Photo of Dr Suzanne Gage

Dr Suzanne Gage

Lecturer in Psychology - Epidemiology, Health Behaviours and Genetic Factors Psychology

Publications

Selected Publications

  1. Causal Inference in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Research. (Journal article - 2016)
  2. Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study (Journal article - 2017)
  3. Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with depression and anxiety at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article - 2015)
  4. G = E: What GWAS Can Tell Us about the Environment. (Journal article - 2016)
  5. Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with psychotic experiences at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article - 2014)

2021

Moral disengagement and the harms of cocaine use (Journal article)

Sumnall, H. R., Montgomery, C., Atkinson, A. M., Gage, S. H., & Boardley, I. D. (2021). Moral disengagement and the harms of cocaine use. DRUGS-EDUCATION PREVENTION AND POLICY. doi:10.1080/09687637.2021.1950126

DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2021.1950126

Representation of adverse childhood experiences is associated with lower public stigma towards people who use drugs: an exploratory experimental study (Journal article)

Sumnall, H. R., Hamilton, I., Atkinson, A. M., Montgomery, C., & Gage, S. H. (2021). Representation of adverse childhood experiences is associated with lower public stigma towards people who use drugs: an exploratory experimental study. DRUGS-EDUCATION PREVENTION AND POLICY, 28(3), 227-239. doi:10.1080/09687637.2020.1820450

DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2020.1820450

Assessing and addressing collider bias in addiction research: the curious case of smoking and COVID-19 (Journal article)

Tattan-Birch, H., Marsden, J., West, R., & Gage, S. H. (2021). Assessing and addressing collider bias in addiction research: the curious case of smoking and COVID-19. ADDICTION, 116(5), 982-984. doi:10.1111/add.15348

DOI: 10.1111/add.15348

Probable post-traumatic stress disorder and harmful alcohol use among male members of the British Police Forces and the British Armed Forces: a comparative study (Journal article)

Irizar, P., Stevelink, S. A. M., Pernet, D., Gage, S. H., Greenberg, N., Wessely, S., . . . Fear, N. T. (2021). Probable post-traumatic stress disorder and harmful alcohol use among male members of the British Police Forces and the British Armed Forces: a comparative study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTRAUMATOLOGY, 12(1). doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1891734

DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2021.1891734

The effects of menstrual cycle stage and hormonal contraception on alcohol consumption and craving: A pilot investigation (Journal article)

Warren, J. G., Goodwin, L., Gage, S. H., & Rose, A. K. (2021). The effects of menstrual cycle stage and hormonal contraception on alcohol consumption and craving: A pilot investigation. Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 5, 100022. doi:10.1016/j.cpnec.2020.100022

DOI: 10.1016/j.cpnec.2020.100022

2020

Does smoking cause lower educational attainment and general cognitive ability? Triangulation of causal evidence using multiple study designs. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Sallis, H. M., Lassi, G., Wootton, R. E., Mokrysz, C., Davey Smith, G., & Munafò, M. R. (2020). Does smoking cause lower educational attainment and general cognitive ability? Triangulation of causal evidence using multiple study designs.. Psychological medicine, 1-9. doi:10.1017/s0033291720003402

DOI: 10.1017/s0033291720003402

Effects of messaging on public support for drug consumption rooms in scotland, UK (Journal article)

Sumnall, H. R., Atkinson, A. M., Trayner, K. M. A., Gage, S. H., & McAuley, A. (2020). Effects of messaging on public support for drug consumption rooms in scotland, UK. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DRUG POLICY, 83. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102855

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102855

How effective are pharmaceuticals for cognitive enhancement in healthy adults? A series of meta-analyses of cognitive performance during acute administration of modafinil, methylphenidate and D-amphetamine (Journal article)

Roberts, C. A., Jones, A., Sumnall, H., Gage, S. H., & Montgomery, C. (2020). How effective are pharmaceuticals for cognitive enhancement in healthy adults? A series of meta-analyses of cognitive performance during acute administration of modafinil, methylphenidate and D-amphetamine. EUROPEAN NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, 38, 40-62. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.07.002

DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.07.002

Perceived harm, motivations for use, and subjective experiences of recreational psychedelic ‘magic’ mushroom use (Journal article)

