HLRU's Publications

Decriminalising abortion in the UK: key points for policy makers


  • Case, P. ‘The NICE Guideline on Medicinal Cannabis: Keeping Pandora’s Box Shut Tight?’ (2020) Medical Law Review.


  • Alghrani, A., Jones, B. P., & Smith, J. R. (2019). Re: Uterine transplantation in transgender women: medical, legal and ethical considerations. In BJOG – An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Vol. 126, Iss. 4, pp. 545)
  • Case, P. J. (2019). When the Judge Met P: The Rules of Engagement in the Court of Protection and the Parallel Universe of Children Meeting Judges in the Family Court. Legal Studies, 39(2), 302-320
    Fox, M., & Ray, M. (2019). No pets allowed? Companion animals, older people and residential care.. Medical humanities, 45(2), 211-222
  • Fox, M., Turkmendag, I., Thompson, C., & Murphy, T. (2019). What's Law got to do with Good Science?. Social & Legal Studies 28(3), 392-413
  • Frith, L. et al, ‘Role of public involvement in the Royal College of Physicians' Future Hospitals healthcare improvement programme: an evaluation.’ (2019) BMJ OPEN, 9(9).
  • Frith, L. et al, ‘Tensions Between Ethics and the Law: Examination of a Legal Case by Two Midwives Invoking a Conscientious Objection to Abortion in Scotland.. HEC forum : an interdisciplinary journal on hospitals' ethical and legal issues (2019)
  • Frith, L., & Blyth, E. (2019). The point of no return: Up to what point should we be allowed to withdraw consent to the storage and use of embryos and gametes?. BIOETHICS, 33(6), 637
  • Horton, D., Mental Health Homicide and Society Understanding Health Care Governance. (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019)
    Pugh, A., ‘Emergencies and Equivocality Under the Inherent Jurisdiction’ (2019) 27(4) Med L Rev 675


  • A. Alghrani, ‘Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technologies: New Horizons’ (Cambridge University Press, 2018)
  • Fanning, J., New Medicalism and the Mental Health Act (Hart Publishing, 2018)
  • Fox, M., Thomson, M., & Warburton, J. (2018). Non-therapeutic male genital cutting and harm: Law, policy and evidence from U.K. hospitals.. Bioethics 33(4), pp.467-474
  • Gray, C., & Warman, S. (2018). Making the most of CPD: a reflective approach. In Practice, 40(4), 163-165.
  • Alghrani, A. “Uterus Transplantation in and beyond cisgender women: Revisiting procreative liberty in light of emerging reproductive technologies” (2018) Journal of Law and the Biosciences (15, 932 words).
  • Alghrani, A. - Assisted Reproductive Technologies: New Horizons: Regulating the Future of Human Reproduction - (Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  • Alghrani, A. (with Prof Jill Marsh & Amal Ali) Leyla Sahin Case, (eds) Rewriting Feminist Legal Judgements (Hart, 2018).
  • Alghrani, A. ‘Re A’ (Chapter) in H. Stalford, K. Hollingsworth, S. Gilmore (eds) Rewriting Children’s Rights Judgments: From Academic Vision to New Practice (Hart, 2017) pp 264-272.
  • Fleming, V. Frith, L. Luyben, A. Ramsayer, B. (2018) Conscientious objection to participation in abortion by midwives and nurses: a systematic review of reasons. BMC Medical Ethics, 19:31.
  • Fox, M. (with Gray, C. and Hobson-West, P.) “Reconciling Autonomy and Beneficence in Treatment Decision-Making for Companion Animal Patients" (2018) Liverpool Law Review (forthcoming).
  • Fox, M. and Lindsey, J. “Health Law, Medicine and Ethics” R. Auchmuty (ed) Great Debates in Gender and Law (Palgrave 2018) 121-32.
  • Fox, M. & McGuinness, S. (Chapter 88). In the Matter of an Application for Judicial Review by the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission [2015] in R. Auchtmuty and E.
  • Rackley (eds) Women’s Legal Landmarks (Hart, 2018)
  • Frith, L. et al . on behalf the Institute of Medical Ethics. (2018) Institute of Medical Ethics Guidelines for confirmation of appointment, promotion and recognition of UK bioethics and medical ethics researchers. Journal of Medical Ethics 44: 289–291.
  • Frith, L. (2018) The Disposable and Protected Fetus: Contradictions in Fetal Status. (Chapter) In The Fetus as a Patient: Contested Concept and its Normative Implications. (eds) Schmitz, D. Clarke, A. Dondorp, W. Routledge, pp 17 - 27.
  • Frith, L. (2018) Organisational ethics: A solution to the challenges of markets in healthcare? (Chapter) in Marketisation in Healthcare: Policy, Practice and Moral Formation, (eds) Feiler, T. Papanikitas, A. Hordern, J. Routledge, pp49-64.
  • Horton, D.P. and Lynch-Wood, G. 'Rhetoric and Reality: User Engagement and Health Care Reform in England' Medical Law Review
  • Horton, D.P. and Lynch-Wood, G, ‘Technocracy, the Market and the Governance of England’s National Health Service’ (2018) Regulation & Governance (forthcoming).
  • Purshouse, C. (with Bracegirdle, K.) ‘The Problem of Unenforceable Surrogacy Contracts: Can Unjust Enrichment Provide a Solution?’ (2018) Med L Rev (forthcoming).
  • Purshouse, C. ‘Utilitarianism as tort theory: Countering the caricature’ (2018) 38 Legal Studies 24.
  • Waxman, S. (2018). The pre-conception welfare principle: a critical analysis. Law, Innovation and Technology, 10(1), 122-152.


