Grant is a Graduate Teaching Assistant and a member of the International Criminological Research Unit (ICRU) in the School of Law and Social Justice. He graduated from the University of Liverpool (LL.B.) and worked in legal practice before graduating from the University of Birmingham (LL.M.).


The approach to the doctrine of causation in the criminal law of England and Wales is inconsistent and haphazard. This is because the doctrine is predicated on moral and policy considerations. As a result, fundamental criminal law principles (such as, the principle of legality, the principle of fair labelling and the principle of responsibility) are undermined, thereby challenging the wider legitimacy of the criminal law. The aim of Grant’s Ph.D is to explore an alternative approach to causation that addresses these concerns.

Theis title

A Breach of Fundamental Principles? Finding a Coherent Approach to Causation in the Criminal Law of England and Wales