HLRU's Publications and Presentations


  • Alghrani, A (with Prof Jill Marsh & Amal Ali) Leyla Sahin Case, (eds) Rewriting Feminist Legal Judgements (Hart, 2018).
  • Horton, D. P and Lynch-Wood, G. 'Rhetoric and Reality: User Engagement and Health Care Reform in England' Medical Law Review


  • Alghrani, A and Griffiths, D. "Surrogacy Regulation In the UK: the Case For Reform" (2017) 29(2) Child and Family Law Quarterly 165-186.
  • Alghrani, A. 'Re A' in H. Stalford, K. Hollingsworth, S. Gilmore (eds.) "Rewriting Children's Rights Judgements: From Academic Vision to New Practice (Hart, 2017). 
  • Blyth, E, Crawshaw, C, van der Akker, O, Frith, L. (2017) Gamete donors' motivations for, expectations and experiences of registration with a voluntary donor linking register. Human Fertility. 20:4, 268-278. DOI: 10.1080/14647273.2017.1292005
  • Blyth, E, Lui, S, Frith, L. (2017) Relationships and boundaries between provider and recipient families following embryo adaoption. Families, Relationship & Societies. In Press. 
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M, van der Akker, O. (2017) Searching for 'relations' using a DNA linking register by adults conceived following sperm donation, Biosocieties, online 8th August, DOI: 10.1057/s41292-017-0063-2
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E, Crawshaw, M, van der Akker, O. (2017) Secrets and disclosure in donor conception. Sociology, Helaht & Illness, online 16th Novemeber, DOI: 10.1111/1467-9566.12633.
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E, Lui, S. (2017) Family building using embryo adoption: relationships and contact arrangements between provider and recipient families - a mixed-methods study. Human Reproduction. 32, 5, pp. 1092-1099, DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dex048
  • Lynch-Wood, G, Williamson, D, Horton, D. P. 'Perspectives on Civil Regulation, Firms and the Environment' In A Asquer, F Becchis, & D Russolillo, (Eds.), The Political Economy of Local Regulation (London: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2017).
  • Walmsley, E. Chapter 4, Re X and Y (Foreign Surrogacy) [2008] EWHC 3030 (Fam) (Commentary), in Rewriting CHildren's Rights Judgements: From Academic Vision to New Practice, Edited by H. Stalford, K. Hollingsworth, and S. Gilmore (Bloomsbury) 2017. 


  • Alghrani, A. 'Does procreative liberty encompass a right to gestate?' (2016) Journal of Law and the Biosciences.  
  • Alghrani, A. "Yes, Uterus Transplants Should Be Publicly Funded!" (2016) 42(9) Journal of Medical Ethics
  • Case, P. 'Chapter 2 - Regulating Helath Care Professions' in Principles of Medical Law (eds J. McHale and J. Laing) (OUP, 2016) pp. 54-98. 
  • Case, P. 'Dangerous Liaisons: Psychiatry, Language and Law in the Court of Protection' (2016) 24(3) Medical Law Review 360-378. 
  • Case, P. 'Negotiating the Domain of Mental Capacity: Clinical Judgemnet or Judicial Diagnosis?' (2016) (3-4) Medical Law International 174-205. 
  • Horton, D. P 'Tackling Elder Abuse and Neglect: Adult Safeguarding Under the Care Act 2014' (2016) 6(4) Elder Law Journal, 333.
  • Oultram, S, Jones, C & Frith, L. (2016) Gestational Surrogacy, Ethics, and the Family. In Sills. E (ed). Cambridge Handbook of Gestational Surrogacy: International Clinical Practice and Policy Issues. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Walmsley, E. 'Publication Review Autonomy and Pregnancy: A Comparative Analysis of Compelled Obstetric Intervention', Journal of Professional Negligence, 2016, 32(4), 285-287. 


