Anatomy and Human Biology BSc (Hons) Add to your prospectus

  • Offers study abroad opportunities Offers study abroad opportunities
  • Opportunity to study for a year in China Offers a Year in China

Key information


  • Course length: 3 years
  • UCAS code: B110
  • Year of entry: 2018
  • Typical offer: A-level : AAB / IB : 34 / BTEC : DDD in relevant diploma
life-sciences-4

Module details

Year One Compulsory Modules

    Year Two Compulsory Modules

    • Functional Anatomy of the Human Locomotor System (LIFE219)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
      Aims
    • ​This module aims to:

      Develop knowledge and understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human musculoskeletal system;

    • Describe the processes involved during joint and muscle activity;​
    • Develop knowledge and understanding in human anatomy, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems.​
    • Learning Outcomes

      ​On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

      Describe the arrangement of the musculo-ligamentous and bony structures in the limbs and back;Demonstrate how muscles function during various every-day activities;Explain the relationship between joint shape and joint function;Explain the organisation of the blood-vascular and nervous systems supplying the limbs and back;Describe the biomechanics of the human musculoskeletal system; Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of human anatomy, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​
    • Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis (LIFE235)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
      1. To introduce students to the structural and functional anatomy of the human abdomen and pelvis using a combination of didactic teaching, directed human cadaveric dissection, and independent, self-directed study.

      2. ​To further students  abilities to identify, describe and explain detailed anatomical structures in relation to their function.

      3. ​ To develop in students the ability to apply and interpret their knowledge and understanding in order to successfully dissect the region.

      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify relevant surface anatomy, osteology and anatomical landmarks applicable to the abdominal and pelvic regions

      ​Locate and describe the positions of the abdominal and pelvic organs, their peritoneal reflections, nerve and blood supply and relate this all to function

      ​ Identify and describe detailed anatomical features of the abdominal and pelvic viscera, making comparisons between male and female

      Identify and determine anatomical variations that may occur with pathological changes in anatomical structures

      ​​​ Describe the relevant embryological processes and recognise changes in anatomical structures as a result of development

      Accurately identify structures encountered during dissection of the regions of the human abdomen and pelvis.​

    • Essential Skills for the Life Sciences 2 (LIFE223)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterWhole Session
      Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
      Aims
      1. To further develop the essential life science skills that students will require to succeed in their studies and future careers;

      2. To enhance the career awareness and employability prospects of students;

      3. To enable students to analyse and interpret scientific data and communicate results to a range of audiences.

      Learning Outcomes

      ​Structure and communicate ideas effectively, both orally and in writing;

      Find information through literature searches and use IT effectively to analyse and report findings;​Competently utilise a range of mathematical and numerical skills relevant to all biologists;​Summarise and interpret advanced data using graphs and tables;​Develop and test hypotheses;​Within the context of experimental design and within a range of biological fields, select appropriate quantitative methods to answer questions;​Apply appropriate statistical and other analysis packages to analyse data;​Interpret and evaluate quantitative terms and approaches used in the scientific literature;​

      ​Effectively communicate a biological subject to a lay audience

      Recognise the moral and ethical issues of scientific investigations and discuss ethical standards and professional codes of conduct. ​​

      ​​

    • Functional Neuroanatomy (LIFE218)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
      Aims
      1. ​This module aims to:

        Describe the structural organisation of the human nervous system, explaining how neuronal circuits are organised to control processes, the perception of sensations and the generation of movement and how advances in neuroimaging and microanatomical technology have advanced our understanding of the human nervous system;

      2. ​Discuss areas of the brain that control cognitive functions such as memory, speech, reasoning and abstract thought and the influence of neuroendocrine systems on executive functioning;

      3. ​Demonstrate how the nervous system controls the perception of sensations (such as tactile touch and pain) and the generation of movement (from stereotyped walking patterns to intricate skills);

      4. ​Describe how the brain is nourished  and protected and explore disease conditions that result from malfunctioning in these systems.

         
      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify key neuroanatomical structures and demonstrate knowledge of their principal spatial and functional relationships

      ​Describe the cell biology and neuronal connectivity underpinning key anatomical structures and functional capabilities

      ​Synthesise knowledge of cells, anatomy and function to describe the major systems for perception, movement and control 

       

      ​Explain the anatomy and functions associated with the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and major blood vessels

       

      Discuss the broader historical, clinical and scientific contexts tofunctional neuroanatomy, including in relation to prominent neurologicaldiseases.

