Anatomy and Human Biology BSc (Hons) Add to your prospectus

  • Offers study abroad opportunities Offers study abroad opportunities
  • Opportunity to study for a year in China Offers a Year in China

Key information


  • Course length: 3 years
  • UCAS code: B110
  • Year of entry: 2019
  • Typical offer: A-level : AAB / IB : 34 / BTEC : DDD in relevant diploma
life-sciences-4

Module details

Year One Compulsory Modules

  • Experimental Skills in Current Biology (LIFE107)
    Level1
    Credit level15
    SemesterWhole Session
    Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
    Aims

    1.      Introducestudents to a range of practical skills and techniques that are of general usein subjects across the Life Sciences;

    2.      Demonstratethe relevance of experimental skills across all biological disciplines andexplain the importance of observing good laboratory practice

    3.      Trainstudents how to observe and record experiments, and how to present and analysedata

     ​

      Learning Outcomes​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Record procedures and protocols for experiments relating to current biology and generate, evaluate andinterpret qualitative and quantitative data

      Identify, formulate andtest hypotheses in relation to laboratory- based experiments in current biology​

      Use laboratory equipment correctly and safely according to good laboratory practice and observing Health and Safety rules

      Demonstrate a range of laboratory skills when undertaking experiments in current biology

    1. Essential Skills for the Life Sciences I (LIFE109)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterWhole Session
      Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Develop in students the essential skills that they will require to be competent life scientists;
      2. Enhance the employability prospects of students.
      Learning Outcomes

      Use a range of mathematical and numerical tools to address biological problems

      Structure and communicate ideas effectively, both orally and in writing

      ​Manage time, work to deadlines and prioritise workloads 

      ​Actively participate in groups but be capable of independent work

      ​Find relevant information and use IT effectively

      ​Address the relevance and ideas of others 

      ​Evaluate own performance and working standards 

    2. Molecules and Cells (LIFE101)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims

      After successful completion of this module, students will be able to:

      1. Recognise the basic of structure, composition and function of cells;
      2. Explain core concepts relating to the organisation and specialisation of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses;
      3. Define the cellular components involved in the regulation of key functions such as the generation of energy, movement, cell growth and division and differentiation;
      4. Describe the latest techniques that are used in cell biology to determine cell structure and function;
      5. Develop in students the knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
      Learning Outcomes

      On successful completion of the module students will be able to:

      1. Describe how cells arose and their structural features;
      2. Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells;
      3. Identify the different ways cells manipulate energy;
      4. Define the molecular basis of the processes by which cells grow, replicate, communicate, interact with their environment, move and die;
      5. Describe the functional importance of cell specialisation and cooperation in tissues.
    3. Evolution (LIFE103)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Describe fundamental genetic mechanisms that are essential for the function and evolution of life;
      2. Introduce students to fundamental evolutionary concepts and theories, showing how genetic mechanisms help determine the patterns of observed evolution;
      3. Apply evolutionary concepts to a broad selection of areas of Life Sciences;
      4. Develop in students the knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biology.
      Learning Outcomes

      Recall how cells evolved

      ​Identify the causes of evolutionary change in populations

      ​Recognize the consequences of evolutionary change for patterns of biological diversity within and amongst populations

      ​Recall fundamental genetic mechanisms (heredity, mutation, meiosis, sex) and show how they influence evolutionary change in populations

      Recognize the widespread applicability of evolutionary ideas across the Life Sciences

    4. Grand Challenges in Biology (LIFE105)
      Level1
      Credit level7.5
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
      Aims
      1. To encourage students to become aware of the themes that are driving biological research in Liverpool and globally;
      2. To engage students with their programme of study;
      3. To excite student interest in their subject and the way it relates to the challenges that face us all;
      4. To foster the development of study skills that will equip students to investigate research topics and communicate their findings and views on them.
      Learning Outcomes

      To identify the grand challenges that face biological scientists

      ​To put into context the advances that science makes possible and the ethical issues associated with meeting the Grand Challenges

      ​To evaluate different approaches to the resolution of scientific questions

      ​To conduct an independent piece of research and report their findings to their peers