Roberts, C., Osborne Miller, I., Cole, J., Gage, S., & Christiansen, P. (2020). Perceived harm, motivations for use, and subjective experiences of recreational psychedelic ‘magic’ mushroom use. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(9), 999-1007. doi:10.1177/0269881120936508

DOI: 10.1177/0269881120936508

Investigating the added value of biomarkers compared with self-reported smoking in predicting future e-cigarette use: Evidence from a longitudinal UK cohort study (Journal article)

Khouja, J. N., Munafo, M. R., Relton, C. L., Taylor, A. E., Gage, S. H., & Richmond, R. C. (2020). Investigating the added value of biomarkers compared with self-reported smoking in predicting future e-cigarette use: Evidence from a longitudinal UK cohort study. PLOS ONE, 15(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235629

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235629

Examining pathways between genetic liability for schizophrenia and patterns of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescence. (Journal article)

Jones, H. J., Hammerton, G., McCloud, T., Hines, L. A., Wright, C., Gage, S. H., . . . Zammit, S. (2020). Examining pathways between genetic liability for schizophrenia and patterns of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescence.. Psychological medicine, 1-8. doi:10.1017/s0033291720001798

DOI: 10.1017/s0033291720001798

Assessing the public health effects of cannabis use: can legalization improve the evidence base? (Journal article)

Hickman, M., Hines, L. A., & Gage, S. H. (2020). Assessing the public health effects of cannabis use: can legalization improve the evidence base?. WORLD PSYCHIATRY, 19(2), 197-198. doi:10.1002/wps.20744

DOI: 10.1002/wps.20744

Association of High-Potency Cannabis Use With Mental Health and Substance Use in Adolescence. (Journal article)

Hines, L. A., Freeman, T. P., Gage, S. H., Zammit, S., Hickman, M., Cannon, M., . . . Heron, J. (2020). Association of High-Potency Cannabis Use With Mental Health and Substance Use in Adolescence.. JAMA psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1035

DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1035

2019

Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health-related behaviours over 10 years: a population cohort comparison study (Journal article)

Patalay, P., & Gage, S. H. (2019). Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health-related behaviours over 10 years: a population cohort comparison study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(5), 1650-1664. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz006

DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz006

Cannabis and psychosis: triangulating the evidence (Journal article)

Gage, S. H. (2019). Cannabis and psychosis: triangulating the evidence. LANCET PSYCHIATRY, 6(5), 364-365. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30086-0

DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30086-0

Rat Park: How a rat paradise changed the narrative of addiction (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., & Sumnall, H. R. (2019). Rat Park: How a rat paradise changed the narrative of addiction. ADDICTION, 114(5), 917-922. doi:10.1111/add.14481

DOI: 10.1111/add.14481

Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health related behaviours over ten years: a population cohort comparison study (Journal article)

Patalay, P., & Gage, S. H. (n.d.). Trends in millennial adolescent mental health and health related behaviours over ten years: a population cohort comparison study. doi:10.1101/407585

DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz006

Is screen time associated with anxiety or depression in young people? Results from a UK birth cohort (Journal article)

Khouja, J. N., Munafo, M. R., Tilling, K., Wiles, N. J., Joinson, C., Etchells, P. J., . . . Cornish, R. P. (2019). Is screen time associated with anxiety or depression in young people? Results from a UK birth cohort. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 19. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-6321-9

DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6321-9

2018

A painful lesson: are we repeating previous mistakes in pain management? (Journal article)

Hamilton, I., & Gage, S. H. (2018). A painful lesson: are we repeating previous mistakes in pain management?. LANCET PUBLIC HEALTH, 3(7), E309-E310. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30117-8

DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30117-8

Investigating causality in associations between education and smoking: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study (Journal article)

Gage, S., Bowden, J., Davey Smith, G., & Munafo, M. (2018). Investigating causality in associations between education and smoking: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study. International Journal Of Epidemiology. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy131

DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy131

Alcohol Use in Adolescence and Later Working Memory: Findings From a Large Population-Based Birth Cohort (Journal article)

Mahedy, L., Field, M., Gage, S., Hammerton, G., Heron, J., Hickman, M., & Munafo, M. R. (2018). Alcohol Use in Adolescence and Later Working Memory: Findings From a Large Population-Based Birth Cohort. ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM, 53(3), 251-258. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agx113

DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agx113

Association of Combined Patterns of Tobacco and Cannabis Use in Adolescence With Psychotic Experiences (Journal article)

