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Professor Benedict Michael MBChB (Hons), FRCP (Neurol), PhD

Professor of Neuroscience, MRC Clinician Scientist and Honorary Consultant Neurologist Clinical Infection, Microbiology & Immunology


Personal Statement

Google Scholar

Zoonotic Infection; Pandemics; Neurology; Encephalitis

.COVID-Clinical NeuroScience Study

Professor Benedict D Michael is an MRC Clinician Scientist and Director of the Infection Neuroscience Lab at The NIHR Health Protection Research Unit for Emerging and Zoonotic Infection and an Honorary Consultant Neurologist at The Walton Centre.

He completed Post-Doctoral Training at the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Disease, Massachusettes General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and UMASS where he was developed an intravital microscopy model of viral encephalitis to image leucocyte migration into the brain in real-time.

He has received The Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecture Award (2022), The Liversage Award for Neurology and The British Medical Association Vera Down Award for Neuroscience, and for his neurological education work in Africa, he is Honorary Faculty for the Royal College of Physicians and his team were The 2020 Finalists for the Royal College Awards for Excellence in Education.

He has an h-index of 40, an i10-index of 79, with >200 publications, and >9,300 citations, primarily on neurological infection & inflammation.

He has grant income of approximately £4.3M as PI and also £17M as Co-I from the MRC, Wellcome, NIHR, WHO and Academy of Medical Sciences.

He is Vice Chair of the Encephalitis International and an Advisor to The Association of British Neurologists and the Meningitis Research Foundation. He has worked as a Royal College of Physicians Faculty Tutor in West Africa and with the NIHR to promote Patient and Public Engagement in research.

He co-Chairs the The Global NeuroResearch Coalition and also sits on the WHO Expert Forum on Neurology and COVID-19.
.House of Lords Debate on vaccination programmes
.WHO Guidance on Neurological Complications of COVID-19
.WHO Scientific Brief
.WHO COVID-19 Living Guideline

He leads the COVID-Clinical Neuroscience Study (£2.3m UKRI) COVID-CNS in partnership with Co-PI (KCL), to elucidate disease mechanisms of neurological complications of SARS-CoV2.

He also lead the National Surveillance Programme for Neurological Complications of COVID-19, CoroNerve, in collaboration with the Association of British Neurologists, British Paediatric Neurology Association, British Association of Stroke Physicians, Royal College of Psychiatry, The NeuroAnaesthesia and Critical Care Society, and other key stakeholders.


.NATURE NEWS- COVID-19 affecting the brain

.BBC NEWS World Service Lancet Psych Paper

.BBC NEWS London COVID-19 Neurology in Hospitals and the Community



.The Liverpool Scientific (Spotify)

.Academy of Medical Sciences COVID-19 Advisory Panel
.ITV News
.SUNDAY TIMES: COVID-19 and Neuroscience
.THE LANCET NEUROLOGY: Neurological Education in Africa; Breaking the cycle
.THE LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Surveillance of Neurological Infection
.THE TIMES: UK Experts Back Meningitis B Vaccine
.GUARDIAN: App That Maps Disease Outbreaks

.NeuroPACES- Neurology for Internal medics to pass MRCP
.NeuroACCESS- Supporting areas where access to Neurology is limited
.NeuroPASS- How to pass Neurology in Medical Finals
.NeuroPRACTICE- The latest in Neurology for Primary and Secondary Care
.Royal College of Physicians- Finalist Excellence in Patient Care Awards 2020


MICHAEL BD, Dunai C, Needham EJ, et al. Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses. NATURE COMMS 2023; 14: 8487

Ross-Russel,...MICHAEL BD, Galea I (JOINT SENIOR). Spectrum, risk factors, and outcomes of neurological and psychiatric complications of COVID-19: a UK-wide cross-sectional surveillance study. BRAIN COMMS 2021; 3:fcab168

Ray SJ...MICHAEL BD, Kneen R (JOINT SENIOR). Neurological and psychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 infection in uk hopsitalised children and adolescents: a prospective national cohort study. LANCET CHILD ADOLESC. HEALTH 2021; 5:631-641