    5. Core Concepts of Anatomy (LIFE111)
      Level1
      Credit level7.5
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Provide an introduction to topographical anatomy and neuroanatomy;
      2. Introduce students to the key concepts of anatomy that underlie the main systems of the body;
      3. Develop knowledge of basic functional anatomy of the main systems of the body
      Learning Outcomes

      Classify the levels of structural organisation of the human body using anatomical terms to determine body region, relative position and body movements

      Identify the macroscopic structure of bone and distinguish between bones formed by intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Locate and identify the bones that form the skeleton​

      Classify joints; predict actions of joints and associated ranges of movement

      Differentiate between muscle types, location, actions and nerve supply and predict actions of skeletal muscles based on their origins, insertions and fibre arrangementIdentify the chambers of the heart and their features, and major arteries and veins of the body, recognise the structure and function of arteries and veins including their nerve supply and angiology​

      Identify the structure of a generalised neuron and locate the major parts of the brain (and associated cranial nerves) with an appreciation of their functions​

      Identify the structure of the spinal cord and spinal nerves and differentiate between spinal and peripheral nerves, recognising how limb plexuses are formed​

      Distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and their associated nerve pathways​

    6. Introduction to Physiology and Pharmacology (LIFE106)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Provide students with a grounding in the concepts and principles that underlie human systems biology;
      2. Introduce the concepts of interactions of drugs and other exogenous chemicals on biological processes;
      3. Develop concepts of drug absorption and the relationship between chemical structure and drug action;
      4. Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology and pharmacology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in these disciplines.
      Learning Outcomes

      On successful completion of this module, the students will be able to:

      1.  Describe homeostasis and its maintenance;
      2.  Define osmosis and hydrostatic pressure;
      3.  Outline the fundamentals of membrane potentials and how they are influenced;
      4.  Explain the roles played in various body systems in organism maintenance;
      5.  Distinguish how body systems interact in response to external stressors;
      6.  Define the way in which pharmacology is studied and drugs are developed;
      7.  Describe the properties of receptors;
      8.  Identify the chemical interactions between drugs and receptors;
      9.  Define and use the terms absorption, distribution and metabolism of drugs.
    7. Developmental Biology: Embryology and Mechanisms of Development (LIFE114)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Describe the processes that regulate development and the general properties of stem cells;
      2. Explain the mechanisms of germ line development and early development from fertilisation to gastrulation; 
      3. Provide students with an understanding of how the major organ systems of the body form;
      4. Highlight the experimental evidence underpinning this knowledge;
      5. Develop knowledge and understanding in human biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.
      Learning Outcomes

      Explain the fundamental mechanisms that regulate development;

      ​Describe the general properties of stem cells and their role in development;

      ​Explain the developmental processes that form the three layered embryo and the experimental evidence that underpins our understanding; 

    8. Describe the formation of the main organs of the body from the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm;
    9. ​Explain the basic mechanisms that regulate the development of the major organ systems and the experimental models used to investigate these mechanisms.

    10. Circulatory and Respiratory Anatomy (LIFE116)
      Level1
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims

      This module aims to:

      1. Provide students with an understanding of the principal concepts underlying the cardiovascular, lymphatic and respiratory systems of the human body; 
      2. Introduce students to the regional (topographical) anatomy and practical dissection of the thorax;
      3. Enable students to apply their learning in a practical setting using facilities and materials appropriately, recognising and understanding the requirement to adhere to appropriate ethical standards and codes of practice; 
      4. Allow students to play an effective role working as part of a group;
      Learning Outcomes

      Identify and recall relevant features of surface anatomy applicable to the thoracic region;   

       

      ​Locate the functional osteology of the thorax;

      ​Identify the major blood vessels of the body and distinguish between the histology of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels;

      ​Identify and recall the gross morphology of the thorax relating this to structure and function in the thorax;

      ​Locate and identify anatomical structures within the thorax;

      ​Locate and recall the anatomical structures in the thorax using diagnostic imaging

      ​Describe the embryological development of relevant structures within the thorax and relate to the adult anatomical structures;

    Programme Year Two

    (Total required credits are 120)

    The compulsory modules are indicated below, and amount to 60 credits, plus LIFE223 Essential Skills for Life Scientists that continues over both semesters, and is worth 15 credits. The remaining credits must be made up by choosing two further 15 credit optional modules and two practical modules (worth 7.5 credits each) to make up the total of 120 credits. The choices are detailed below. Note that odd numbered modules run in semester 1 and even numbered modules run in semester 2.

