Tick Cell and Tissue Culture Bibliography

This bibliography lists, in chronological order, publications pertaining to tick cell, tissue and organ culture. It is intended to be exhaustive, but if any reader knows of additional relevant publication(s) not listed here, please inform us by email to L.Bell-Sakyi@liverpool.ac.uk

  • 1950s

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    1. Weyer, F. 1952. Explantationsversuche bei Lausen in Verbindung mit der Kultur von Rickettsien. Cblatt Bakt. Parasitenk. Infektionskr. 159, 13-22.
    2. Rehacek, J. 1958. Preliminary report on tick tissue cultures. Acta Virol. 2, 253-254.
  • 1960s

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    1. Martin, H.M. and Vidler, B.O. 1962. In vitro growth of tick tissues (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, 1901). Exp. Parasitol. 12, 192-203.
    2. Rehacek, J. and Hana, L. 1964. Notes on tick tissue culture. Acta Virol. 5, 57-58.
    3. Rehacek, J. 1965. Preparation of tissue cultures from the tick Hyalomma dromedarii Koch. J. Med. Entomol. 2, 161-164.
    4. Rehacek, J. 1965. Cultivation of different viruses in tick tissue cultures. Acta Virol. 9, 332-337.
    5. Varma, M.G.R and Wallers, W. 1965. An improved method for obtaining, in vitro, uniform cell monolayer sheets from tissues of the tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae). Nature 208, 602-603.
    6. Yunker, C.E. and Cory, J. 1965. Effectiveness of refrigerated nymphs in tick tissue culture experiments. J. Parasitol. 51, 686.
    7. Yunker, C.E. and Cory, J. 1967. Growth of  Colorado tick fever virus in primary tissue cultures of its vector, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acarina: Ixodidae), with notes on tick tissue culture. Exp. Parasitol. 20, 267-277.
    8. Rehacek, J., Brezina, R. and Majerska, M. 1968. Multiplication of rickettsiae in tick cells in vitro. Acta Virol. 12, 41-43.
    9. Rehacek, J. and Brzostowski, H.W. 1969. A tick tissue culture medium based on analyses of tick haemolymph. J. Insect Physiol. 15, 1431-1436.
    10. Varma, M.G.R. and Pudney, M. 1969. Tick cell culture: a review of recent work. Proceedings of the II International Congress of Acarology, Budapest, 1967, p367.
  • 1970s

