Emma D. Watkins is a criminologist and crime historian with a keen interest in public engagement. Emma was awarded her MA History at Cardiff University, with the aid of a Postgraduate Bursary, and then went on the undertake her doctorate at the University of Liverpool as part of the Digital Panopticon, thanks to a PhD Studentship.


Emma D. Watkins has recently passed her viva examination. This thesis traced juvenile offenders using nominal record linkage to uncover their life-courses, not just their crimes and punishments, but also their familial and economic lives, and the circumstances and causes of their deaths. 

Emma is a keen on public engagement and a strong believer in research-led teaching. Emma was awarded Public Engagement Award Scheme funding from the University of Liverpool to incorporate the methodologies of nominal record-linkage of digital records into teaching. Working with schools, Emma wrote an educational resource for GCSE/A Level school pupils.

Thesis title

Life Courses of Young Juvenile Offenders


Watkins, E D. & Godfrey, B. (in press) Criminal Children: Researching Juvenile Offenders 1820-1920, (Pen & Sword).

Watkins, E D. (2018) ‘Transported Beyond the Seas: Criminal Juveniles’, In Nineteenth Century Childhoods in Interdisciplinary and International Perspectives, Series: Childhood in the Past Vol 6 (eds.) Baxter J E. & Ellis, M. (Oxford: Oxbow).
Alker, Z. & Watkins, E D. (2018) ‘History, life course criminology and digital methods: new directions for conceptualizing juvenile justice in Europe’ In Juvenile Justice in Europe: Past, Present and Future (ed.) Goldson, B. (Oxon: Routledge).
Watkins, E D. (2018) ‘Juvenile convicts and their colonial familial lives’, The History of the Family, (Available at: 
Watkins, E D. (2017) “The Criminal Class” and “Life Course Analysis”, In Companion to Crime and Criminal Justice History (eds.) Turner, J., Taylor, T., Morley, S. & Corteen, K A. (Bristol: Policy Press).