    Year Two Compulsory Modules

    • Essential Skills for the Life Sciences 2 (LIFE223)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterWhole Session
      Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
      Aims
      1. To further develop the essential life science skills that students will require to succeed in their studies and future careers;

      2. To enhance the career awareness and employability prospects of students;

      3. To enable students to analyse and interpret scientific data and communicate results to a range of audiences.

      Learning Outcomes

      ​Structure and communicate ideas effectively, both orally and in writing;

      Find information through literature searches and use IT effectively to analyse and report findings;​Competently utilise a range of mathematical and numerical skills relevant to all biologists;​Summarise and interpret advanced data using graphs and tables;​Develop and test hypotheses;​Within the context of experimental design and within a range of biological fields, select appropriate quantitative methods to answer questions;​Apply appropriate statistical and other analysis packages to analyse data;​Interpret and evaluate quantitative terms and approaches used in the scientific literature;​

      ​Effectively communicate a biological subject to a lay audience

      Recognise the moral and ethical issues of scientific investigations and discuss ethical standards and professional codes of conduct. ​​
    • Functional Anatomy of the Human Locomotor System (LIFE219)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
      1. ​Develop students'' knowledge and understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human musculoskeletal system;

      2. Enablestudents to understand the processes processes involved during joint and muscle activity;​

      3. Develop students'' knowledge and understanding in human anatomy, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.​
      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify and describe the arrangement of the musculo-ligamentous and bony structures in the limbs and limb girdles;

      Identify muscles and describe how they function during various every-day activities;Explain the relationship between joint shape and joint function;Explain the organisation of the blood-vascular and nervous systems supplying the limbs;Describe the biomechanics of the human musculoskeletal system;
    • Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis (LIFE235)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
      1. To introduce students to the structural and functional anatomy of the human abdomen and pelvis using a combination of didactic teaching, directed human cadaveric dissection, and independent, self-directed study.

      2. ​To further students  abilities to identify, describe and explain detailed anatomical structures in relation to their function.

      3. ​ To develop in students the ability to apply and interpret their knowledge and understanding in order to successfully dissect the region.

      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify relevant surface anatomy, osteology and anatomical landmarks applicable to the abdominal and pelvic regions

      ​Locate and describe the positions of the abdominal and pelvic organs, their peritoneal reflections, nerve and blood supply and relate this all to function

      ​ Identify and describe detailed anatomical features of the abdominal and pelvic viscera, making comparisons between male and female

      Identify and determine anatomical variations that may occur with pathological changes in anatomical structures

      ​​​ Describe the relevant embryological processes and recognise changes in anatomical structures as a result of development

      Accurately identify structures encountered during dissection of the regions of the human abdomen and pelvis.​

    • Functional Neuroanatomy (LIFE218)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      AimsTo introduce students to the structural organisation of the humannervous system and the cell biological basis of nervous system function.

      To enable students to understand how neuronal circuits are organised to controlsensory and motor functions of the nervous system.

      To allow students to appreciate the functional consequences of diseases or trauma to particular regions of the nervous system.

      To allow students to understand and interpret experimental approaches to studying the nervous system.
      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify key neuroanatomical structures and demonstrate knowledge of their principle spatial and functional relationships

      ​Describe the cell biology and neuronal connectivity underpinning key anatomical structures and functional capabilities

      ​Synthesise knowledge of cells, anatomy and function to describe the major systems for perception, movement and control 

       

      ​Explain the anatomy and functions associated with the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and major blood vessels

       


    • Anatomy of the Head and Neck (LIFE220)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
      1. ​Develop in students, the knowledge and understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human head and neck and how these structures develop

      2. ​To enable students to develop their understanding of regional (topographical) anatomy in a practical setting using facilities and materials appropriately, recognising and understanding the requirements to adhere to appropriate ethical standards and codes of practice

