Turo Nurmikko

Professor of Pain Relief, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust

Honorary Professor of Pain Science, University of Liverpool

Contact: tjn@liverpool.ac.uk

Main research interests

Structural and functional neuroimaging for evaluation of neuroplastic changes in the brain of patients with chronic pain. Efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation methods (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS; and transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) for pain relief, and facilitation of recovery after brain injury and stroke. Spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation for pain relief. Clinical trials in analgesia.


I was a Consultant in Pain Relief at The Walton Centre, Liverpool, from 1995 to 2000. I also served as the Professor of Pain Science at the University of Liverpool between 2001 and 2011.

Since 2012, I have held the post of Professor of Pain Relief at The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, acting as the scientific advisor and support. I am currently also the Honorary Professor of Pain Relief at the University of Liverpool (2012-2017).

I was the President and Founding Member of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain from 2000-2004. I am a member of a number of Task Forces on Pain and Neurology, and have served (past and present) as an editorial board member of several pain journals. I am the author of over 100 peer reviewed publications and a number of textbook chapters.

I head a group affiliated with the Pain Research Institute at the University of Liverpool on brain imaging and non-invasive brain stimulation in pain. 

Ongoing studies

  • Long-term effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the management of chronic neuropathic pain.
  • Impact of pregabalin on cortical excitability in patient with neuropathic pain.
  • Therapeutic impact on neuropathic pain of combined pregabalin and rTMS.
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation for pain relief in patients previously responsive to rTMS.
  • Structural alterations in prefrontal cortex and insula in patients with chronic pain.
  • Cerebral neuroplastic changes in patients with chronic low back pain before and after a pain management programme.
  • Resting state fMRI of the brain, a functional connectivity analysis in patients with fibromyalgia.
  • Measuring changes in the Quality of Life in Neuropathic Pain.

Publications 2013-2016

Fallon N, Chiu YH, Li X, Nurmikko TJ, and Stancak A. Ipsilateral cortical activation in fibromyalgia patients during brushing correlates with symptom severity. Clin Neurophysiol 2013;124:154-163

Lloyd DM, Findlay G, Roberts N, and Nurmikko TJ. Illness behaviour associated with chronic low back pain increases activity in affective circuitry of the brain. Psychosom Med 2014;76:413-421.

Mole TM, MacIver K, Sluming V, Ridgway G, and Nurmikko TJ. Specific brain morphometric changes in spinal cord injury with and without neuropathic pain. NeuroImage Clinical 2014;5:28-35.

Hasan M, Whitley J, Bresnahan R, MacIver K, Sacco P, Das K, and Nurmikko TJ. Somatosensory change and pain relief induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with central post stroke pain. [Epub ahead of print] Neuromodulation 2014, Jun 17. doi: 10.1111/ner.12198.