Architecture BA (Hons) Add to your prospectus

  • Offers study abroad opportunities Offers study abroad opportunities
  • Opportunity to study for a year in China Offers a Year in China
  • This degree is accreditedAccredited

Key information


  • Course length: 3 years leading to a 2 year Masters degree (MArch)
  • UCAS code: K100
  • Year of entry: 2018
  • Typical offer: A-level : AAA / IB : 36 / BTEC : DDD
architecture-1

Module details

The course combines individual creativity with knowledge and understanding of a broad variety of technical and cultural issues, which constitute the context within which design takes place. The programme requires successful graduates to demonstrate through a coherent portfolio of work their ability to:

  • Produce architectural proposals that are a ware of the history and theory of the discipline, are based on an understanding of society and its culture, and make appropriate use of the built and natural environments
  • Combine imaginative design with demonstrable skills in clear and up-to-date communication techniques, knowledge of constructional and environmental techniques, and awareness of the professional role of the architect.

Each year contains core modules in history of architecture and planning; building technology and structures; and environmental science and design. In addition you will have the opportunity to take modules in design computing and sustainable environment. Students combine these modules with studio design. The design studio is the dominant focus, taking up 50% of the module load in each year. 

Programme Year One

Core modules

Studio Design

Studio design is the core of architectural education and one which encourages personal development through the exploration and presentation of design schemes. These start in the first year with small-scale designs which grow in scale and complexity through the subsequent years.

History of Architecture

This pathway will appeal to those fascinated by the role of ideas and history in Architecture. Texts in Architectural History are examined to develop critical reading and writing techniques. Taught modules include modules in Architectural History, and Theory, together with a Short Special Study.

Structural Design

Structural design examines not just how and why buildings stand up, but also how structural technologies can be usefully integrated into the design process. From consideration of the basic principles and influential factors, the subject develops to show how structural design and associated technologies have acted as key driving forces in the design of certain key buildings of the past 30 years.

Environmental Science

We study how acoustics, heating, lighting, and airflow all affect the internal environment in the buildings that we design and how they impinge on the broader global environment.

Year One Compulsory Modules

  • Studio 1.1: Design Communication (ARCH101)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims

    The first aim of this module is to introduce students to a range of graphical and modelling techniques, which include precise survey drawings, more expressive sketches and model-making skills to represent architecture and space..

    The second aim is for students to have an understanding of ''place''.

    Learning Outcomes

    -For students to be able to represent a given ''site'' through models and graphical means.

    -For students to be able to capture the characteristics of a given ‘site’ as a place through graphical means.


    LEARNING OUTCOMES IN RELATION TO PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

    Certain modules in Architecture address the General Criteria as defined by the RIBA and ARB. Fulfilling these Criteria is an important part of meeting the professional requirements relating to both RIBA accreditation and ARB Prescription. The General Criteria and other professional aspects of Architecture degrees at Liverpool University are described here:

    http://www.liv.ac.uk/architecture/undergraduate/registered-architect/

    The mapping of the RIBA/ARB General Criteria to the specific modules that make up the Architecture degrees is described in this table:

    http://www.liv.ac.uk/media/livacuk/architecture/downloads/mapping-criteria.pdf

  • Studio 1.2: Design (ARCH103)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims
  • The aim is for students to generate a small-scale design proposal, based on a brief. The students proposal should show design development from an initial concept. The student should be able to develop a series of spaces each displaying different architectural qualities and responding in some way to the site/spatial adjectives.

  • ​For students to demonstrate some understanding of site analysis

  • ​For students to demonstrate some understanding of design process and idea generation.

  • Learning Outcomes

    For the students to generate a conceptual design-idea and use it to develop a process.


    ​For the student to understand the process of design, leading to a proposed form.​

    ​​

    ​For the student to interpret a brief and produce design proposals.


    ​For the student to have some understanding of ''site'' and ''place'' and ''journey''.


    ​For the students to generate a process lead design strategy.


  • Environmental Design 1 (ARCH111)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
    Aims

    To introduce the principles of environment science.