      3. ​To encourage students to develop skills for interpreting medical imaging as it applies to the head and neck region and apply that knowledge to other materials available

      4. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in human anatomy, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in anatomy.
      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify and discuss relevant features of surface and gross anatomy applicable to the head and neck region and relate this to structure and function

      ​Locate, identify and describe the structural and functional osteology of the head and neck and relate it to gross anatomical features

      Identify, interpret and evaluate anatomical structures within the head and neck region using diagnostic imaging such as x-rays, CT and MRI scans​

      Identify and describe the embryological development of relevant structures within the head and neck region and discuss and relate this to adult anatomical structures  


    Year Two Optional Modules

    • The Multicellular Organism: Tissues, Development, Regeneration and Aging (LIFE205)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      AimsExtend students'' knowledge of the structure and function of fundamental tissues, such as epithelial and connective tissue and of specialised tissues; 
      Develop students'' ability to discuss the mechanisms by which cells differentiate to form different tissues;
      Equip students to explain the processes that occur during ageing with special reference to changes in key tissues such as the brain;
      Develop knowledge and understanding in human biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in that subject.​
      Learning OutcomesClassify and compare the major types of epithelia and, explain the role of cell-cell interactions in tissue structure and the structure and function of fundamental tissues

      Discuss and compare the molecular mechanisms involved in development of selected organs, and their cellular structure and organisation and explain the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regeneration of key organs.Explain and discuss mechanisms of ageing using selected systems as exemplars.

      Describe the experimental basis underpinning the current understanding of tissue biology. ​

    • Principles of Pharmacology (LIFE207)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
    • This module aims to: Develop an understanding of the quantitative aspects of drug action on cellular receptors;

    • Demonstrate the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;

    • Introduce the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, outline the relationship between drug concentration and response, and include an introduction to the principles of toxicity of drugs and their metabolites;

    • Provide knowledge of the molecular biology of receptors;

    • Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve pharmacological problems.

    • Learning OutcomesOn successful completion of this module, the students should be able to: Describe quantitative aspects of drug action;​Define the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;​State key pharmacokinetic concepts such as clearance, volume of distribution, half life and steady state and to solve problems involving these parameters;​Demonstrate the role of drug concentrations in determining response to treatment;​Describe early biochemical events after drug administration that are of toxicological and biochemical significance;​Describe the principles of selective toxicity and their application to both self and non-self targets;​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of pharmacology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​
    • Evolutionary Biology (LIFE213)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
    • ​This modules aims to:

      Provide students with a modern framework for understanding how organisms evolve and the major transitions in evolution ;

    • ​Explain where heritable phenotypic variation comes from, how it shapes the evolutionary process within species (microevolution) and elucidate the link between micro- and macro-evolution

    • Describe the factors influencing the genetic constitution of a population;

    • ​Explain how evolution and ecology are linked OR explain how gene sequence data can be used to study evolutionary processes.

    • ​Equip students with knowledge and understanding in evolutionary biology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve biological problems. ​

    • Learning Outcomes

      ​Discuss the origins of heritable phenotypic variation;

      ​Describe the main factors that cause changes in the genetic constitution of populations including the basic principles of studying molecular evolution; 


      Explain the difference between microevolution and macroevolution and how the two processes are linked;

      Explain patterns of biodiversity from an evolutionary perspective;

      Describe the major evolutionary transitions;​

      Explain how ecology influences evolution and evolution influences ecology (Elective option 1) OR Explain the basic principles of studying molecular evolution and interpret genetic sequence data (Elective option 2);

      Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of evolutionary biology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​

    • Cell Signalling in Health and Disease (LIFE202)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
      ​This module aims to: 1. Provide students with knowledge and understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to communicate with each other
      ​2. Explain the general principles of these signalling mechanisms and then describe some of these in more detail;
      3. Illustrate how defects in these signalling processes can result in a variety of diseases;
      4. Outline the techniques that are used to investigate and define these pathways and to describe how these techniques are used in drug discovery programmes of research;
      5. Develop in students the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge and understanding, to solve problems in molecular cell biology
        Learning Outcomes

        ​On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

         Describe the fundamental features of a range of common cell signalling mechanisms;

        ​Explain how cell signalling processes may be defective, or modified, in a variety of different diseases;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge of the molecular and biochemical nature and role of the different components of intracellular signalling pathways;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of cell signalling, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems in biological science.

