of the major defence mechanisms that cells possess

          ​To critically evaluate current understanding of irreversible toxicity

          ​To assess current approaches to the pre-clinical investigation of various types of toxicity 

        • Viral Disease Mechanisms (LIFE320)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          This module aims to:

          1. Evaluate the latest research on the role of viruses as important pathogens of humans and animals;
          2. Explain in detail, viral virulence mechanisms, immune evasion and vaccine development;
          3. Develop knowledge and deep understanding in microbiology and the ability to apply, evaluate critically  and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems.
          Learning Outcomes

          On successful completion of this module, the students will be able to:

          Explain the mechanisms of replication and pathogenesis of different virus families and evaluate modern approaches to investigating virus pathogenesis and their control by immune processes, preventative measure sand treatments

          ​Critically discuss current hypotheses on the evolution of viral virulence, the contribution of virus infection to diseases in both humans and animals and current theories on the importance of globalization and climate change in the emergence and re-emergence of virus disease

          ​Synthesise information, critically review evidence to support conclusions, and define complex problems by applying appropriate knowledge and skills.

        • Bacterial Disease Mechanisms (LIFE318)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims

          ​To explain to students the common themes and diversity of mechanisms used by bacteria to cause disease.

           To develop in students an understanding of virulence strategies used to achieve infection, including subversion of host immunity, expression of bacterial toxins motility and intracellular survival To develop in students an understanding of mechanisms of genetic control, its temporal nature and the contribution of specific virulence determinants to the infection process 
          Learning Outcomes

           To assess the current knowledge of the innate immune barriers to bacterial infection

           

          To contrast the bacterial pathogenesis strategies of diverse bacterial pathogens

          To appraise the ethical aspects of animal experimentation and the scientific considerations for the design of in vivo models of infection

          To summarise the molecular mode of action of key virulence determinants within a pathogen’s armoury​

          To evaluate the environmental, metabolic and temporal regulation of virulence genes and regulons and the mobilisation of virulence loci
        • Gene Expression and Development (LIFE323)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting99:0
          Aims
          1. To provide students with a systematic knowledge and critical understanding of how living organisms control their pattern of gene expression;
          2. ​​To describe how patterns of gene expression respond to environmental factors during growth and development;
          3. ​To explain current knowledge of the steps at which control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells occurs.
          Learning Outcomes

          To evaluate current knowledge and understanding of how and where expression in eukaryotes is regulated

          ​To critically discuss the role and regulation of RNA synthesis, processing, stability and transport

          ​To compare and contrast or model developmental systems such as plant flowering and development in Drosophila

          ​To synthesise information, critically review evidence to support conclusions, and define complex problems by applying appropriate knowledge and skills

        • Parasitology (LIFE361)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims
          1. ​To provide students with knowledge of the major features of the structure and life histories of a range of protozoan and helminth parasites of humans

          2. ​To develop in students current understanding of the causes of major clinical symptoms and pathology attributable to these parasites and of the major approaches to their prevention and control

          3. ​To provide students with knowledge and deep understanding in parasitology, and ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically discuss modern molecular methods for examining parasitic diseases

           

          ​To evaluate the modern research literature in the area of parasitology with critical insight

          To critically discuss how topical problems in parasitology are currently being addressed, and future developments in this area 

          To synthesise information, critically review evidence to support conclusions, and define complex problems by applying appropriate knowledge and skills ​

        • Topics in Global Health (LIFE340)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims

          ​1. To enhance students'' awareness of the global distribution of disease and the associated implications and inequalities.

          2. To enhance students'' awareness of the global impact of poverty and the negative and positive impacts of human activity in the spread of disease.

          3. To develop students'' knowledge and deep understanding in the tropical disease biology and their ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems.