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    1. Hoffmann, G., Schein, E. and Jagow, M. 1970. Untersuchungen an exstirpierten und in der Kultur gehaltenen Zeckengeweben. Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 21, 46-61.
    2. Rehacek, J. 1971. Present status of tick tissue culture. In:Arthropod Cell Cultures and their Application to the Study of Viruses (Weiss, ed), pp 32-41, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
    3. Hoffmann, G. 1972. Haltung babesieninfizierter Zeckengewebe in kunstlichem Nahrmedium. Z. Ang. Ent. 71, 26-34.
    4. Rehacek, J. 1972. Use of invertebrate cell culture for study of animal viruses and rickettsiae. In: Invertebrate Tissue Culture Vol II (Vago, ed), pp 279-320, Academic Press, New York.
    5. Eide, P.E. and Caldwell, J.M. 1973. A method for obtaining primary cultures of dispersed embryonic tissue from the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 66, 891-893.
    6. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1973. Culture of embryonic cells from the tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 10, 493-496.
    7. Rehacek, J. 1973. Maintaining of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, western subtype, in tick cells in vitro. In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp 439-443, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    8. Rehacek, J., Zupancicova, M., Brezina, R. and Urvolgyi, J. 1973. Use of primary tick tissue culture for propagation of rickettsiae of the RMSF group isolated in Slovakia. In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp 445-450, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    9. Varma, M.G.R. and Pudney, M. 1973. Culture of cells from the tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae). In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp135-141, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    10. Andreasen, M.P. 1974. Multiplication of Cowdria ruminantium in monolayer of tick cells. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 82, 455-456.
    11. Andreasen, M.P. 1974. Heartwater a study of in vitro and in vivo cultivation of Cowdria ruminantium. PhD thesis, University of Copenhagen.
    12. Cunningham., I. 1974. The cultivation of trypanosomes in arthropod tissue culture. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
    13. David-West, T. 1974. Propagation and plaquing of Dugbe virus (an ungrouped Nigerian arbovirus) in various mammalian and arthropod cell lines. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 44, 330-336.
    14. Fujisaki, K., Kitaoka, S. and Morii, T. 1975. Hemocyte types and their primary cultures in the argasid tick, Ornithodorus moubata Murray (Ixodoidea). Appl. Ent. Zool. 10, 30-39.
    15. Varma, M.G.R., Pudney, M. and Leake, C.J. 1975. The establishment of three cell lines from the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their infection with some arboviruses. J. Med. Entomol. 11, 698-706.
    16. Guru, P.Y., Dhanda, V. and Gupta, N.P. 1976. Cell cultures derived from the developing adults of three species of ticks, by a simplified technique. Indian J. Med. Res. 64, 1041-1045.
    17. Rehacek, J. 1976. Tick tissue culture and arboviruses. In: Invertebrate Tissue Culture Applications in Medicine, Biology and Agriculture (Kurstak and Maramorosch, eds), pp 21-33, Academic Press, New York.
    18. Banerjee, K., Guru, P.Y. and Dhanda, V. 1977. Growth of arboviruses in cell cultures derived from the tick Haemaphysalis spinigera. Indian J. Med. Res. 66, 530-536.
    19. Bhat, U.K.M. and Yunker, C.E. 1977. Establishment and characterization of a diploid cell line from the tick, Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae). J. Parasitol. 63, 1092-1098.
    20. Hadani, A., Kaufman, W. and Barnett, S.F. 1978. Development of Nuttalia danii (Protozoa: Babesidae) within tick salivary glands cultured in vitro. J. Parasitol. 64, 501-503.
    21. Moulton, J.E. 1978. Preparation of primary cultures of tick cells. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39, 1558-1564.
    22. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1978. The growth of some arboviruses in tick cell lines. In: Tick-borne Diseases and their Vectors (Wilde, ed), pp490-496, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh.
    23. Bhat, U.K.M. and Yunker, C.E. 1979. Susceptibility of a tick cell line (Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann) to infection with arboviruses. In: Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses (Kurstak, ed), pp 263-275, Academic Press, New York.
    24. Bhat, U.K.M., Mahoney, D.F. and Wright, I.G. 1979. The invasion and growth of Babesia bovis in tick tissue culture. Experientia 35, 752-753.
    25. Kurtti, T.J. and Buscher, G. 1979. Trends in tick cell culture. In: Practical Tissue Culture Applications (Maramorosch and Hirumi, eds), pp 351-371, Academic Press, New York.
    26. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1979. Establishment of cell lines from ixodid ticks. TCA Manual 5, 1003-1007.
    27. Pudney, M., Leake, C.J. and Varma, M.G.R. 1979. Replication of arboviruses in arthropod in vitro systems. In: Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses (Kurstak, ed), pp 245-262, Academic Press, New York.
    28. Yunker, C.E. and Meibos, H. 1979. Culture of embryonic tick cells (Acari: Ixodidae). TCA Manual 5, 1015-1017.
  • 1980s