      1. Endocrine and Neuro-physiology (LIFE204)
        Level2
        Credit level15
        SemesterSecond Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
        Aims
      2. ​Explain the essential background knowledge to understand basic neuroscience;

      3. ​Describe the basic principles of operation of nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour;

      4. Provide an understanding of physiological homeostatic regulatory mechanisms, with particular regard to the endocrine and digestive systems;

      5. Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.
      6. Learning Outcomes

        ​Describe the basic principles of the nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour; and the characteristics of nerve cells that allow them facilitate the reception, processing and transmission of information;

        ​Apply the above knowledge to the operation of some of these systems, through all the stages from transduction of a stimulus to conscious perception, the regulatory mechanisms employed by them, their importance in maintaining homeostasis and the consequences of malfunction;

        Demonstrate specific knowledge and critical understanding of physiological functions of the digestive tract and major endocrine glands and apply this to understand the interaction between the digestive, endocrine and nervous system;​

        Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of physiology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve physiological problems.

      7. E-biology: Informatics for Life Sciences (LIFE225)
        Level2
        Credit level7.5
        SemesterFirst Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
        Aims
        • Provide students with a practical appreciation of the nature and significance of digital data.
        • Expose students to bioinformatics tools used in the analysis of data from areas such as genome sequencing, gene expression and protein structure studies
        • ​Enable students to utilize digital data for understanding higher order phenomena within cells such as metabolism, gene regulation and protein-protein interaction
        • Develop students’ knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology. ​​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​·         Apply informatics tools in the discovery, evaluation and acquisition of biological data.

          ​​

          ·         Analyse and evaluate datasets of broad biological relevance, using tasks and workflows that will prepare them for third-year projects.​


          ·         Use local and web-based tools for data analysis, management and collaborative working.​ ​ ​

          ​·         ​Design research methods in bioinformatics to solve biological problems.​​
        1. E-biology: Informatics for Life Sciences (s2) (LIFE242)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims
          1. Provide students with a practical appreciation of the nature and significance of digital data.
          2. Expose students to bioinformatics tools used in the analysis of data from areas such as genome sequencing, gene expression and protein structure studies
          3. ​Enable students to utilize digital data for understanding higher order phenomena within cells such as metabolism, gene regulation and protein-protein interaction
          4. Develop students’ knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology.​
          Learning Outcomes

          ​·         Apply informatics tools in the discovery, evaluation and acquisition of biological data.

          ​​​

          ​·         Analyse and evaluate datasets of broad biological relevance, using tasks and workflows that will prepare them for third-year projects.​


          ·         Use local and web-based tools for data analysis, management and collaborative working.​ ​ ​

          ​​

          ​ ·          ​Design research methods in bioinformatics to solve biological problems.​​​
        2. Techniques in Cell Biology (LIFE227)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
          Aims

          1. Provide students with practical training in theuse of equipment and techniques routinely used in cell biology. 

          2. Enhancestudents acquisition of fundamental research skills; including information gathering, report writing andstatistical analyses. 

          3. Provide students with an understanding of theprocesses involved in the collection, interpretation and presentation ofbiological data. ​


          Learning Outcomes​​​​​

          Present, evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols;

          Manage time effectively to plan and execute a series of experiments​Use microscopes and other lab equipment correctly to efficiently andsafely conduct a series of experiments​

          Analyse data, interpret validity and apply statistical analyses;

          Apply the principles of biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology  to practical experiments. ​
        3. Practical Human Physiology (LIFE229)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting20:80
          Aims
        4. ​To provide students with a practical training in the study of physiology and how to measure physiological variables;

        5. ​To equip students with the ability to apply appropriate statistical tools to define the normal range of physiological variables;

        6. To develop in students knowledge and understanding in physiology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.