  • Alghrani, A. “Mitochondrial donation and three parent families – what is all the fuss about?” 4 February 2015 - University of Liverpool News Website https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2015/02/04/mitochondrial-donation-3-parent-families-fuss/
  • Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) (June 2015 – May 2016) AH/M008045/1 – Medicine, Markets and Morals – Principle Investigator Frith, CI – Professor Cam Donaldson.
  • Blyth, E. & Frith, L. (2015) Access to genetic and biographical history in donor conception: an analysis of recent trends and future possibilities. In Horsey, K (ed) Human Fertilisation and Embryology: Regulation Revisited. Routledge, pp136-152.
  • Chuimento, A. Khan, M. Rahman, A. Frith, L. (2015) Managing ethical challenges in mental health research in post-conflict settings. Developing World Bioethics. On line 8th January DOI: 10.1111/dewb.12076.
  • Dar, A. 'Decision-making about child participation in medical research - a relational approach'.(2015) Child and Family Law Quarterly, 27 (2). pp. 109-128.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2014) Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 29 (4) 516-522.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Clinical and quality governance, in Tingle, J & Cribb, A ed(s). Nursing, Law and Ethics. 4th Edition, John Wiley, pp304-319.
  • Frith, L. & Draper, H. Publishing research in empirical ethics: Quality, disciplines and expertise. In Ives, J. Dunn, M. Cribb, A In Interdisciplinary and Empirical ethics: Practical and theoretical perspectives. Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Ethics and Reproductive Technologies, in Sandler, R (ed) Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Palgrave-Macmillan pp 63-75.
  • Frith, L. Sinclair, M. Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K. Beeckman, K. Loytved, C. Luyben, A. (2014) Organisational Culture in Midwifery: A Scoping Review. Evidence Based Midwifery. 12(1) 16-22.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Social Enterprises, Health Care Provision & Ethical Capital. Social Enterprise Journal. 10 (2) 105-120.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The changing national health service: market based reform and morality. International Journal of Health Policy & Management. 4 (4) 253-255.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The Limits of Evidence: Evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK. Monash Bioethics Review. 33 (1) 29-44.
  • Frith, L. (2015) What do we mean by ‘proper’ medical treatment? In Fovargue, S. & Mullock, A. The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment, Routledge, pp32-50.
  • Frith, L. Young, B. Woolfall, K. (2014) Patient Participation in Health Care: how can we do it better? American Journal of Bioethics, 14(6) 17-18.
  • Gottfreðsdóttir, H. Nieuwenhuijze, M. Frith, L. Complexity Theory and Maternity Care. In Frith, L. Church, S. Balaam, M-C. Downe, S (eds) Contemporary debates in maternity care. Pinter & Martin, forthcoming.
  • Griffiths, D and Alghrani, A. ‘Revisiting the Regulation of the Reproduction Business’ in S. Devaney, A.M.Farell, A. Mullock and C. Stanton eds. Essays in Honour of Margaret Brazier (2015, Routledge, London).
  • Janssens, P. Thorn, P. Castilla,J. Frith, L. Crawshaw, M. Mochtar, M. Bjorndahl, L. Kvist, U. Kirkham-Brown, J. (2015) Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quotas. Reproductive Biomedicine Online. 30 (6) 568-580.
  • Long, J. Fletcher, I. Byrne, P. Frith, L. Gabbay, M. (2015) The Dragon and the Snake: Health Practices among the Chinese in the UK from an inter-disciplinary perspective. Ethnicity & Health. 20 (2) 107-128.
  • Oultram, S. (2015). ONE MUM TOO FEW: Maternal Status in Host Surrogate Motherhood Arrangements. Journal of Medical Ehtics, 41(6). 
  • Ramon, E. White, J. Beckman, K. Luyben, A. Frith, L. (2015) Assessing the performance of maternity care in Europe: a critical exploration of tools and indicators. BMC Health Services Research. 15:491  doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1151-2
  • van den Akker, O. Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Frith, L. This neo- natal ménage à trois: British media framing of transnational surrogacy. Journal of Reproductive Infant Psychology. In press.
  • van den Akker, O. Crawshaw, M. Blyth, E.  Frith, L (2015) Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA, linking through a voluntary register, Human Reproduction  30 (1) 111-121.
  • Walmsley, E and Alghrani, A. 'Book Review: International Surrogacy Arrangements: Legal Regulation at the International Level, K Trimmings and P Beaumont', Child and Family Law Quarterly, VOL. 27, No 4, 2015.
  • Walmsley, E. 'Book Review: Surrogacy, Law and Human Rights', Medical Law International, 2015, Vol. 15(4), 255-261. 
  • Walmsley, E. “Mama Mia! Serious Shortcomings With Another ‘(En) Forced’ Caesarean Section Case RE AA [2012] EWHC 4378 (COP)”, Medical Law Review (Winter 2015) 23(1): 135-143.
  • Wellcome Trust. (January – March 2015) WT106512MA - Global Perspectives on the Regulation of Reproductive Technologies and Genetics – Principle Investigator Frith, to support fellowship at Hong Kong University.
  • Woolfall, K. Gamble, C. Frith, L. Young, B. (2015) How parents and practitioners experience deferred consent for emergency research: a mixed method study. BMJ Open. 5:e008522.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008522
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. et al (2014) Doing challenging research studies in a patient-centered way: a qualitative study to inform a randomised controlled trial in a pediatric emergency care setting. BMJ Open 4:e005045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-00504
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. Gamble, C. & the CONNECT Group. 15-minute consultation: An evidence based approach to research without prior consent (deferred consent) in neonatal and paediatric critical care trials. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Online first: 13th October. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309245.


