HLRU's Publications and Presentations


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  • (D. Griffiths and A. Alghrani, ‘Revisiting the Regulation of the Reproduction Business’ in S. Devaney, A.M.Farell, A. Mullock and C. Stanton eds. Essays in Honour of Margaret Brazier (2015, Routledge, London).
  •  A. Alghrani “Mitochondrial donation and three parent families – what is all the fuss about?” 4 February 2015 - University of Liverpool News Website https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2015/02/04/mitochondrial-donation-3-parent-families-fuss/
  • Dar, Amber . 'Decision-making about child participation in medical research - a relational approach'.(2015) Child and Family Law Quarterly, 27 (2). pp. 109-128.
  •  Gottfreðsdóttir, H. Nieuwenhuijze, M. Frith, L. Complexity Theory and Maternity Care. In Frith, L. Church, S. Balaam, M-C. Downe, S (eds) Contemporary debates in maternity care. Pinter & Martin, forthcoming.
  • Frith, L. & Draper, H. Publishing research in empirical ethics: Quality, disciplines and expertise. In Ives, J. Dunn, M. Cribb, A In Interdisciplinary and Empirical ethics: Practical and theoretical perspectives. Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
  • van den Akker, O. Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Frith, L. This neo- natal ménage à trois: British media framing of transnational surrogacy. Journal of Reproductive Infant Psychology. In press.
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. Gamble, C. & the CONNECT Group. 15-minute consultation: An evidence based approach to research without prior consent (deferred consent) in neonatal and paediatric critical care trials. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Online first: 13th October. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309245.
  • Frith, L. (2015) What do we mean by ‘proper’ medical treatment? In Fovargue, S. & Mullock, A. The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment, Routledge, pp32-50.
  • Blyth, E. & Frith, L. (2015) Access to genetic and biographical history in donor conception: an analysis of recent trends and future possibilities. In Horsey, K (ed) Human Fertilisation and Embryology: Regulation Revisited. Routledge, pp136-152.
  • Ramon, E. White, J. Beckman, K. Luyben, A. Frith, L. (2015) Assessing the performance of maternity care in Europe: a critical exploration of tools and indicators. BMC Health Services Research. 15:491  doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1151-2
  • Woolfall, K. Gamble, C. Frith, L. Young, B. (2015) How parents and practitioners experience deferred consent for emergency research: a mixed method study. BMJ Open. 5:e008522.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008522
  • Janssens, P. Thorn, P. Castilla,J. Frith, L. Crawshaw, M. Mochtar, M. Bjorndahl, L. Kvist, U. Kirkham-Brown, J. (2015) Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quotas. Reproductive Biomedicine Online. 30 (6) 568-580.
  • Chuimento, A. Khan, M. Rahman, A. Frith, L. (2015) Managing ethical challenges in mental health research in post-conflict settings. Developing World Bioethics. On line 8th January DOI: 10.1111/dewb.12076.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The Limits of Evidence: Evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK. Monash Bioethics Review. 33 (1) 29-44.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The changing national health service: market based reform and morality. International Journal of Health Policy & Management. 4 (4) 253-255.
  • Long, J. Fletcher, I. Byrne, P. Frith, L. Gabbay, M. (2015) The Dragon and the Snake: Health Practices among the Chinese in the UK from an inter-disciplinary perspective. Ethnicity & Health. 20 (2) 107-128.
  • van den Akker, O. Crawshaw, M. Blyth, E.  Frith, L (2015) Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA, linking through a voluntary register, Human Reproduction  30 (1) 111-121.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2014) Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 29 (4) 516-522.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Social Enterprises, Health Care Provision & Ethical Capital. Social Enterprise Journal. 10 (2) 105-120.
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. et al (2014) Doing challenging research studies in a patient-centered way: a qualitative study to inform a randomised controlled trial in a pediatric emergency care setting. BMJ Open 4:e005045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-00504
  • Frith, L. Young, B. Woolfall, K. (2014) Patient Participation in Health Care: how can we do it better? American Journal of Bioethics, 14(6) 17-18.
  • Frith, L. Sinclair, M. Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K. Beeckman, K. Loytved, C. Luyben, A. (2014) Organisational Culture in Midwifery: A Scoping Review. Evidence Based Midwifery. 12(1) 16-22.
  • Braverman, A. & Frith, L. (2014)Relatedness in clinical practice. In We are Family: perceptions of relatedness in assisted conception families. Freeman, T. Ebtehaj, F. Graham, S & Richards, M (eds). Cambridge University Press, pp 129-143.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Clinical and quality governance, in Tingle, J & Cribb, A ed(s). Nursing, Law and Ethics. 4th Edition, John Wiley, pp304-319.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Ethics and Reproductive Technologies, in Sandler, R (ed) Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Palgrave-Macmillan pp 63-75.
  • June 2015 – May 2016 – Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) AH/M008045/1 – Medicine, Markets and Morals – Principle Investigator Frith, CI – Professor Cam Donaldson.
  • January – March 2015 – Wellcome Trust WT106512MA - Global Perspectives on the Regulation of Reproductive Technologies and Genetics – Principle Investigator Frith, to support fellowship at Hong Kong University.
  • Walmsley, E. “Mama Mia! Serious Shortcomings With Another ‘(En) Forced’ Caesarean Section Case RE AA [2012] EWHC 4378 (COP)”, Medical Law Review (Winter 2015) 23(1): 135-143.