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    1. Bell, L.J. 1980. Organ culture of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus with maturation of Theileria parva in tick salivary glands in vitro. Acta Trop. 37, 319-325.
    2. Holman, P.J. and Ronald, N.C. 1980. A new tick cell line derived from Boophilus microplus. Res. Vet. Sci. 29, 383-387.
    3. Leake, C.J., Pudney, M. and Varma, M.G.R. 1980. Studies on arboviruses in established tick cell lines. In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 327-335, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    4. Munz, E., Reimann, M., Munderloh, U. and Settele, U. 1980. The susceptibility of the tick cell line TTC 243 for Nairobi sheep disease virus and some other important species of mammalian RNA and DNA viruses. . In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 338-340, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    5. Pudney, M. 1980. The use of arthropod cell cultures for the in vitro study of filariae (Onchocerca sp.). In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 317-326, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    6. Drolesky, R.E., Holman, P.J. and Wagner, G.G. 1981. Babesia bovis infection of a tick cell line studied by electron microscopy. In Vitro 17, 209.
    7. Hadani, A. 1981. In vitro development of Babesia and Theileria parasites in organs and tissues of ticks. In: Babesiosis (Ristic and Kreier, eds), pp225-266, Academic Press, New York.
    8. Holman, P.J. 1981. Partial characterization of a unique female diploid cell strain from the tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 18, 84-88.
    9. Holman, P.J., Drolesky, R.E. and Wagner, G.G. 1981. Ultrastructural characterization of a cell line from the tick Boophilus microplus. In Vitro 17, 209.
    10. Rahman, M.H. 1981. The culture of embryonic cells from the tick Hyalomma rufipes rufipes (Koch, 1844). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 75, 573-574.
    11. Tully, J.G., Rose, D.L., Yunker, C.E., Cory, J., Whitcomb, R.F. and Williamson, D.L. 1981. Helical mycoplasmas (spiroplasmas) from Ixodes ticks.  Science 212, 1043-1045.
    12. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J. and Meibos, H. 1981. Continuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). In Vitro 17, 139-142.
    13. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J., Gresbrink, R.A., Thomas, L.A. and Clifford, C.M. 1981. Tickborne viruses in western North America III. Viruses from man-biting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Oregon. J. Med. Entomol. 18, 457-463.
    14. Brown, S.E. and Knudson, D.L. 1982. Isozyme analyses of dipteran and acarine cell lines. In Vitro 18, 347-350
    15. Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1982. Tick cell culture: characteristics, growth requirements and applications to parasitology. In: Invertebrate Cell Culture Applications (Maramorosch and Mitsuhashi, eds), pp195-232, Academic Press, New York.
    16. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Samish, M. 1982. Effect of medium supplements on tick cells in culture. J. Parasitol. 68, 930-935.
    17. Samish, M., Shkap, V., Pipano, E. and Bin, C. 1982. Cultivation of Besnoitia besnoiti in tick cell culture. J. Protozool. 29, 313.
    18. Bell, L.J. 1983. Development of Theileria in tick tissue culture. MPhil Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
    19. Drolesky, R.E., Holman, P.J., Craig, T.M., Wagner, G.G. and Mollenhauer, H.H. 1983. Ultrastructure of Babesia bovis sexual stages as observed in Boophilus microplus cell cultures. Res. Vet. Sci. 34, 249-251.
    20. Hess, W.R. 1983. The growth of African swine fever virus in arthropod cells. In: African Swine Fever, pp124-131. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
    21. Johnston, L.A.Y., Kemp, D.H. and Pearson, R.D. 1983. Feasibility of immunising cattle against Boophilus microplus. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. WAAVP, Perth, Australia, 1983, p77.
    22. Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1983. The effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone III on tick cells. J. Parasitol. 69, 1072-1078.
    23. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Stiller, D. 1983. The interaction of Babesia caballi kinetes with tick cells. J. Inv. Path. 42, 334-343.
    24. Bell, L.J. 1984. Tick tissue culture techniques in the study of arthropod-borne protozoa: the development of Theileria annulata in organ cultures of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. In: Acarology 6 Vol 2 (Griffiths and Bowman, eds), pp1089-1095, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester.
    25. Chunikhin, S.P., Khozinskaya, G.A., Stefutkina, L.E., Korolev, M.E. (1984). Mono- and mixed infection of explants of tissues of the ticks of the genus Hyalomma with viruses of tick-borne encephalitis and Povassan. Parazitologiya 18, 116-122.   
    26. Moss, S.R. and Nuttall, P.A. 1984. Isolation of orbiviruses and uukuviruses from puffin ticks. Acta Virol. 29, 158-161.
    27. Munz, E., Reimann, M. and Jager, H. 1984. Qualitative and quantitative detection of Nairobi sheep disease virus antigen by immunoperoxidase in BHK-, sheep kidney- and tick cell cultures. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 31, 231-239.
    28. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J. and Meibos, H. 1984. Tick tissue and cell culture: applications to research in medical and veterinary acarology and vector-borne disease. In: Acarology 6, Vol 2 (Griffiths and Bowman, eds), pp 1082-1088, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
    29. Khozinskaya, G.A., Chunikhin, S.P., Khozinsky, V.V. and Stefutkina, L.F. 1985. Variability of Powassan virus cultured in tissue explants and organism of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. Acta Virol. 29, 305-312.
    30. Samish, M., Louloudes, S.J., Vaughn, J.L., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1985. Promotion of tick cell growth by proline and fractions from tick eggs. Int. J. Parasitol. 15, 21-26.
    31. Wikel, S.K. 1985. Resistance to ixodid tick infestation induced by administration of tick-tissue culture cells. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 79, 513-518.
    32. Kamio, T., Mitsuhashi, J. and Fujisaki, K. 1986. Primary culture of developing adult tissue in a nymphal tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acarina: Ixodidae). Appl. Ent. Zool. 21, 394-398.
    33. Leake, C.J. 1987. Comparative growth of arboviruses in cell lines derived from Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and from the tick Boophilus microplus. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol II (Yunker, ed), pp 25-42, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    34. Munz, E., Reimann, M. and Mahnel, H. 1987. Nairobi sheep disease virus and Reovirus-like particles in the tick cell line TTC-243 from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: experiences with the handling of the tick cells, immunoperoxidase and ultrahistological studies. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 133-147, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    35. Nyindo, M., Shatry, A., Awiti, L.S., Chimtawi, M. and Hendricks, L.D. 1987. Leishmania donovani and L.major: cultivation in vitro in tick embryonic cell lines. Exp. Parasitol. 63, 240-242.
    36. Pudney, M. 1987. Tick cell lines for the isolation and assay of arboviruses. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 87-101, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    37. Rehacek, J. 1987. Arthropod cell cultures in studies of tick-borne togaviruses and orbiviruses in Central Europe. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 115-132, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    38. Samish, M., Shkap, V. and Pipano, E. 1987. Besnoita besnoiti: long term cultivation in tick cell lines. Exp. Parasitol. 64, 261-263.
    39. Schriefer, M.E., Beveridge, M., Sonenshine, D.E., Homsher, P.J., Carson, K.A. and Weidman, C.S. 1987. Evidence of ecdysteroid production by tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fat-body tissues in vitro. J. Med. Entomol. 24, 295-302.
    40. Yunker, C.E. 1987. Preparation and maintenance of arthropod cell cultures: Acari, with emphasis on ticks. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 35-51, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    41. Yunker, C.E., Tully, J.G. and Cory, J. 1987. Arthropod cell lines in the isolation and propagation of tickborne spiroplasmas. Curr. Microbiol. 15, 45-50.
    42. Homan, E.J. and Yunker, C.E. 1988. Growth of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses in poikilothermic cell systems. Vet. Microbiol. 16, 15-24.
    43. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Ahlstrand, G.G. 1988. Tick tissue and cell culture in vector research. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5, 87-109.
    44. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Ahlstrand, G.G. and Johnson, R.C. 1988. Borrelia burgdorferi in tick cell culture: growth and cellular adherence. J. Med. Entomol. 25, 256-261.
    45. Samish, M., Pipano, E. and Hana, B. 1988. Cultivation of Anaplasma marginale from cattle in a Dermacentor cell line. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49, 254-256.
    46. Samish, M., Shkap, V., Bin, H. and Pipano, E.M. 1988. Cultivation of Besnoitia besnoiti in four tick cell lines. Int. J. Parasitol. 18, 291-296.
    47. Yunker, C.E., Byrom, B. and Semu, S. 1988. Cultivation of Cowdria ruminantium in bovine vascular endothelial cells. Kenya Vet. 12, 12-17.
    48. Willadsen, P. and Kemp, D.H. 1988. Vaccination with “concealed” antigens for tick control. Parasitol. Today 4, 196-198.
    49. Hidalgo, R.J., Jones, E.W., Brown, J.E. and Ainsworth, A.J. 1989. Anaplasma marginale in tick cell culture. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50, 2028-2032.
    50. Hidalgo, R.J., Palmer, G.H., Jones, E.W., Brown, J.E. and Ainsworth, A.J. 1989. Infectivity and antigenicity of Anaplasma marginale from tick cell culture. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50, 2033-2036.
    51. Homsher, P.J., Mason, S.N., Beveridge, M.J., Waters, L., Sonenshine, D.E. and Wolfinbarger, L. 1989. Studies on the molecular and cytological characterization of Dermacentor variabilis tick cells in culture. In: Progress in Acarology Vol 1 (Channabasavanna, G.P., Viraktamath, C.A. eds), Proceedings of the VII International Congress of Acarology, Bangalore, August 1986, pp45-52. Oxford & JBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi/E.J. Brill, Leiden. 
    52. Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1989. Formulation of medium for tick cell culture. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7, 219-229.
    53. Varma, M.G.R. 1989. Progress in the study of human and animal pathogens in primary and established tick cell lines. In: Invertebrate Cell System Applications Vol II (Mitsuhashi, ed), pp 119-128, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton.
  • 1990s