        7. Learning OutcomesOn completion of this module student will be able to: Elucidate the principles of practical physiology;

          ​Measure and interpret the cardiovascular and respiratory variables most commonly dealt with in human physiology;

          Correctly measure volumes to the internationally recognised standard temperature and pressure values.

          Demonstrate the most effective ways of presenting data, including the presentation of a poster.

          Apply statistical concepts of mean, median, mode, standard deviation and standard error, and know the circumstances in which it is appropriate to use a Student''s t-test.

          Design studies, using the techniques acquired, to investigate a physiological principle.​

        8. Practical Pharmacology 1 (LIFE231)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
          Aims
        9. ​This module aims to develop in students the ability to:

          Measure the effects of drugs on isolated tissues and their use in the study of drug/receptor interactions and structure/activity relationships

        10. ​Carry out quantitative analysis of drug antagonism and apply analytical techniques in the measurement of drug metabolism;

        11. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems. ​

        12. Learning Outcomes

          ​On sucessful completion of this module students will be able to:

          Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data related to drug effects and record procedures and protocols;

          ​Demonstrate competence in practical skills in pharmacology and manage their time effectively;

          Plan and execute a series of experiments, use laboratory equipment correctly and safely to generate data;

          Analyse quantitative data, interpret its validity and apply statistical analyses.​

        13. Experimental Physiology (LIFE232)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
          Aims
          1. Provide students with an understanding of physiological regulatory mechanisms, their importance in maintaining homeostasis and the consequences of system malfunctions;

          2. ​Develop students'' understanding of scientific method and their team working and presentation skills;

             
          3. ​Introduce students to various techniques for investigating physiological variables;

             
          4. ​Develop in students, the ability to work individually and in small groups to collect, analyse and present data from experiments, simulations and databases;

             
          5. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve phsyiological problems.

             
          Learning Outcomes

          ​Measure and interpret a number of physiological variables;

          ​Solve physiological problems by conducting experiments, operating scientific equipment, comparing data obtained from varying experimental conditions and drawing conclusion from these;

          ​Present data generated from physiological experiments, for example by using various graphical formats;

          ​Access, retrieve and manipulate physiologically relevant information from a range of scientific electronic databases;

          ​Explain complex regulatory mechanisms employed in the physiological systems studied, including endocrine and neurophysiological mechanisms;

          ​Explain how molecular regulation integrates into whole organism physiology, including signalling mechanisms, gene expression and examples of genetic malfunctions.

        Programme Year Three

        (Total required credits are 120)

        In Year Three there is much more flexibility to the course to enable you to follow your intellectual interests. In semester 1 you have two compulsory modules, and you will conduct an independent research project leading to a dissertation in a research lab. Together, these comprise 60 credits. The remaining 60 credits (1 module in semester 1 and 3 modules in semester 3) must be chosen from the optional modules. Again, note that odd numbered modules run in semester 1 and even numbered modules run in semester 2.

        Year Three Compulsory Modules

        • Research Project (LIFE363)
          Level3
          Credit level30
          SemesterWhole Session
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
          1. ​To provide students with an insight into and experience of the process of scientific research and debate

          2. ​To develop in students the confidence to work independently and with others, to effectively and efficiently achieve a scientific aim

          3. ​To further develop students'' ability to communicate scientific concepts and findings in a variety of formats

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To plan and execute a piece of scientific research, in a responsible, safe and ethical manner

          ​To analyse and critically evaluate data, information, literature and observations, and draw valid conclusions

          To appropriately communicate findings, in a variety of formats (oral, written reports) to supervisor, research staff and peers

          ​To maintain a clear and accurate record of work and progress

          ​To critically evaluate and report upon relevant scientific literature

          ​To evaluate own performance and working standards by reflection, and place work in a wider scientific context 

        • Advanced Skills and Contemporary Themes in Anatomical Science (LIFE347)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
          Aims
          1. ​To enhance the core skills acquired in Levels 4 and 5, including bothscientific (presentational and communication) and employability skills, and toprovide advice on careers and career development in anatomy​.