    • Anatomy of the Head and Neck (LIFE220)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
      Aims
      1. ​Develop in students, the knowledge and understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human head and neck and how these structures develop

      2. ​To enable students to develop their understanding of regional (topographical) anatomy in a practical setting using facilities and materials appropriately, recognising and understanding the requirements to adhere to appropriate ethical standards and codes of practice

      3. ​To encourage students to develop skills for interpreting medical imaging as it applies to the head and neck region and apply that knowledge to other materials available

      4. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in human anatomy, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in anatomy.
      Learning Outcomes

      ​Identify and recall relevant features of surface anatomy applicable to the head and neck region

      ​Locate and describe the structural and functional osteology of the head and neck

      ​Identify and demonstrate a comprehension of the gross morphology of the head and neck and relate this structure and function 

       

      ​Locate, identify and describe anatomical structures within the head and neck region

      ​Identify and interpret anatomical structures within the head and neck region using diagnostic imaging such as x-rays, CT and MRI scans

       

      Identify and describe the embryological development of relevant structures within the head and neck region and relate this to adult anatomical structures

      ​Identify and interpret relevant head and neck specimens in practicals using gross morphology and surface anatomy (both external and internal anatomical landmarks).

    Year Two Optional Modules

    • The Multicellular Organism: Tissues, Development, Regeneration and Aging (LIFE205)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      AimsExtend students'' knowledge of the structure and function of fundamental tissues, such as epithelial and connective tissue and of specialised tissues; 
      Develop students'' ability to discuss the mechanisms by which cells differentiate to form different tissues;
      Equip students to explain the processes that occur during aging with special reference to changes in key tissues such as the brain;
      Develop knowledge and understanding in human biology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in that subject.​
      Learning OutcomesClassify and compare the major types of epithelia and, explain the role of cell-cell interactions in tissue structure and the structure and function of fundamental tissues

      Discuss and compare the molecular mechanisms involved in development of selected organs, and their cellular structure and organisation and explain the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regeneration of key organs.Explain and discuss mechanisms of ageing using selected systems as exemplars.

      Describe the experimental basis underpinning the current understanding of tissue biology. ​

    • Principles of Pharmacology (LIFE207)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
    • This module aims to: Develop an understanding of the quantitative aspects of drug action on cellular receptors;

    • Demonstrate the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;

    • Introduce the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, outline the relationship between drug concentration and response, and include an introduction to the principles of toxicity of drugs and their metabolites;

    • Provide knowledge of the molecular biology of receptors;

    • Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve pharmacological problems.

    • Learning OutcomesOn successful completion of this module, the students should be able to: Describe quantitative aspects of drug action;​Define the relationship between drug efficacy and chemical structure;​State key pharmacokinetic concepts such as clearance, volume of distribution, half life and steady state and to solve problems involving these parameters;​Demonstrate the role of drug concentrations in determining response to treatment;​Describe early biochemical events after drug administration that are of toxicological and biochemical significance;​Describe the principles of selective toxicity and their application to both self and non-self targets;​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of pharmacology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​
    • Evolutionary Biology (LIFE213)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterFirst Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
      Aims
    • ​This modules aims to:

      Provide students with a modern framework for understanding how organisms evolve and the major transitions in evolution ;

    • ​Explain where heritable phenotypic variation comes from, how it shapes the evolutionary process within species (microevolution) and elucidate the link between micro- and macro-evolution

    • Describe the factors influencing the genetic constitution of a population;

    • ​Explain how evolution and ecology are linked OR explain how gene sequence data can be used to study evolutionary processes.