    To introduce aspects of climatically responsive architecture, and lighting of buildings.

    To give students an understanding of the role of a building as a modifier of climate with reference to traditional climatically responsive architecture and the role of buildings in the context of global energy usage.

    To introduce design approaches based upon passive techniques for achieving efficient thermal performance of buildings.

    Learning Outcomes

    To develop an understanding of:

    (i) the factors which determine human thermal comfort.

    (ii) the relevance of climatic conditions to building design.

    (iii) the role of building fabric and ventilation in the modification of climatic conditions by buildings and be able to carry out simple calculations relating to heat loss from buildings.

    (iv) solar geometry and its importance in building design.

    (v) the nature of daylight in buildings and simple daylight assessment techniques.

    This module has been mapped against the RIBA validation criteria GC9.

  • Context 1.1: History of Architecture (ARCH171)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
    Aims

    To give students an outline knowledge of how architecture with its associated technologies, cultural connections and urban settings has evolved from ancient times to the twentieth century.

    Learning OutcomesAn outline knowledge of some of the main themes in world architectural history, and an introduction to the cultural, social and intellectual histories, theories and technologies which influence the design of buildings (RIBA: GC2.1)

    ​An outline knowledge of some of the major pre-modern technologies and spatial and social issues which have shaped architecture worldwide, introducing the influence of architectural history and theory on the spatial, social, and technological aspects of architecture (RIBA: GC2.2)

    ​An outline knowledge of the relationship between architecture and other arts, introducing the influence of the theories, practices and technologies of selected areas of the fine arts on architectural design (RIBA: GC3.1)

  • Studio 1.3: Design (ARCH152)
    Level1
    Credit level30
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims
  • For students to propose architectural outcomes for a given site following a rigorous, process-lead design. 

  • ​​

    For students to interpret a brief and propose a solution to a small-scale architectural problem.​
  • Learning Outcomes

    For students to be able to design small buildings/places/appropriate solutions, that respond to the given brief, and display architectural intentions/ideas.

    For students to be able to propose architectural solutions following an understanding and graphical analysis of site, precedent studies and materials/technology.​

    ​For students to have some understanding of computer-aided-design.


    Building on the skills developed in ARCH101 and ARCH103, the students should be able to present their proposals in a manner that communicates their design effectively using architectural conventions, models, sketches and diagrammatic studies.​
  • Technology 1.2: Structure and Construction (ARCH161)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
    Aims
  • To introduce the principles of construction technology and in particular the common materials and systems in buildings.
  • To introduce the principles of structural design, and in particular the loadbearing components and systems in buildings.​

  • ​To introduce aspects and examples of building technologies and construction sequences.

  • Learning OutcomesDevelop awareness of the principles of structural design, the construction techniques and materials used to attain appropriate strength, stability, and stiffness.

    Develop an awareness of the relationship between structural behaviour and architectural design; how the two can complement each other.

    ​Develop an understanding of the principles of construction technology, and construction sequences

    ​Develop an understanding of the relationship between architectural design and construction technology

    ​Develop an understanding of the relationship between architectural, structural design and building technologies

    This module complies with RIBA mapping criteria as described in the following document: http//www.liv.ac.uk/media/livacuk/architecture/downloads/ARB,mapping,per,criterion.pdf​

  • Context 1.2 Architecture and the Built Environment (ARCH121)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting40:60
    Aims

    The aims of the module are:

    • to set the role of the Architect, Architecture and the Design Process in the broader context of the construction industry and wider society.
    • to consider the professional nature of the Architect''s role. 
    • to establish the relationship between the professional and design roles of the architect and explore the use of drawing as a professional tool.
    Learning OutcomesUpon completing the module sucessful students will be able to:

    Identify and analyse ways in which physical, political, social or economic contexts have an impact on how architecture is commissioned, designed and constructed; using specific examples. 