          2. ​To enable students to evaluate the latest scientific literature andtechnologies in anatomical science and topical issues of particularconcern to anatomists, and to apply these skills to report and essay writing.

          3. ​​To enhance the problem-solving skills, by data analysis exercises inrelation to experimental methods in anatomy, and develop a deeper understandingof topical issues in the subject.

          Learning Outcomes​​To critically evaluate scientific literature within the area of anatomical sciences.

          ​To communicate scientific facts, data and ideas in the context of anatomical sciences.

          ​To evaluate current technologies and topical issues within anatomical sciences

        • Advanced Human Topographical Anatomy (LIFE349)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
        • ​To enhance knowledge of a particular topographical region through dissection and greatly improve dissection skills

        • ​To prepare a prosected specimen to display all major structures in a selected region

        • ​​To write a ‘prosection outline’ containing all the steps of the dissection process and appropriately reflect upon difficulties encountered and anatomical variations (if present) and how these were managed, to lead to a satisfactory outcome

        • Learning Outcomes

          ​To demonstrate the ability to select an appropriate dissection in line with their interests

          ​To show, through a prosection outline, the ability to plan ahead and develop a strategy to best achieve their goals and critically re-assess this strategy as their dissection progresses

          ​To produce a clean multi-layered set piece of dissection with most anatomical structures still in situ, that also clearly displays additional structures of their own choice (e.g. joint contents, surrounding blood vessels, peripheral nerves)

          ​To reflect critically on the achievement of their strategy

          ​To identify and critically assess distinct and/or abnormal features (anatomical variations, structures affected by disease) of their set piece dissection;

        Year Three Optional Modules

        • Neuromuscular Physiology and Disease (LIFE311)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​To describe the concepts that are fundamental to modern ideas in understanding the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases

          2. ​To provide students with the ability to access, collate and critically discuss (in writing) the modern literature and experimental data relating to muscles, neurons and related diseases

          3. To develop in students the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret their knowledge and understanding in neuromuscular physiology and disease to solve complex problems in physiology and disease ​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To discuss concepts fundamental to modern ideas in the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases, from the molecular level to systems level understanding

          ​To interpret and evaluate modern literature containing the latest experimental data in muscles, neurons and related diseases

          ​To critically review and solve complex problems concerning the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases 

        • The Body in Motion: Musculoskeletal Functioning in Health, Performance and Disease (LIFE335)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          • ​Provide a general introduction into biomechanics and kinesiology (movement sciences)
          • Stimulate the students to put their individual and diverse background (e.g. more anatomical, physical or biological) into a broader and more applied perspective
          • Enable students to acquire a solid basis to further specialise in fields such as biomechancics, sports training, and orthopaedics.

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically evaluate a topic related to whole-body musculoskeletal functioning and suggest further research, taking into account relevant literature.

          ​To explain which and how basic physical and physiological principles determine motion in animals, including humans.

          To critically evaluate whole-body musculoskeletal (mal)functionin normal health, sports and disease.​

          ​​​​​

          To describe the most important techniques used in biomechanics and propose and defend a relevant sub-set of these techniques for concrete research questions.​

        • Integrative Comparative Animal Physiology (LIFE339)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​Develop students’ understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underpin animal adaptations to environmental conditions

          2. ​​Develop  students’ ability to solve complex physiological problems

          Learning Outcomes

          ​Evaluate integrative physiological mechanisms enabling animals to survive in potentially hostile environmental conditions

          ​Critically discuss the evolution of air-breathing, terrestriality and endothermy in vertebrates

          ​Critically review evidence to solve complex problems within the context of animal physiology
        • Evolutionary and Comparative Anatomy (LIFE351)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims
        • ​To provide an overview of theevolutionary and comparative anatomy of the major vertebrate groups

        • To develop in students a critical understanding ofmorphological and functional adaptations of major organ systems of thevertebrate body

        • ​​​​To provide insights into the latestadvances and areas of active research in the field of comparative andevolutionary anatomy