  • Alghrani, A and Griffiths, D. "Surrogacy Regulation In the UK: the Case For Reform" (2017) 29(2) Child and Family Law Quarterly 165-186.
  • Alghrani, A. 'Re A' in H. Stalford, K. Hollingsworth, S. Gilmore (eds.) "Rewriting Children's Rights Judgements: From Academic Vision to New Practice (Hart, 2017). 
  • Blyth, E, Crawshaw, C, van der Akker, O, Frith, L. (2017) Gamete donors' motivations for, expectations and experiences of registration with a voluntary donor linking register. Human Fertility. 20:4, 268-278. DOI: 10.1080/14647273.2017.1292005
  • Blyth, E, Lui, S, Frith, L. (2017) Relationships and boundaries between provider and recipient families following embryo adaoption. Families, Relationship & Societies. In Press.
  • Fanning, J. (edited volume) Church, S. Balaam, M-C. Downe, S. Frith, L. (eds) (2017) New Thinking on improving Maternity Care: International Perspectives. Pinter & Martin, London.
  • Fox, M. (with Thomson, M.) “Bodily Integrity, Embodiment and the Regulation of Parental Choice’ (2017) 44(4) Journal of Law & Society 501-30.
  • Fox, M. and Cook, F. “Judging Dangerous Dogs: Barnes v Belfast CC” (Chapter 18) in M. Enright, J. McCandless and A. O’Donoghue Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments: Judges Troubles and the Gendered Politics of Identity (Hart, 2017)
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M, van der Akker, O. (2017) Searching for 'relations' using a DNA linking register by adults conceived following sperm donation, Biosocieties, online 8th August, DOI: 10.1057/s41292-017-0063-2
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E, Crawshaw, M, van der Akker, O. (2017) Secrets and disclosure in donor conception. Sociology, Helaht & Illness, online 16 Novemeber, DOI: 10.1111/1467-9566.12633.
  • Frith, L, Blyth, E, Lui, S. (2017) Family building using embryo adoption: relationships and contact arrangements between provider and recipient families - a mixed-methods study. Human Reproduction. 32, 5, pp. 1092-1099, DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dex048
  • Gottfreðsdóttir, H. Nieuwenhuijze, M. Frith, L. (2017) Complexity Theory and Maternity Care. (Chapter) In Church, S. Balaam, M-C. Downe, S. Frith, L. (eds) New Thinking on improving Maternity Care: International Perspectives. Pinter & Martin, London, pp 57-71.
  • Lynch-Wood, G, Williamson, D, Horton, D. P. 'Perspectives on Civil Regulation, Firms and the Environment' In A Asquer, F Becchis, & D Russolillo, (Eds.), The Political Economy of Local Regulation (London: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2017).
  • Walmsley, E. Chapter 4, Re X and Y (Foreign Surrogacy) [2008] EWHC 3030 (Fam) (Commentary), in Rewriting CHildren's Rights Judgements: From Academic Vision to New Practice, Edited by H. Stalford, K. Hollingsworth, and S. Gilmore (Bloomsbury) 2017. 
  • Waxman, S. (2017). Applying the preconception welfare principle and the harm threshold: Doing more harm than good?. Medical Law International, 17(3), 134-157.