    ​Identify and begin to critique the established legal duties and responsibilities of the architect, developing opinions about what the fundamental duties and responsibilities should be.
    ​​​Identify the purpose of the main statutory approvals in architectural practice and demonstrate basic knowledge of regulations and approvals processes relevant to the practice of architecture 
    ​Identify and summarise the roles of key people involved in architectural practice and building procurement in the UK, including professionals, stakehoders, statutory authorities and professional and regulatory bodies.
    Identify basic management, business and procurement principles relevant to UK architectural practice and identify ways in which these can affect the architect''s role.

    Evaluate different types of drawing and their appropriateness for different functions in the practice of architecture. 

Programme Year Two

Students have the option to transfer to the new non-professional Design Studies BA (Hons) programme in Year Two. Students will specialise in the analysis and evaluation of ‘design’ understood as a complex historical and contemporary concept related to practices in architecture, planning, product manufacture, and the visual arts. Flexible yet intellectually coherent and developmental, Design Studies equips students for a wide range of vocational options in the construction industry, design and planning agencies, and related fields in public policy and education. Students who elect to follow this route will graduate with a Design Studies BA (Hons).

Year Two Compulsory Modules

  • Design 2.1 (ARCH202)
    Level2
    Credit level30
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims
  • ​To design a small to medium size building, or a series of buidings of small to medium complexity, to a specific schedule of accommodation, and on a given site or number of sites.


  • ​To specifically address the architecture of public institutions and / or public housing.​

  • ​To explore qualities of public and private space and their respective thresholds.​

  • ​To introduce concepts of type, context and urban morphology as parameters for architectural design.​

  • ​To explore the relationship between structure and enclosure of a building.​

  • ​To investigate appropriate structures and materials.​

  • ​To introduce awareness of acoustics, daylighting and lighting.​

  • ​To produce a complete set of drawings and models for a final pin up assessment or portfolio review (typically consisting of a set of general arrangement drawings in scale 1/100, plus detailed drawings ranging fromscale 1/1 to 1/50).​
  • Learning Outcomes

    Students will further their knowledge and skills of drawing techniques and the representation of space.


    ​Students will gain experience of translating a brief into an architectural project with careful consideration of spatial and tectonic options available to them.​

    ​Techniques of reading and analysing the city​

    ​​​​Interpreting the brief into an appropriate architectural project​

    ​Planning of architectural spaces​

    ​Appropriate choice of structure and building fabric​

    ​Representation of material qualities of architectural spaces​

    Students will have considered the following issues:​

    Transformations of public & private space trough architectural intervention​Students will have continued to investigate the design and representation of:

    Material and sensory qualities of architectural space with consideration, among other issues, of acoustics, day‐lighting and lighting​

  • Environmental Design 2 (ARCH211)
    Level2
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
    Aims

    To develop from user requirements an introduction to design of  passive and active environmental systems for buildings, their integration into building fabric and structural systems, and selection of appropriate design options, equipment and materials.

    Learning Outcomes

    ​Students to be able to identify plausible strategies and material use from vernacular architecture to use in modern buildings to reduce energy consumption.

    Students to be able to select appropriate passive strategies for the climate of the building.

    ​Students to be able to appreciate the importance of using computer simulation to analyse their design options and BIM

    ​Students to be able to select appropriate materials, including consideration for re-use and re-cycling.

  • Context 2.1: History and Theory of Architecture (ARCH271)
    Level2
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
    Aims
  • The aim of this module is to investigate, in depth, the attributes of selected examples of twentieth-century architecture and their associated cultural, social and intellectual framework and to demonstrate, through building analysis, the influence of historical and theoretical concepts on the spatial, social and technological aspects of twentieth-century architecture.

  • Learning Outcomes

    ​Knowledge of the cultural, social and intellectual histories, theories and technologies which influence the design of buildings (RIBA GC2.1)

    ​Knowledge of architectural history and theory on the spatial, social and technological aspects of archirtecture (RIBA GC2.2)

    ​The influence of the theories, practices and technologies of selected areas of the fine arts on architectural design (RIBA GC3.1 and GC3.2)

  • Studio 2.3 Design (ARCH252)
    Level2
    Credit level30
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims
  • The aims of this module are a continuation and further exploration of the issues investigated in Arch202.