MICHAEL BD...Luster AD. Astrocyte-derived CXCL1 drives neutrophil transmigration and blood-brain barrier permeability in HSV encephalitis. CELL REP 2020; 32:108150

Varatharaj A... MICHAEL BD. Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: A UK-wide surveillance study. LANCET PSYCH 2020: 25; 7:875-882

Ellul MA, Benjamin L, Singh B, Lant S, MICHAEL BD.. Solomon T. Neurological associations of COVID-19. LANCET NEUROL 2020; 19:767-783

Winkler AS...MICHAEL BD, ...Solomon T. A call for a global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition. LANCET NEUROL 2020; 19:482-484

Venketesan A, MICHAEL BD...Solomon T. Acute encephalitis in immunocompetent adults. LANCET 2019; 393:702-716

Ellul MA... MICHAEL BD. Defining causality in COVID-19 and neurological disorders. J NEUROL NEUROSURG PSYCH 2020; 91: 811-822

Patabendgie A, MICHAEL BD...Solomon T. Japanese encephalitis virus infection increases blood-brain barrier permeability in a human model by inducing a strong pro-inflammatory endothelial response. MOL CELL NEUROSCI 2017: 89;60-70

MICHAEL BD, Griffiths MJ, .. Solomon T. The Interleukin-1 balance during encephalitis is associated with clinical severity, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuroimaging changes and disease outcome. J INFECT DIS 2016; 213:1651-60

MICHAEL BD, Griffiths MJ, .. Solomon T. Cytokine profiles differ between infectious and immune-mediated encephalitis, and those of unknown cause have an infectious pattern. PLOS ONE 2016; 11: e0146288

Goenka A, MICHAEL BD, Ledger E, .. Solomon T, Kneen R. Neurological manifestations of influenza in adults and children: Results of a national British surveillance study. CLIN INFECT DIS 2014; 58: 775-84

Solomon T, MICHAEL BD (JOINT FIRST), Smith PE, .. Beeching NJ. On behalf of the National Encephalitis Guidelines Development Group. Management of suspected viral encephalitis in adults: Association of British Neurologists and British Infection Association National Guideline. J INFECT 2012; 64:347-73

ADDITIONAL PROFILESEncephalitis International Profile
.Meningitis Research Foundation Profile
.ORCID Profile
.Harvard University and MGH Center for Immune and Inflammatory Disease

Prizes or Honours

  • Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecturer (Royal College of Physicians (RCP), 2022)
  • Faculty of Teaching and Learning Student Education Award (University of Liverpool, 2022)
  • Programme Grant (£2.3m)- COVID Clinical Neuroscience Study (COVID-CNS) (UKRI, 2020)
  • Visionary Researcher- World Encephalitis Day (World Encephalitis Alliance, 2021)
  • Excellence in Patient Care (Royal College of Physicians, 2020)
  • Faculty Award- Teaching and Learning Award (University of Liverpool, 2020)
  • MRC-AMED Collaborative Grant (MRC, 2020)
  • Annual Liversage Award (NENA, 2018)
  • Wellcome Trust Competitive Seed Grant (Wellcome Trust, 2018)
  • Vera Down Award for Neuroscience (British Medical Association, 2016)
  • Grant for Clinical Lecturers (Academy of Medical Science, 2016)
  • Doctors as volunteers (NeuroAccess)- Highly commended (British Medical Association, 2016)
  • Medical Education (Association of British Neurologists, 2015)
  • Medical Education (Association of British Neurologists, 2014)
  • Excellence in Innovation- Celebrating Success Awards (University of Liverpool, 2013)
  • Guarantors of Brain International Travel Award (Guarantors of Brain, 2011)
  • ACP Annual Junior Investigators Award (Association of Clinical Pathologists, 2009)

Funded Fellowships

  • MRC Clinician Scientist Fellowship (Medical Research Council (MRC), 2021 - present)
  • NIHR Academic Clinical Lectureship (2016 - 2018)
  • NIHR Doctoral Research Fellowship (National Institute for Health Research, 2011)
  • NIHR Academic Clinical Fellowship (National Institute for Health Research , 2008)