  • Alghrani, A, Griffiths, D and Brazier, M. “Surrogacy Law: From Piecemeal Tweaks to Sustained Review and Reform” in Alison Diduck, Noam Peleg and Helen Reece, (eds) Law In Society: Reflections on Children, Family, Culture and Philosophy- Essays in Honour of Michael Freeman Law (2014, Brill Publishers) 425-453.
  • Alghrani, A. ‘Womb transplants: 'Now the impossible has become real'’ October 2014.http://www.bionews.org.uk/page.asp?obj_id=461139&PPID=461289&sid=727
  • Alghrani, A. ‘Womb Transplants and Islam: It’s a Sisterhood Thing’ Centre for Islamic Legislation & Ethics Website, October 2014. http://www.cilecenter.org/
  • Bensted R, Hargreaves DS, Lombard J, Kilkelly U, Viner RM. (2014) Comparison of healthcare priorities in childhood and early/late adolescence: analysis of cross-sectional data from 8 countries in the Council of Europe Child-friendly Healthcare Survey, 2011 (2014) Child: Care, Health and Development
  • Braverman, A. & Frith, L. (2014) Relatedness in clinical practice. In We are Family: perceptions of relatedness in assisted conception families. Freeman, T. Ebtehaj, F. Graham, S & Richards, M (eds). Cambridge University Press, pp 129-143.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, in press.Frith, L. & Blyth, E. Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, in press.


  • Alghrani, A. (2013) Womb Transplantation and The Interplay of Islam and The West. Journal of Religion and Science vol 48 issue 3 pp 618 - 634.
  • Case, P. (2013) Doctoring Confidence and Soliciting Trust: Models of Professional Discipline in Law and Medicine. Journal of Professional Negligence vol 29 issue 2 pp 87-107
  • Dar, A. (2013) 'Can "best interests" justify child participation in medical research?'. In: Malerba A, Massocchi L, Santosuosso A, ed(s). 2012 Law and Science Young Scholars Informal Symposium: Book of papers. Pavia, Pavia University Press.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2013) They can’t have my embryo: the ethics of conditional embryo donation. Bioethics. Published online May 2013
  • Frith, L. (2013) Donor conception and mandatory paternity testing: the right to know and the right to be told. American Journal of Bioethics, 13 (5) 50-52.
  • Sawyer, N. Blyth, E. Kramer, W. Frith, L. (2013) A survey of 1700 women who formed their families using donor sperm. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 27; 436-447.
  • Oultram, S. (2013). Virtual Plagues and Real World Pandemics: Reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research. Medical Humanities, 39(2). 