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically review the distribution of disease and discuss major implications for global health

          ​To evaluate major reasons for the spread of disease and discuss approaches to control

          ​To evaluate the roles of national, international and multinational agencies in the health arena

        • Current Topics in Animal Behaviour (LIFE322)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​To develop in students an understanding of the use of evolutionary theory to understand animal behaviour

          To develop in students the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge and understanding, to solve complex problems in the study of behaviour To develop in students an understanding how predictive modelling, experimental, and observational approaches integrate to explain animal behaviour
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the use of the adaptationist approach in studying behaviour 

          ​To critically appraise factors affecting the evolution of reproductive behaviour and the evolution of altruism and cooperation

          ​​To assess comparative approaches in the study of animal cognition and critically evaluate why cognitive processes of animals might not be, and often are not, analogous to human cognitive processes

        • Current Skills and Topics in Evolutionary Biology (LIFE324)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
          Aims

          ​To develop in students the skills to construct phylogenetic trees and to use them to infer the evolutionary origins of novel traits, using the latest software packages

           To encourage students to explore key concepts in contemporary evolutionary biology To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in selected areas of evolutionary biology, providing opportunities for students to apply, critically evaluate and interpret evolutionary knowledge and ideas.
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To construct, graphically display and critically evaluate phylogenetic trees from phenotypic characters and DNA sequences

          ​To use phylogenetic trees to generate and test hypotheses about the evolutionary history of selected traits, and detect molecular signatures of selection within nucleotide or amino acid sequence

          ​To critically evaluate theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence relating to a selection of current research themes in evolutionary biology

        • Conservation Biology (LIFE326)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          To develop in students the ability to explore current thinking and research in conservation biology.  To develop in students knowledge and understanding about patterns of biodiversity and to enable them to critically evaluate the evidence supporting alternative explanations for the extinctions or demise of many animal and some plant species.
           To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in conservation biology, and ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems.
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To construct justified arguments for the value of conserving biodiversity

           

          ​To evaluate the human activities that affect biodiversity and describe how they act individually and in combination to affect individuals, populations and ecosystems

          ​To evaluate, using case studies, the pros and cons of a wide range of conservation interventions, from international legal instruments to local habitat management

          ​To analyze where conservation questions can be answered with scientific evidence, and where socio-economic and other types of information are more important

        • Integrative Comparative Animal Physiology (LIFE339)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​Develop students’ understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underpin animal adaptations to environmental conditions

          2. ​​Develop  students’ ability to solve complex physiological problems

          Learning Outcomes

          ​Evaluate integrative physiological mechanisms enabling animals to survive in potentially hostile environmental conditions

          ​Critically discuss the evolution of air-breathing, terrestriality and endothermy in vertebrates

          ​Critically review evidence to solve complex problems within the context of animal physiology
        • The Body in Motion: Musculoskeletal Functioning in Health, Performance and Disease (LIFE335)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          • ​Provide a general introduction into biomechanics and kinesiology (movement sciences)
          • Stimulate the students to put their individual and diverse background (e.g. more anatomical, physical or biological) into a broader and more applied perspective
          • Enable students to acquire a solid basis to further specialise in fields such as biomechancics, sports training, and orthopaedics.

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically evaluate a topic related to whole-body musculoskeletal functioning and suggest further research, taking into account relevant literature.

          ​To explain which and how basic physical and physiological principles determine motion in animals, including humans.

          To critically evaluate whole-body musculoskeletal (mal)functionin normal health, sports and disease.​

          ​​​​​

          To describe the most important techniques used in biomechanics and propose and defend a relevant sub-set of these techniques for concrete research questions.​

        The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.


        Teaching and Learning

        You will experience a range of learning environments during your studies at Liverpool. These will include student-centred activities as well as lectures, tutorials, laboratory practicals, dissection classes, fieldwork, data handling sessions and computer workshops. Some of these activities will be performed individually, such as personal research projects, and others in small tutorial or project groups, in addition to formal lectures and workshops. You will have research staff as well as your own academic adviser for individual tuition on our acclaimed tutorial programme.


        Assessment

        As well as factual knowledge and understanding, biologists need practical and organisational skills, and an ability to work both alone and with other people. We record development of these abilities through continuous assessment during the semester and by final examination. You will also prepare posters, complete tests, analyse data, give short talks, research the scientific literature and write essays and reports. The style of examination progresses from short answers towards the essay format in the later years of each degree programme, as your understanding deepens.