  • Alghrani, A. 'Does procreative liberty encompass a right to gestate?' (2016) Journal of Law and the Biosciences.  
  • Alghrani, A. "Yes, Uterus Transplants Should Be Publicly Funded!" (2016) 42(9) Journal of Medical Ethics
  • Case, P. 'Chapter 2 - Regulating Helath Care Professions' in Principles of Medical Law (eds J. McHale and J. Laing) (OUP, 2016) pp. 54-98. 
  • Case, P. 'Dangerous Liaisons: Psychiatry, Language and Law in the Court of Protection' (2016) 24(3) Medical Law Review 360-378. 
  • Case, P. 'Negotiating the Domain of Mental Capacity: Clinical Judgemnet or Judicial Diagnosis?' (2016) (3-4) Medical Law International 174-205. 
  • Horton, D. P 'Tackling Elder Abuse and Neglect: Adult Safeguarding Under the Care Act 2014' (2016) 6(4) Elder Law Journal, 333.
  • Oultram, S, Jones, C & Frith, L. (2016) Gestational Surrogacy, Ethics, and the Family. In Sills. E (ed). Cambridge Handbook of Gestational Surrogacy: International Clinical Practice and Policy Issues. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Walmsley, E. 'Publication Review Autonomy and Pregnancy: A Comparative Analysis of Compelled Obstetric Intervention', Journal of Professional Negligence, 2016, 32(4), 285-287. 


  • Alghrani, A. “Mitochondrial donation and three parent families – what is all the fuss about?” 4 February 2015 - University of Liverpool News Website https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2015/02/04/mitochondrial-donation-3-parent-families-fuss/
  • Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) (June 2015 – May 2016) AH/M008045/1 – Medicine, Markets and Morals – Principle Investigator Frith, CI – Professor Cam Donaldson.
  • Blyth, E. & Frith, L. (2015) Access to genetic and biographical history in donor conception: an analysis of recent trends and future possibilities. In Horsey, K (ed) Human Fertilisation and Embryology: Regulation Revisited. Routledge, pp136-152.
  • Chuimento, A. Khan, M. Rahman, A. Frith, L. (2015) Managing ethical challenges in mental health research in post-conflict settings. Developing World Bioethics. On line 8th January DOI: 10.1111/dewb.12076.
  • Dar, A. 'Decision-making about child participation in medical research - a relational approach'.(2015) Child and Family Law Quarterly, 27 (2). pp. 109-128.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2014) Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 29 (4) 516-522.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Clinical and quality governance, in Tingle, J & Cribb, A ed(s). Nursing, Law and Ethics. 4th Edition, John Wiley, pp304-319.
  • Frith, L. & Draper, H. Publishing research in empirical ethics: Quality, disciplines and expertise. In Ives, J. Dunn, M. Cribb, A In Interdisciplinary and Empirical ethics: Practical and theoretical perspectives. Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Ethics and Reproductive Technologies, in Sandler, R (ed) Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Palgrave-Macmillan pp 63-75.
  • Frith, L. Sinclair, M. Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K. Beeckman, K. Loytved, C. Luyben, A. (2014) Organisational Culture in Midwifery: A Scoping Review. Evidence Based Midwifery. 12(1) 16-22.
  • Frith, L. (2014) Social Enterprises, Health Care Provision & Ethical Capital. Social Enterprise Journal. 10 (2) 105-120.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The changing national health service: market based reform and morality. International Journal of Health Policy & Management. 4 (4) 253-255.
  • Frith, L. (2015) The Limits of Evidence: Evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK. Monash Bioethics Review. 33 (1) 29-44.
  • Frith, L. (2015) What do we mean by ‘proper’ medical treatment? In Fovargue, S. & Mullock, A. The Legitimacy of Medical Treatment, Routledge, pp32-50.
  • Frith, L. Young, B. Woolfall, K. (2014) Patient Participation in Health Care: how can we do it better? American Journal of Bioethics, 14(6) 17-18.
  • Gottfreðsdóttir, H. Nieuwenhuijze, M. Frith, L. Complexity Theory and Maternity Care. In Frith, L. Church, S. Balaam, M-C. Downe, S (eds) Contemporary debates in maternity care. Pinter & Martin, forthcoming.
  • Griffiths, D and Alghrani, A. ‘Revisiting the Regulation of the Reproduction Business’ in S. Devaney, A.M.Farell, A. Mullock and C. Stanton eds. Essays in Honour of Margaret Brazier (2015, Routledge, London).
  • Janssens, P. Thorn, P. Castilla,J. Frith, L. Crawshaw, M. Mochtar, M. Bjorndahl, L. Kvist, U. Kirkham-Brown, J. (2015) Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quotas. Reproductive Biomedicine Online. 30 (6) 568-580.
  • Long, J. Fletcher, I. Byrne, P. Frith, L. Gabbay, M. (2015) The Dragon and the Snake: Health Practices among the Chinese in the UK from an inter-disciplinary perspective. Ethnicity & Health. 20 (2) 107-128.
  • Oultram, S. (2015). ONE MUM TOO FEW: Maternal Status in Host Surrogate Motherhood Arrangements. Journal of Medical Ehtics, 41(6). 
  • Ramon, E. White, J. Beckman, K. Luyben, A. Frith, L. (2015) Assessing the performance of maternity care in Europe: a critical exploration of tools and indicators. BMC Health Services Research. 15:491  doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1151-2
  • van den Akker, O. Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Frith, L. This neo- natal ménage à trois: British media framing of transnational surrogacy. Journal of Reproductive Infant Psychology. In press.
  • van den Akker, O. Crawshaw, M. Blyth, E.  Frith, L (2015) Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA, linking through a voluntary register, Human Reproduction  30 (1) 111-121.
  • Walmsley, E and Alghrani, A. 'Book Review: International Surrogacy Arrangements: Legal Regulation at the International Level, K Trimmings and P Beaumont', Child and Family Law Quarterly, VOL. 27, No 4, 2015.
  • Walmsley, E. 'Book Review: Surrogacy, Law and Human Rights', Medical Law International, 2015, Vol. 15(4), 255-261. 
  • Walmsley, E. “Mama Mia! Serious Shortcomings With Another ‘(En) Forced’ Caesarean Section Case RE AA [2012] EWHC 4378 (COP)”, Medical Law Review (Winter 2015) 23(1): 135-143.
  • Wellcome Trust. (January – March 2015) WT106512MA - Global Perspectives on the Regulation of Reproductive Technologies and Genetics – Principle Investigator Frith, to support fellowship at Hong Kong University.
  • Woolfall, K. Gamble, C. Frith, L. Young, B. (2015) How parents and practitioners experience deferred consent for emergency research: a mixed method study. BMJ Open. 5:e008522.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008522
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. et al (2014) Doing challenging research studies in a patient-centered way: a qualitative study to inform a randomised controlled trial in a pediatric emergency care setting. BMJ Open 4:e005045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-00504
  • Woolfall, K. Young, B. Frith, L. Gamble, C. & the CONNECT Group. 15-minute consultation: An evidence based approach to research without prior consent (deferred consent) in neonatal and paediatric critical care trials. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Online first: 13th October. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309245.