  • ​Design of a public and/or institutional building (or series of buildings), and associated landscape, to a specific schedule of accommodation, and on a given site or number of sites.

  • ​To investigate concepts of type, context and urban morphology as parameters for architectural design.

  • ​To explore qualities of public and private space and their respective thresholds.Design of a building envelope exploring issues of building enclosure, structure and tectonics.

  • ​​Design of a building envelope exploring issues of building enclosure, structure and tectonics.

  • ​​To introduce awareness of acoustics, daylighting and lighting.

  • ​To investigate appropriate structures and materials.​

  • ​To introduce awareness of acoustics, daylighting and lighting.​

  • ​To produce a complete set of drawings and models for a final pin up assessment or portfolio review (typically consisting of a set of general arrangement drawings in scale 1/100, plus detailed drawings ranging fromscale 1/1 to 1/50).

  • Learning Outcomes

    Development of Architectural Space in tandem with structural design.

    Students will further their knowledge and skills of drawing techniques and the representation of space.

    ​Students will further their experience of translating a brief into an architectural project with careful consideration of spatial and tectonic options available to them.​

    ​Interpreting the brief into an appropriate architectural project​and in the context of a specific urban context

    ​​The selection of appropriate materials to reinforce the architectural qualitiy and considering environmental performance.

    ​Planning of buildings and detailed design of architectural spaces and implications for their characteristics

    ​Appropriate choice of structure and building fabric, as well as the representation of material qualities of architectural spaces​

    The representation of buildings and spaces using CAAD software.

     

    ​Students will have considered the following issues:​

    Transformations of public & private space trough architectural intervention

    Students will have continued to investigate the design and representation of:

    Material and sensory qualities of architectural space with consideration,among other issues, of acoustics, day‐lighting and lighting​

  • Technology 2.2: Structural Design (ARCH261)
    Level2
    Credit level15
    SemesterSecond Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
    Aims

    This module will illustrate how Structural and associated technologies can be effectively and productively integrated into the architectural design process. Certain case studies will be taken as illustrations of how this integration of technological issues can be accomplished effectively. 

    A range of designers will figure in these case studies, but the work of  certain architects and engineers such as Peter Rice, Anthony Hunt, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Frei Otto will receive particular attention. Cases  that exemplify good architect engineer relationships will be covered in more detail.

    This module aims to build upon the 1st year module ARCH161. Students  entering directly to Year 2 should have covered a similar module prior to entering the degree

    Learning Outcomes

    The intended learning outcomes are:

    1. The students will be shown the value of a well-integrated building design solution in which technological issues are managed alongside all of the other architectural issues to deliver an optimal, well balanced and effective overall design solution

    2. The students will appreciate that different structural strategies,  construction technologies and materials are appropriate for different design problems.​

  • Context 2.1: Urban Studies (ARCH221)
    Level2
    Credit level15
    SemesterFirst Semester
    Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
    Aims​​

    to promote an understand of cities as complex ecological and cultural systems;

    to explain different morphological features of cities in relation to their unique socio-cultural political and economic contexts;

    to stimulate students'' critical thinking on the roles architects, urban designers and planners play in the transformation process of cities;

    to allow students to learn basic urban design principles, philosophies and obtain skills;

    to make students be aware of current debates and measures on urban sustainability. 


     

    This module complies with RIBA mapping criteria as described in the following document:http://www.liv.ac.uk/media/livacuk/architecture/downloads/ARB,Mapping,per,criterion.pdf

    Learning Outcomes

    After this module, students should be able to: understand how cities emerged; the diverse socio-cultural, political and ecological factors that have shaped their histories – including the ways in which cities have been represented. 

      ​be familiar with key issues in urban design (including such issues as complexity of human – environmental relationships, history and theory of urban architecture, politics and material culture, heritage conservation, and the diversity of meanings of ‘place’ and ‘public space’); ​

      ​be informed on current debates about sustainable development and urban quality of life, and able to apply their knowledge of these debates and other issues in the module  to other aspects of their degree programme. 