    • ​Equip students with knowledge and understanding in evolutionary biology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve biological problems. ​

    • Learning Outcomes

      ​Discuss the origins of heritable phenotypic variation;

      ​Describe the main factors that cause changes in the genetic constitution of populations including the basic principles of studying molecular evolution; 


      Explain the difference between microevolution and macroevolution and how the two processes are linked;

      Explain patterns of biodiversity from an evolutionary perspective;

      Describe the major evolutionary transitions;​

      Explain how ecology influences evolution and evolution influences ecology (Elective option 1) OR Explain the basic principles of studying molecular evolution and interpret genetic sequence data (Elective option 2);

      Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of evolutionary biology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems.​

    • Cell Signalling in Health and Disease (LIFE202)
      Level2
      Credit level15
      SemesterSecond Semester
      Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
      Aims
      ​This module aims to: 1. Provide students with knowledge and understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to communicate with each other
      ​2. Explain the general principles of these signalling mechanisms and then describe some of these in more detail;
      3. Illustrate how defects in these signalling processes can result in a variety of diseases;
      4. Outline the techniques that are used to investigate and define these pathways and to describe how these techniques are used in drug discovery programmes of research;
      5. Develop in students the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge and understanding, to solve problems in molecular cell biology
        Learning Outcomes

        ​On successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:

         Describe the fundamental features of a range of common cell signalling mechanisms;

        ​Explain how cell signalling processes may be defective, or modified, in a variety of different diseases;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge of the molecular and biochemical nature and role of the different components of intracellular signalling pathways;

        ​Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of cell signalling, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve problems in biological science.

      1. Endocrine and Neuro-physiology (LIFE204)
        Level2
        Credit level15
        SemesterSecond Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
        Aims
      2. ​Explain the essential background knowledge to understand basic neuroscience;

      3. ​Describe the basic principles of operation of nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour;

      4. Provide an understanding of physiological homeostatic regulatory mechanisms, with particular regard to the endocrine and digestive systems;

      5. Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.
      6. Learning Outcomes

        ​Describe the basic principles of the nervous system, systematic and sensory neurophysiology, excitotoxicity and behaviour; and the characteristics of nerve cells that allow them facilitate the reception, processing and transmission of information;

        ​Apply the above knowledge to the operation of some of these systems, through all the stages from transduction of a stimulus to conscious perception, the regulatory mechanisms employed by them, their importance in maintaining homeostasis and the consequences of malfunction;

        Demonstrate specific knowledge and critical understanding of physiological functions of the digestive tract and major endocrine glands and apply this to understand the interaction between the digestive, endocrine and nervous system;​

        Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of physiology, and how this knowledge has been applied to solve physiological problems.

      7. Practical Human Physiology (LIFE229)
        Level2
        Credit level7.5
        SemesterFirst Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting20:80
        Aims
      8. ​To provide students with a practical training in the study of physiology and how to measure physiological variables;

      9. ​To equip students with the ability to apply appropriate statistical tools to define the normal range of physiological variables;

      10. To develop in students knowledge and understanding in physiology, and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve physiological problems.

      11. Learning OutcomesOn completion of this module student will be able to: Elucidate the principles of practical physiology;

        ​Measure and interpret the cardiovascular and respiratory variables most commonly dealt with in human physiology;

        Correctly measure volumes to the internationally recognised standard temperature and pressure values.

        Demonstrate the most effective ways of presenting data, including the presentation of a poster.

        Apply statistical concepts of mean, median, mode, standard deviation and standard error, and know the circumstances in which it is appropriate to use a Student''s t-test.

        Design studies, using the techniques acquired, to investigate a physiological principle.​

      12. Techniques in Cell Biology (LIFE227)
        Level2
        Credit level7.5
        SemesterFirst Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
        Aims

        1. Provide students with practical training in theuse of equipment and techniques routinely used in cell biology. 

        2. Enhancestudents acquisition of fundamental research skills; including,information gathering, scientific drawing, report writing andstatistical analyses. 

        3. Provide students with an understanding of theprocesses involved in the collection, interpretation and presentation ofbiological data. ​


        Learning Outcomes​​​​​

        Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data, and record procedures and protocols;

        Manage time effectively to plan and execute a series of experiments​Use microscopes and other lab equipment correctly to efficiently andsafely conduct a series of experiments​

        Analyse data, interpret validity and apply statistical analyses;

        Demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of the principles of biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology

      13. E-biology: Informatics for Life Sciences (LIFE225)
        Level2
        Credit level7.5
        SemesterFirst Semester
        Exam:Coursework weighting100:0
        Aims
        • Provide students with a practical appreciation of the nature and significance of digital data.
        • Expose students to bioinformatics tools used in the analysis of data from areas such as genome sequencing, gene expression and protein structure studies
        • ​Enable students to utilize digital data for understanding higher order phenomena within cells such as metabolism, gene regulation and protein-protein interaction
        • Develop students’ knowledge and understanding of the subject and the ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems in biotechnology, biomedicine and molecular cell biology. ​​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​·         Apply informatics tools in the discovery, evaluation and acquisition of biological data.