  • Alghrani A (2013) Womb Transplantation and The Interplay of Islam and The West. Journal of Religion and Science vol 48 issue 3 pp 618 - 634.
  • Dar A. (2013) 'Can "best interests" justify child participation in medical research?'. In: Malerba A, Massocchi L, Santosuosso A, ed(s). 2012 Law and Science Young Scholars Informal Symposium: Book of papers. Pavia, Pavia University Press.
  • Case P (2013) Doctoring Confidence and Soliciting Trust: Models of Professional Discipline in Law and Medicine. Journal of Professional Negligence vol 29 issue 2 pp 87-107
  • Sawyer, N. Blyth, E. Kramer, W. Frith, L. (2013) A survey of 1700 women who formed their families using donor sperm. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 27; 436-447.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2013) They can’t have my embryo: the ethics of conditional embryo donation. Bioethics. Published online May 2013
  • Frith, L. (2013) Donor conception and mandatory paternity testing: the right to know and the right to be told. American Journal of Bioethics, 13 (5) 50-52.


  • Alghrani A, Ost S and Bennett R (eds). ed(s) (2012) The Criminal Law and Bioethical Conflict: Walking The Tightrope. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Alghrani A (2012) Surrogacy: `A Cautionary Tale? Re T (a child) (surrogacy: residence order) [2011] EWCH 33 (fam). Medical Law Review
  • Frith, L. Sawyer, N & Kramer, W. (2012) Forming a family with sperm donation: a survey of 244 non-biological parents, Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 24 (7) pp709-718.
  • Frith, L. (2012) Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology, Bioethics, 26 (4) pp198–206.
  • Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Jones, C & Frith, L (2012) Donor conceived peoples’ views and experiences of their genetic origins: a critical review of the literature,  Journal of Law & Medicine, 19 (4), pp769-789.


  • Case P (2011) Putting Public Confidence First: Doctors, Precautionary Suspension and the General Medical Council. Medical Law Review vol 19 issue 3 pp 339-371
  • Case P (2011) The Good the Bad and the Dishonest Doctor: The General Medical Council and the Redemption Model of Fitness to Practise. Legal Studies vol 31 issue 4 pp 591-614
  • Frith, L. Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R. (2011) Conditional Embryo Relinquishment: Choosing to relinquish embryos for family building through an embryo ‘adoption’ programme, Human Reproduction, 26 (12) pp 3327-3338.
  • Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R & Frith, L. (2011) Embryo Relinquishment for family building: how should it be conceptualised? International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 25 (2) pp 260-285.
  • Oultram S (2011) Clinical Ethics Committee Case 15: A case study in surgical consent – Mr X's appendix . Clinical Ethics vol 6 issue 3 pp 113-116
  • Brassington I, Oultram S (2011) The Topsy-Turvy Cloning Law. Monash Bioethics review vol 29 issue 3 pp 4.1-4.18


  • Farrell AM, Devaney S, Dar A. (2010) 'No Fault Compensation Schemes for Medical Injury - A Review'. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research.
  • Glover-Thomas N and Fanning J (2010) Medicalisation: The Role of E-pharmacies in Iatrogenic Harm. Medical Law Review vol 18 issue 1 pp 28-55
  • Paul, M, Berger, R, Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2010) Relinquishing frozen embryos for conception by infertile couples, Family, Systems and Health, 28, (3) pp 258-273.
  • Horton, David (2010) 'Making Sense' of Risk in a Mental Health Facility, Med Law Rev 18(4): 578-587.


  • Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2009) Donor conceived peoples’ access to genetic and biographical history. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 23 (2), pp174-191.
  • Blyth, E. Frith, L. Jones, C. & Spiers, J. (2009) The role of birth certificates in relation to access to biographical and genetic history in donor conception. International Journal of Children’s  Rights, 17 (2), pp207-223.
  • Oultram S (2009) All hail the new flesh: some thoughts on scarification, children, and adults. Journal of Medical Ethics vol 35 issue 10 pp 607-610


  • Fanning J (2008) Uneasy Lies the Neck that Wears the Stethoscope: Some Observations on Defensive Medicine. Professional Negligence vol 24 pp 93-103
  • Blyth, E. & Frith, L. (2008) The UK’s gamete donor ‘crisis’: a critical appraisal. Critical Social Policy 28 (1), pp74-95.
  • Blyth, E. Frith, L & Crawshaw, M. (2008) Sex-selection for non-medical reasons. Reproductive Medicine Online 16, Suppl 1,pp 41-45.
  • Hunter D, Oultram S (2008) The Challenge of 'Sperm Ships': The need for the global regulation of medical technology. Journal of Medical Ethics vol 34 issue 7 pp 552-556