    Programme Year Three

    In Year Three modules will include a mix of core and elective modules, typically selected from:

    Year Three Compulsory Modules

    • Studio 3.1 Design (ARCH302)
      Level3
      Credit level30
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
      Aims

      To develop the necessary skills to design small or medium scale buildings taking into consideration a wide range of architectural, urban, socio-cultural, economic and political issues that are inherently connected with architectural practices. 

      Learning Outcomes

      Demonstrate an ability to design buildings taking into consideration all its aspects: structure, materials, function, interior and exterior space as well as all *urban issues that concern the building.

      Represent ideas appropriately using the most effective media to convey a clear message.


      *urban meaning urban/suburban pertaining to location.

      ​Demonstrate an ability to understand theoretical issues in order to develop an individual critical posture in relation to the design project.

      ​​Demonstrate an ability to identify research sources and methods that are appropriate  for the development of the project.

      ​Demonstrate an awareness of environmental, sustainability, health & safety and disability issues that are central to contemporary architectural agendas.

      ​Demonstate effective representation of ideas using the most effective media to convey a clear message.

      ​Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between people and buildings and their environment.

      ​Demonstrate an understanding of architectural tectonics.

      ​Demonstrate the application of an architectural agenda and design approach which has been driven/informed by research findings.

    • Technology 3.1: Integrated Technical Project Design (ARCH361)
      Level3
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
      AimsDevelop a critical approach to architectural design that integrates and satisfies the aesthetic aspects of a building and the technical requirements of its constructionDevelop technical knowledge and awareness about the environmental performance of buildingsDevelop technical knowledge and awareness of current and emerging technologies and their application in constructionDevelop an understanding of contemporary construction practice techniques such as prefabricationDevelop skills in detailed design and presentation through the process of analysing contemporary construction and digital practicesDevelop basic knowledge about contemporary digital practice and its application in architecture and constructionDevelop the ability to represent/communicate technical solutions in appropriate ways and media
      Learning Outcomes

      Understand and use the current and emerging design technologies in architecture

       Understand and apply different technologies and methods in construction by investigating, analysing and redrawing of a precedent study

       

      ​Understanding of the alternative materials, processes and techniques that apply to architectural design and building construction

      ​Be able to reflect about design and materials, structure and environmental strategy choices as well as the proposed construction methodology

      ​Demonstrate an ability to present and respresent techinical solutions successfully in order to communicate their ideas to clients and other professionals

    • Studio 3.2 Design (ARCH352)
      Level3
      Credit level30
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
      Aims

      The final design project of the BA course in Architecture provides an opportunity for the students to demonstrate that he/she has acquired all the necessary skills to design a complex building and to explore the detailed resolution of selected technical aspects.

      Learning Outcomes

      Demonstrate an ability to design buildings taking into consideration all its aspects: structure, materials, function, interior and exterior space as well as all *urban issues that concern the building.

      Represent ideas appropriately using the most effective media to convey a clear message.

      *urban meaning urban/suburban pertaining to location.

      ​Demonstrate an ability to understand theoretical issues in order to develop an individual critical posture in relation to the design project.

      Demonstrate an ability to identify research sources and methods that are appropriate for the development of the project.

      Demonstrate an awareness of environmental, sustainability, health & safety and disability issues that are central to contemporary architectural agendas.​

      ​Demonstrate effective representation of ideas using the most effective media to convey a clear message.

      ​Demonstrate an understanding of architectural tectonics.

      ​Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between people and buildings and their environment.

      ​Demonstrate the application of an architectural agenda and design approach which has been driven/informed by research findings.

    • Environmental Design 3 (ARCH311)
      Level3
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
    • Develop from user requirements an introduction to the design of environmental systems for large buildings.

    • Give insight and background for the ​selection of appropriate equipment and materials, and their integration into building fabric and structural systems.

    • ​Develop background needed to enter into technical discussions in design teams.