          ​​

          ·         Analyse and evaluate datasets of broad biological relevance, using tasks and workflows that will prepare them for third-year projects.​


          ·         Use local and web-based tools for data analysis, management and collaborative working.​ ​ ​

          ​·         ​Design research methods in bioinformatics to solve biological problems.​​
        1. Practical Pharmacology 1 (LIFE231)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting50:50
          Aims
        2. ​This module aims to develop in students the ability to:

          Measure the effects of drugs on isolated tissues and their use in the study of drug/receptor interactions and structure/activity relationships

        3. ​Carry out quantitative analysis of drug antagonism and apply analytical techniques in the measurement of drug metabolism;

        4. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in pharmacology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve problems. ​

        5. Learning Outcomes

          ​On sucessful completion of this module students will be able to:

          Present, critically evaluate and interpret qualitative and quantitative data related to drug effects and record procedures and protocols;

          ​Demonstrate competence in practical skills in pharmacology and manage their time effectively;

          Plan and execute a series of experiments, use laboratory equipment correctly and safely to generate data;

          Analyse quantitative data, interpret its validity and apply statistical analyses.​

        6. Experimental Physiology (LIFE232)
          Level2
          Credit level7.5
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting30:70
          Aims
        7. ​PThis module aims to:

          Provide students with an understanding of physiological regulatory mechanisms, their importance in maintaining homeostasis and the consequences of system malfunctions;

        8. ​Develop students'' understanding of scientific method and their team working and presentation skills;

           
        9. Introduce students to various techniques for investigating physiological variables;  
        10. Develop in students, the ability to work individually and in small groups to collect, analyse and present data from experiments, simulations and databases; 
        11. ​Develop knowledge and understanding in physiology, and ability to apply, evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve phsyiological problems.

           
        12. Learning Outcomes

          ​Measure and interpret a number of physiological variables;

           

          ​Demonstrate an understanding of scientific method and the ability to solve physiological problems;

          Make informed choices of, and apply in practice, the most effective ways for presenting data generated from their own physiological experiments; 

          Access, retrieve and manipulate physiologially relevant information from a range of electronic databases;

          Describe the complex regulatory mechanisms employed in the physiological systems studied; 

          ​Describe how molecular regulation integrates into whole organism physiology.

        Year Three Compulsory Modules

        • Advanced Skills and Contemporary Themes in Anatomical Science (LIFE347)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting60:40
          Aims
          1. ​To enhance the core skills acquired in Levels 4 and 5, including bothscientific (presentational and communication) and employability skills, and toprovide advice on careers and career development in anatomy​.

          2. ​To enable students to evaluate the latest scientific literature andtechnologies in anatomical science and topical issues of particularconcern to anatomists, and to apply these skills to report and essay writing.

          3. ​​To enhance the problem-solving skills, by data analysis exercises inrelation to experimental methods in anatomy, and develop a deeper understandingof topical issues in the subject.

          Learning Outcomes​​To critically evaluate scientific literature within the area of anatomical sciences.

          ​To communicate scientific facts, data and ideas in the context of anatomical sciences.

          ​To evaluate current technologies and topical issues within anatomical sciences

        • Advanced Human Topographical Anatomy (LIFE349)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
        • ​To enhance knowledge of a particular topographical region through dissection and greatly improve dissection skills

        • ​To prepare a prosected specimen to display all major structures in a selected region

        • ​​To write a ‘prosection outline’ containing all the steps of the dissection process and appropriately reflect upon difficulties encountered and anatomical variations (if present) and how these were managed, to lead to a satisfactory outcome

        • Learning Outcomes

          ​To demonstrate the ability to select an appropriate dissection in line with their interests

          ​To show, through a prosection outline, the ability to plan ahead and develop a strategy to best achieve their goals and critically re-assess this strategy as their dissection progresses

          ​To produce a clean multi-layered set piece of dissection with most anatomical structures still in situ, that also clearly displays additional structures of their own choice (e.g. joint contents, surrounding blood vessels, peripheral nerves)