  • Alghrani, A, Griffiths, D and Brazier, M. “Surrogacy Law: From Piecemeal Tweaks to Sustained Review and Reform” in Alison Diduck, Noam Peleg and Helen Reece, (eds) Law In Society: Reflections on Children, Family, Culture and Philosophy- Essays in Honour of Michael Freeman Law (2014, Brill Publishers) 425-453.
  • Alghrani, A. ‘Womb transplants: 'Now the impossible has become real'’ October 2014.http://www.bionews.org.uk/page.asp?obj_id=461139&PPID=461289&sid=727
  • Alghrani, A. ‘Womb Transplants and Islam: It’s a Sisterhood Thing’ Centre for Islamic Legislation & Ethics Website, October 2014. http://www.cilecenter.org/
  • Bensted R, Hargreaves DS, Lombard J, Kilkelly U, Viner RM. (2014) Comparison of healthcare priorities in childhood and early/late adolescence: analysis of cross-sectional data from 8 countries in the Council of Europe Child-friendly Healthcare Survey, 2011 (2014) Child: Care, Health and Development
  • Braverman, A. & Frith, L. (2014) Relatedness in clinical practice. In We are Family: perceptions of relatedness in assisted conception families. Freeman, T. Ebtehaj, F. Graham, S & Richards, M (eds). Cambridge University Press, pp 129-143.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, in press.Frith, L. & Blyth, E. Assisted Reproductive technologies in the US: is more regulation needed? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, in press.