    • Learning OutcomesDevelop from user requirements an overview in design of environmental systems for large buildings, selection of appropriate equipment and materials, and their integration into building fabric and structural systems.

       

      NB This module has been mapped against RIBA validation criteria GC9.

      Demonstrate technical knowledge in the three topic areas: Artificial Lighting, Acoustics, and Thermal Environment

      ​Be able to engage in technical discussions and show awareness of the various technical requirements on buildings.

    • Practice Management (ARCH371)
      Level3
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims

      Aims:

      To provide students with a background in management theory and business organisation and how these relate to the management of design practicesin the UK.

      Learning Outcomes

      Learning Outcomes:

      This Module will enable students to:

      Appreciate the principles of business management

          

       

      ​Develop an awareness of how small businesses (architecture practices) operate

      ​Understand how buildings are designed and built in the context of architectural and professional practice and the framework of the construction within which it operates

      ​Apply management principles to design working practices

      ​Understand the principles of quality assurance and the effects of recent safety and design liability legislation

      ​Understand the principles, practicalities and problems of planning and management of the design process

      ​Develop an awareness and understanding of the procedures for appraising working practices

      ​Develop an awareness and understanding of the principles of whole lifecosting and environmental life cycle assessment at the design stage

      ​This module contributes to GC6, GC7.2, GC10 and GC11 RIBA validation criteria

    • Context 3.1: History and Theory of Architecture (ARCH321)
      Level3
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
      Aims

      To develop final year undergraduate skills in the evaluation and presentation of an historical project through seminar-based group study. This module also presents an opportunity for final year students to work in areas where staff are active in research.

      Learning Outcomes

      By the end of the module, students will demonstrate –

      knowledge and understanding of specialised aspect of modern architecture

      ​The ability to research and report on an area of modern architecture

      The ability to work in groups

      The ability to recognise taught material in a slide test

    • Design Studies Dissertation (ARCH382)
      Level3
      Credit level30
      SemesterWhole Session
      Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
      Aims
    • To provide an opportunity for students to explore an aspect of architecture (and closely related fields, such as Urban Studies, Planning, Art, Computer Aided Design, etc.) systematically and in detail.

    • ​To develop research skills

    • To develop skills in academic writing (and/or other approved medium for presentation) for a substantial piece of personal work​

    • Learning Outcomes

      The ability to investigate an aspect of architecture or closely related fields,

      The ability to report their findings in a coherent and appropriate form,​

      ​The ability to prepare a well-documented, and referenced report, or an equivalent presentation using contemporary media, in a rigorous fashion.

    The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.


    Teaching and Learning

    Year One of the programme comprises a series of interconnected modules, which are designed to lay the foundation for future years. The initial aim is to teach basic graphic communication and to give you the tools to develop your own design agenda. Year Two modules put increased emphasis on the context of architecture such as urban design, responsibility to society, and relationships with the construction industry. The final year of the programme provides an opportunity for you to demonstrate you have acquired the necessary knowledge and skill to embark on a professional career in architecture. Building on the expertise and understanding of the previous two years, the design modules allow you to develop the necessary skills to design medium and large-scale buildings with a high degree of complexity.


    Assessment

    Written exams count for roughly 25% of your overall marks, with the balance coming from the creativity, reasoning and imagination you've shown in your work during the programme. In the studio modules, assessment is always carried out by a team of staff, who review all of the designs to arrive at a consensus on marks.

    At the end of each academic year, portfolios of designs are reviewed by all architectural staff to reach a further consensus understanding of each student’s progress. We believe that excellent design is encouraged as much by what we teach as by how far the student is prepared to pursue her or his architectural ideas.

    We avoid a box-ticking approach to marking, looking instead for exploration and consistency in the design that demonstrates independence and invention. Our approach to marking by consensus gives, we believe, the best guarantee of fairness while encouraging personal experiment. The best coursework shows an awareness of the greater world of architecture and the building industry, and contributes to knowledge. We try hard to avoid templates of performance while keeping within best practice. To this end, guidance issued is as clear and precise as we can make it, whilst expecting that creativity will dominate.