          ​To reflect critically on the achievement of their strategy

          ​To identify and critically assess distinct and/or abnormal features (anatomical variations, structures affected by disease) of their set piece dissection;

        • Research Project (LIFE363)
          Level3
          Credit level30
          SemesterWhole Session
          Exam:Coursework weighting0:100
          Aims
          1. ​To provide students with an insight into and experience of the process of scientific research and debate

          2. ​To develop in students the confidence to work independently and with others, to effectively and efficiently achieve a scientific aim

          3. ​To further develop students'' ability to communicate scientific concepts and findings in a variety of formats

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To plan and execute a piece of scientific research, in a responsible, safe and ethical manner

          ​To analyse and critically evaluate data, information, literature and observations, and draw valid conclusions

          To appropriately communicate findings, in a variety of formats (oral, written reports) to supervisor, research staff and peers

          ​To maintain a clear and accurate record of work and progress

          ​To critically evaluate and report upon relevant scientific literature

          ​To evaluate own performance and working standards by reflection, and place work in a wider scientific context 

        Year Three Optional Modules

        • Evolutionary and Comparative Anatomy (LIFE351)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting64:36
          Aims
        • ​To provide an overview of theevolutionary and comparative anatomy of the major vertebrate groups

        • To develop in students a critical understanding ofmorphological and functional adaptations of major organ systems of thevertebrate body

        • ​​​​To provide insights into the latestadvances and areas of active research in the field of comparative andevolutionary anatomy

        • Learning Outcomes

          ​To examine how comparative and evolutionary anatomy can contextualizeunderstanding of developmental biology, functional anatomy as well as clinicalscience and palaeontology​

          ​To assess the range, diversity and general phylogenetic relationships ofthe major extant vertebrate groups
          ​To critically appraise major changes to key anatomical systems duringvertebrate evolution and the possible explanations for these adaptations
          ​​To evaluate recent conceptual and technical advancesin the field of comparative and evolutionary anatomy​
        • The Body in Motion: Musculoskeletal Functioning in Health, Performance and Disease (LIFE335)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          • ​Provide a general introduction into biomechanics and kinesiology (movement sciences)
          • Stimulate the students to put their individual and diverse background (e.g. more anatomical, physical or biological) into a broader and more applied perspective
          • Enable students to acquire a solid basis to further specialise in fields such as biomechancics, sports training, and orthopaedics.

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To critically evaluate a topic related to whole-body musculoskeletal functioning and suggest further research, taking into account relevant literature.

          ​To explain which and how basic physical and physiological principles determine motion in animals, including humans.

          To critically evaluate whole-body musculoskeletal (mal)functionin normal health, sports and disease.​

          ​​​​​

          To describe the most important techniques used in biomechanics and propose and defend a relevant sub-set of these techniques for concrete research questions.​

        • Neuromuscular Physiology and Disease (LIFE311)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​To describe the concepts that are fundamental to modern ideas in understanding the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases

          2. ​To provide students with the ability to access, collate and critically discuss (in writing) the modern literature and experimental data relating to muscles, neurons and related diseases

          3. To develop in students the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret their knowledge and understanding in neuromuscular physiology and disease to solve complex problems in physiology and disease ​

          Learning Outcomes

          ​To discuss concepts fundamental to modern ideas in the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases, from the molecular level to systems level understanding

          ​To interpret and evaluate modern literature containing the latest experimental data in muscles, neurons and related diseases

          ​To critically review and solve complex problems concerning the physiology of muscles, neurons and related diseases 

        • Integrative Comparative Animal Physiology (LIFE339)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterFirst Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims
          1. ​Develop students’ understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underpin animal adaptations to environmental conditions

          2. ​​Develop  students’ ability to solve complex physiological problems

          Learning Outcomes

          ​Evaluate integrative physiological mechanisms enabling animals to survive in potentially hostile environmental conditions

          ​Critically discuss the evolution of air-breathing, terrestriality and endothermy in vertebrates

          ​Critically review evidence to solve complex problems within the context of animal physiology
        • The Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease (LIFE330)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

          ​To help students build on  existing knowledge of of circulatory anatomy (LIFE 116 Circulatory and Respiratory Anatomy) and tissue biology (LIFE 205 The Multicellular Organism), and to apply this to understanding to the normal function and the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system

           To develop in students an understanding of important current research themes in cardiovascular biology, and show how such research informs understanding of the mechanisms underlying, and the treatment of, certain cardiovascular disorders To develop in students knowledge and deep understanding in human anatomy, and the ability to apply, critically evaluate and interpret this knowledge to solve complex problems
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the principle structures of the cardiovascular system, and how these structures relate to function

          ​To critically analyse theories and evidence for proposed mechanisms underlying some common cardiovascular disorders, and the rationale behind their treatment.