  • Alghrani, A. (2013) Womb Transplantation and The Interplay of Islam and The West. Journal of Religion and Science vol 48 issue 3 pp 618 - 634.
  • Case, P. (2013) Doctoring Confidence and Soliciting Trust: Models of Professional Discipline in Law and Medicine. Journal of Professional Negligence vol 29 issue 2 pp 87-107
  • Dar, A. (2013) 'Can "best interests" justify child participation in medical research?'. In: Malerba A, Massocchi L, Santosuosso A, ed(s). 2012 Law and Science Young Scholars Informal Symposium: Book of papers. Pavia, Pavia University Press.
  • Frith, L. & Blyth, E. (2013) They can’t have my embryo: the ethics of conditional embryo donation. Bioethics. Published online May 2013
  • Frith, L. (2013) Donor conception and mandatory paternity testing: the right to know and the right to be told. American Journal of Bioethics, 13 (5) 50-52.
  • Sawyer, N. Blyth, E. Kramer, W. Frith, L. (2013) A survey of 1700 women who formed their families using donor sperm. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 27; 436-447.
  • Oultram, S. (2013). Virtual Plagues and Real World Pandemics: Reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research. Medical Humanities, 39(2). 


  • Alghrani, A, Ost, S and Bennett, R (eds). ed(s) (2012) The Criminal Law and Bioethical Conflict: Walking The Tightrope. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Alghrani, A. (2012) Surrogacy: `A Cautionary Tale? Re T (a child) (surrogacy: residence order) [2011] EWCH 33 (fam). Medical Law Review
  • Blyth, E. Crawshaw, M. Jones, C & Frith, L (2012) Donor conceived peoples’ views and experiences of their genetic origins: a critical review of the literature,  Journal of Law & Medicine, 19 (4), pp769-789.
  • Frith, L. Sawyer, N & Kramer, W. (2012) Forming a family with sperm donation: a survey of 244 non-biological parents, Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 24 (7) pp709-718.
  • Frith, L. (2012) Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology, Bioethics, 26 (4) pp198–206.
  • Oultram, S. (2012). Reflecting on the 'Patient record access proposals' in the UK Governement's planned NHS-Life Sciences partnership. Research Ethics, 8(3). 


  • Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R & Frith, L. (2011) Embryo Relinquishment for family building: how should it be conceptualised? International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 25 (2) pp 260-285.
  • Brassington I, Oultram S (2011) The Topsy-Turvy Cloning Law. Monash Bioethics review vol 29 issue 3 pp 4.1-4.18
  • Case, P. (2011) Putting Public Confidence First: Doctors, Precautionary Suspension and the General Medical Council. Medical Law Review vol 19 issue 3 pp 339-371
  • Case, P. (2011) The Good the Bad and the Dishonest Doctor: The General Medical Council and the Redemption Model of Fitness to Practise. Legal Studies vol 31 issue 4 pp 591-614
  • Frith, L. Blyth, E. Paul, M. Berger, R. (2011) Conditional Embryo Relinquishment: Choosing to relinquish embryos for family building through an embryo ‘adoption’ programme, Human Reproduction, 26 (12) pp 3327-3338.
  • Oultram, S. (2011) Clinical Ethics Committee Case 15: A case study in surgical consent – Mr X's appendix. Clinical Ethics vol 6 issue 3 pp 113-116.


  • Farrell, AM, Devaney, S, Dar, A. (2010) 'No Fault Compensation Schemes for Medical Injury - A Review'. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research.
  • Glover-Thomas, N and Fanning, J. (2010) Medicalisation: The Role of E-pharmacies in Iatrogenic Harm. Medical Law Review vol 18 issue 1 pp 28-55
  • Horton, D. (2010) 'Making Sense' of Risk in a Mental Health Facility, Med Law Rev 18(4): 578-587.
  • Hunter, D. & Oultram, S. (2010). The Ethical & Policy Implications of Rogue Medical Tourism. Global Social Policy, 10, 297-299. 
  • Paul, M, Berger, R, Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2010) Relinquishing frozen embryos for conception by infertile couples, Family, Systems and Health, 28, (3) pp 258-273.
  • Oultram, S. (2010). Does the Baby-Selling Objection to Commercial Surrogacy Misuse Immanuel Kant?. In M. Hayry, T. Takala, P. Herisson-Kelly, & G. Arneson (Eds.), Values in Bioethics: Arguments and Analysis in Bioethics Amsterdam: Rodopi. 


  • Blyth, E & Frith, L. (2009) Donor conceived peoples’ access to genetic and biographical history. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 23 (2), pp174-191.
  • Blyth, E. Frith, L. Jones, C. & Spiers, J. (2009) The role of birth certificates in relation to access to biographical and genetic history in donor conception. International Journal of Children’s  Rights, 17 (2), pp207-223.
  • Oultram, S. (2009) All hail the new flesh: some thoughts on scarification, children, and adults. Journal of Medical Ethics vol 35 issue 10 pp 607-610