Jones, H. J., Gage, S. H., Heron, J., Hickman, M., Lewis, G., Munafo, M. R., & Zammit, S. (2018). Association of Combined Patterns of Tobacco and Cannabis Use in Adolescence With Psychotic Experiences. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(3), 240-246. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4271

DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4271

Commentary on Nuyts et al. (2018): Education is the key to preventing growing inequalities in smoking prevalence (Journal article)

Maynard, O. M., & Gage, S. H. (2018). Commentary on Nuyts et al. (2018): Education is the key to preventing growing inequalities in smoking prevalence. ADDICTION, 113(3), 533-+. doi:10.1111/add.14115

DOI: 10.1111/add.14115

2017

Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Developmental Psychopathology: Longitudinal and Multivariate Polygenic Risk Prediction of Common Psychiatric Traits During Development (Journal article)

Nivard, M. G., Gage, S. H., Hottenga, J. J., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Abdellaoui, A., Bartels, M., . . . Middeldorp, C. M. (2017). Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Developmental Psychopathology: Longitudinal and Multivariate Polygenic Risk Prediction of Common Psychiatric Traits During Development. Schizophrenia bulletin, 43(6), 1197-1207. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbx031

DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbx031

Smoke-free policies in psychiatric hospitals need resources (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., & Maynard, O. M. (2017). Smoke-free policies in psychiatric hospitals need resources. LANCET PSYCHIATRY, 4(7), 509-510. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30241-9

DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30241-9

Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Jones, H. J., Burgess, S., Bowden, J., Davey Smith, G., Zammit, S., & Munafò, M. R. (2017). Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. Psychological Medicine, 47(5), 971-980. doi:10.1017/s0033291716003172

DOI: 10.1017/s0033291716003172

Investigating causality in associations between smoking initiation and schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Jones, H. J., Taylor, A. E., Burgess, S., Zammit, S., & Munafò, M. R. (2017). Investigating causality in associations between smoking initiation and schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization. Scientific Reports, 7(1). doi:10.1038/srep40653

DOI: 10.1038/srep40653

2016

Schizophrenia and neighbourhood deprivation. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Davey Smith, G., & Munafò, M. R. (2016). Schizophrenia and neighbourhood deprivation.. Translational psychiatry, 6(12), e979. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.244

DOI: 10.1038/tp.2016.244

Investigating causality in the association between 25(OH)D and schizophrenia. (Journal article)

Taylor, A. E., Burgess, S., Ware, J. J., Gage, S. H., Richards, J. B., Davey Smith, G., & Munafò, M. R. (2016). Investigating causality in the association between 25(OH)D and schizophrenia.. Scientific reports, 6, 26496. doi:10.1038/srep26496

DOI: 10.1038/srep26496

Correction: G = E: What GWAS Can Tell Us about the Environment. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Smith, G. D., Ware, J. J., Flint, J., & Munafò, M. R. (2016). Correction: G = E: What GWAS Can Tell Us about the Environment.. PLoS genetics, 12(5), e1006065. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006065

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006065

Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Hickman, M., & Zammit, S. (2016). Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 549-556. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.001

DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.001

G = E: What GWAS Can Tell Us about the Environment. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Davey Smith, G., Ware, J. J., Flint, J., & Munafò, M. R. (2016). G = E: What GWAS Can Tell Us about the Environment.. PLoS genetics, 12(2), e1005765. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005765

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005765

Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study (Journal article)

Mokrysz, C., Landy, R., Gage, S. H., Munafò, M. R., Roiser, J. P., & Curran, H. V. (2016). Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(2), 159-168. doi:10.1177/0269881115622241

DOI: 10.1177/0269881115622241

Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article)

Etchells, P. J., Gage, S. H., Rutherford, A. D., & Munafò, M. R. (2016). Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.. PloS one, 11(1), e0147732. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147732

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147732

Causal Inference in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Research. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Munafò, M. R., & Davey Smith, G. (2016). Causal Inference in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Research.. Annual review of psychology, 67(1), 567-585. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033352

DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033352

2015

Smoking as a causal risk factor for schizophrenia. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., & Munafò, M. R. (2015). Smoking as a causal risk factor for schizophrenia.. The lancet. Psychiatry, 2(9), 778-779. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00333-8

DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00333-8

Cannabis and psychosis. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Munafò, M. R., MacLeod, J., Hickman, M., & Smith, G. D. (2015). Cannabis and psychosis.. The lancet. Psychiatry, 2(5), 380. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00108-x

DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00108-x

Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with depression and anxiety at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Hickman, M., Heron, J., Munafò, M. R., Lewis, G., Macleod, J., & Zammit, S. (2015). Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with depression and anxiety at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.. PLoS One, 10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122896

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122896

Rethinking the association between smoking and schizophrenia. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., & Munafò, M. R. (2015). Rethinking the association between smoking and schizophrenia.. The lancet. Psychiatry, 2(2), 118-119. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(14)00057-1

DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(14)00057-1

2014

Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with psychotic experiences at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Hickman, M., Heron, J., Munafò, M. R., Lewis, G., Macleod, J., & Zammit, S. (2014). Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with psychotic experiences at age 18: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.. Psychological Medicine, 44(16), 3435-3444. doi:10.1017/S0033291714000531

DOI: 10.1017/S0033291714000531

Kate Bush: left to my imagination. (Journal article)

Gage, S. (2014). Kate Bush: left to my imagination.. The lancet. Psychiatry, 1(6), 426. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(14)70278-0

DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(14)70278-0

Common versus psychopathology-specific risk factors for psychotic experiences and depression during adolescence. (Journal article)

Kounali, D., Zammit, S., Wiles, N., Sullivan, S., Cannon, M., Stochl, J., . . . Lewis, G. (2014). Common versus psychopathology-specific risk factors for psychotic experiences and depression during adolescence.. Psychological medicine, 44(12), 2557-2566. doi:10.1017/s0033291714000026

DOI: 10.1017/s0033291714000026

2013

Using Mendelian randomisation to infer causality in depression and anxiety research. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Smith, G. D., Zammit, S., Hickman, M., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Using Mendelian randomisation to infer causality in depression and anxiety research.. Depression and anxiety, 30(12), 1185-1193. doi:10.1002/da.22150

DOI: 10.1002/da.22150

Are waterpipe users tobacco-dependent? (Journal article)

Maynard, O. M., Gage, S. H., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Are waterpipe users tobacco-dependent?. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 108(11), 1886-1887. doi:10.1111/add.12317

DOI: 10.1111/add.12317

Improving the reliability and reporting of genetic association studies. (Journal article)

Munafò, M. R., & Gage, S. H. (2013). Improving the reliability and reporting of genetic association studies.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 132(3), 411-413. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.023

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.023

Increasing recognition of happiness in ambiguous facial expressions reduces anger and aggressive behavior. (Journal article)

Penton-Voak, I. S., Thomas, J., Gage, S. H., McMurran, M., McDonald, S., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Increasing recognition of happiness in ambiguous facial expressions reduces anger and aggressive behavior.. Psychological science, 24(5), 688-697. doi:10.1177/0956797612459657

DOI: 10.1177/0956797612459657

Associations of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring cognition in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Lawlor, D. A., Tilling, K., & Fraser, A. (2013). Associations of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring cognition in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.. American journal of epidemiology, 177(5), 402-410. doi:10.1093/aje/kws239

DOI: 10.1093/aje/kws239

Stronger evidence is needed before accepting that cannabis plays an important role in the aetiology of schizophrenia in the population. (Journal article)

Gage, S. H., Zammit, S., & Hickman, M. (2013). Stronger evidence is needed before accepting that cannabis plays an important role in the aetiology of schizophrenia in the population.. F1000 medicine reports, 5, 2. doi:10.3410/m5-2

DOI: 10.3410/m5-2

2010

Industry funding and placebo quit rate in clinical trials of nicotine replacement therapy: a commentary on Etter et al. (2007). (Journal article)

Greene, N. M. P., Taylor, E. M., Gage, S. H., & Munafò, M. R. (2010). Industry funding and placebo quit rate in clinical trials of nicotine replacement therapy: a commentary on Etter et al. (2007).. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 105(12), 2217-2218. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03155.x

DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03155.x

2009

Preserved implicit knowledge of a forgotten childhood language. (Journal article)

Bowers, J. S., Mattys, S. L., & Gage, S. H. (2009). Preserved implicit knowledge of a forgotten childhood language.. Psychological science, 20(9), 1064-1069. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02407.x

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02407.x