          ​To evaluate recent research findings in the context of cardiovascular function and dysfunction.

        • Specialised Body Systems: Development, Disease and Regeneration (LIFE332)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          To broaden students'' concepts of regional anatomy to an appreciation of the function of specialised body systems and the investigative approaches taken by scientific enquiry.

          To introduce the topic of immunology and provide students with an understanding of the anatomy and function of the immune system in key body systems.

          To develop in students a knowledge of the development of specialised body systems, how they may malfunction in disease and their potential for regeneration.

          Learning Outcomes

          To compare the functional anatomy of the immune system to regional anatomical structures.

          ​To review the development of specialised body systems.

          ​To explain the characteristics of disease in specialised body systems.

          ​To evaluate the potential of specialised body systems to regenerate.

          ​To predict how current scientific methods may lead to discoveries that could promote the health of specialised body systems.

        • Clinical, Anatomical and Cellular Basis of Neurological Dysfunction (LIFE334)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting80:20
          Aims

            1   

          3  4  5    
           To complement and extend students'' existing knowledge of CNS anatomy and biology to further understanding of the mechanisms which allow the brain function under normal physiological conditions but which can also lead to disease  To develop in students an understanding of structure-function relationships in the CNS To provide students with experience of current clinical and translational research in the neurosciences To introduce students to issues related to mental health and neurological disorders
           To develop in students the interdisciplinary nature of cutting edge science and how anatomy can inform both surgical and pharmacological intervention in neurological disorders.  
          Learning Outcomes

          ​To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the current major problems in mental health and neurological disorders

          ​To critically evaluate the anatomical structures involved in mental health and neurological disorders and the role of neuroimaging

          ​To assess the impact of genomics on our understanding of mental health and neurological disorders

          ​To appraise the application of pharmacological interventions in mental health and neurological disorders

        • Becoming Human: Genomics, Development, and Evolutionary Anthropology (LIFE364)
          Level3
          Credit level15
          SemesterSecond Semester
          Exam:Coursework weighting70:30
          Aims

          ​1.    To develop an understanding of the ancient andmodern evolutionary history of the human lineage.

          2.     To enable students to appreciate the mechanisms that underlie evolutionary change, with particular reference to examples relating to human evolution. 

          3.    To be able to critically analyse evidence forevolutionary change in human prehistory at a variety of scales from the genometo morphology, and to develop cogent arguments relating to this analysis.

          Learning Outcomes

          ​Critically analyse the processes that underpin the structure, function, and evolution of the humangenome.​

          ​Critically discuss the mechanisms of developmental evolution that have accompaniedmajor transitions in vertebrate evolutionary history.​

          ​​​Evaluatepatterns in the evolution of features in the human lineage since the lastcommon ancestor of the apes.

          ​Critically analyse the diversity of approaches and fields that encompass modern studyof human evolution.​

        The programme detail and modules listed are illustrative only and subject to change.


        Teaching and Learning

        You will experience a range of learning environments during your studies at Liverpool. These will include student-centred activities as well as lectures, tutorials, laboratory practicals, dissection classes, fieldwork, data handling sessions and computer workshops. Some of these activities will be performed individually, such as personal research projects, and others in small tutorial or project groups, in addition to formal lectures and workshops. You will have research staff as well as your own academic adviser for individual tuition on our acclaimed tutorial programme.


        Assessment

        As well as factual knowledge and understanding, biologists need practical and organisational skills, and an ability to work both alone and with other people. We record development of these abilities through continuous assessment during the semester and by final examination. You will also prepare posters, complete tests, analyse data, give short talks, research the scientific literature and write essays and reports. The style of examination progresses from short answers towards the essay format in the later years of each degree programme, as your understanding deepens.