        • Learning OutcomesRelate the comparative and evolutionary anatomy of animals to function, palaeontology and clinical science
          ​Compare and contrast the range, diversity and general phylogenetic relationships ofthe major extant vertebrate groups
          ​Critically appraise major changes to key anatomical systems duringvertebrate evolution and provide possible explanations for these adaptations
          ​​Evaluate recent conceptual and technical advancesin the field of comparative and evolutionary anatomy​
        • The Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease (LIFE330)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​To help students build on  existing knowledge of of circulatory anatomy (LIFE 116 Circulatory and Respiratory Anatomy) and tissue biology (LIFE 205 The Multicellular Organism), and to apply this to understanding to the normal function and the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system

           To develop in students an understanding of important current research themes in cardiovascular biology, and show how such research informs understanding of the mechanisms underlying, and the treatment of, certain cardiovascular disorders To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in human anatomy, and the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the principle structures of the cardiovascular system, and how these structures relate to function

          ​To critically analyse theories and evidence for proposed mechanisms underlying some common cardiovascular disorders, and the rationale behind their treatment.

          ​To evaluate recent research findings in the context of cardiovascular function and dysfunction.

        • Specialised Body Systems: Development, Disease and Regeneration (LIFE332)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          To broaden students'' concepts of regional anatomy to an appreciation of the function of specialised body systems and the investigative approaches taken by scientific enquiry.

          To introduce the topic of immunology and provide students with information on of the anatomy and function of the immune system in key body systems.

          To develop in students a knowledge of the development of specialised body systems, how they may malfunction in disease and their potential for regeneration.

          Learning Outcomes

          To compare the functional anatomy of the immune system to regional anatomical structures.

          ​To critically review knowledge on the development of specialised body systems.

          ​To explain the characteristics of disease in specialised body systems.

          ​To critically evaluate the potential of specialised body systems to regenerate.

          ​To predict how current scientific methods may lead to discoveries that could promote the health of specialised body systems.

        • Clinical, Anatomical and Cellular Basis of Neurological Dysfunction (LIFE334)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

            1   

          3  4  5    
           To complement and extend students'' existing knowledge of CNS anatomy and biology to further understanding of the mechanisms which allow the brain function under normal physiological conditions but which can also lead to disease  To develop in students an understanding of structure-function relationships in the CNS To provide students with experience of current clinical and translational research in the neurosciences To introduce students to issues related to mental health and neurological disorders
           To develop in students the interdisciplinary nature of cutting edge science and how anatomy can inform both surgical and pharmacological intervention in neurological disorders.  
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the current major problems in mental health and neurological disorders

          ​To critically evaluate the anatomical structures involved in mental health and neurological disorders and the role of neuroimaging

          ​To assess the impact of genomics on our understanding of mental health and neurological disorders

          ​To appraise the application of pharmacological interventions in mental health and neurological disorders

        • Human Evolution (LIFE336)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
          Aims

          To develop in students an understanding of the course of human evolution 
          To enable students to appreciate the adaptive and other evolutionary processes underlying it  To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in human evolution, and ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to assemble cogent arguments.
          Learning Outcomes

          To assess the relationships, content and definition of the order Hominini

          To appraise the pattern of species diversity and geographic distribution over time in Hominini and crown hominoids 

          To evaluate the influence of climate change and cyclicity in hominin evolution

          To evaluate the broad patterns of locomotor, and craniofacial and dietary evolution of hominoids and hominins 

          To evaluate the extent and nature of any relationship between hominin technology and biological evolution 

        The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.


        Teaching and Learning

        You will experience a range of learning environments during your studies at Liverpool. These will include student-centred activities as well as lectures, tutorials, laboratory practicals, dissection classes, fieldwork, data handling sessions and computer workshops. Some of these activities will be performed individually, such as personal research projects, and others in small tutorial or project groups, in addition to formal lectures and workshops. You will have research staff as well as your own academic adviser for individual tuition on our acclaimed tutorial programme.


        Assessment

        As well as factual knowledge and understanding, biologists need practical and organisational skills, and an ability to work both alone and with other people. We record development of these abilities through continuous assessment during the semester and by final examination. You will also prepare posters, complete tests, analyse data, give short talks, research the scientific literature and write essays and reports. The style of examination progresses from short answers towards the essay format in the later years of each degree programme, as your understanding deepens.