  • Alghrani, A, Ost, S and Bennett, R (eds). ed(s) (2012) The Criminal Law and Bioethical Conflict: Walking The Tightrope. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Alghrani, A. (2012) Surrogacy: `A Cautionary Tale? Re T (a child) (surrogacy: residence order) [2011] EWCH 33 (fam). Medical Law Review
  • Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Jones, C & Frith, L (2012) Donor conceived peoples’ views and experiences of their genetic origins: a critical review of the literature,  Journal of Law & Medicine, 19 (4), pp769-789.
  • Frith, L. Sawyer, N & Kramer, W. (2012) Forming a family with sperm donation: a survey of 244 non-biological parents, Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 24 (7) pp709-718.
  • Frith, L. (2012) Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology, Bioethics, 26 (4) pp198–206.
  • Oultram, S. (2012). Reflecting on the 'Patient record access proposals' in the UK Governement's planned NHS-Life Sciences partnership. Research Ethics, 8(3). 


  • Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R & Frith, L. (2011) Embryo Relinquishment for family building: how should it be conceptualised? International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 25 (2) pp 260-285.
  • Brassington I, Oultram S (2011) The Topsy-Turvy Cloning Law. Monash Bioethics review vol 29 issue 3 pp 4.1-4.18
  • Case, P. (2011) Putting Public Confidence First: Doctors, Precautionary Suspension and the General Medical Council. Medical Law Review vol 19 issue 3 pp 339-371
  • Case, P. (2011) The Good the Bad and the Dishonest Doctor: The General Medical Council and the Redemption Model of Fitness to Practise. Legal Studies vol 31 issue 4 pp 591-614
  • Frith, L. Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R. (2011) Conditional Embryo Relinquishment: Choosing to relinquish embryos for family building through an embryo ‘adoption’ programme, Human Reproduction, 26 (12) pp 3327-3338.
  • Oultram, S. (2011) Clinical Ethics Committee Case 15: A case study in surgical consent – Mr X's appendix. Clinical Ethics vol 6 issue 3 pp 113-116.


  • Farrell, AM, Devaney, S, Dar, A. (2010) 'No Fault Compensation Schemes for Medical Injury - A Review'. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research.
  • Glover-Thomas, N and Fanning, J. (2010) Medicalisation: The Role of E-pharmacies in Iatrogenic Harm. Medical Law Review vol 18 issue 1 pp 28-55
  • Horton, D. (2010) 'Making Sense' of Risk in a Mental Health Facility, Med Law Rev 18(4): 578-587.
  • Hunter, D. & Oultram, S. (2010). The Ethical & Policy Implications of Rogue Medical Tourism. Global Social Policy, 10, 297-299. 
  • Paul, M, Berger, R, Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2010) Relinquishing frozen embryos for conception by infertile couples, Family, Systems and Health, 28, (3) pp 258-273.
  • Oultram, S. (2010). Does the Baby-Selling Objection to Commercial Surrogacy Misuse Immanuel Kant?. In M. Hayry, T. Takala, P. Herisson-Kelly, & G. Arneson (Eds.), Values in Bioethics: Arguments and Analysis in Bioethics Amsterdam: Rodopi. 


  • Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2009) Donor conceived peoples’ access to genetic and biographical history. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 23 (2), pp174-191.
  • Blyth, E. Frith, L. Jones, C. & Spiers, J. (2009) The role of birth certificates in relation to access to biographical and genetic history in donor conception. International Journal of Children’s  Rights, 17 (2), pp207-223.
  • Oultram, S. (2009) All hail the new flesh: some thoughts on scarification, children, and adults. Journal of Medical Ethics vol 35 issue 10 pp 607-610