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    1. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1991. Continuous cell lines from the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. J. Parasitol. 77, 1006-1008.
    2. Booth, T.F., Gould, E.A. and Nuttall, P.A. 1991. Structure and morphogenesis of Dugbe virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) studied by immunogold electron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections. Virus Res. 21, 199-212.
    3. Litchfield, T.M., Mackenzie, C.D. and Varma, M.G.R. 1991. The conditions required for the maintenance of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in vitro. Acta Trop. 48, 293-304.
    4. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1992. Some new tick cell lines for propagation of animal pathogens. Proceedings 1st International Conference on Tick-borne Pathogens at the Host-Vector Interface, St Paul, Mn, 1992, p 84.
    5. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1992. Tick tissue culture and Theileria. In: Proceedings of the Second EEC Workshop on Orientation and Coordination of Research on Tropical Theileriosis (Singh and Varshney, eds), pp 76-81, NDDB, Anand.
    6. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Krueger, D.E., Johnson, R.C. and Schwan, T.G. 1993. Adhesion to and invasion of cultured tick (Acari: Ixodidae) cells by Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) and maintenance of infectivity. J. Med. Ent. 30, 586-596.
    7. Munderloh, U.G., Park, D.Y., Dioh, J.M., Fallon, A.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1993. Plasmid modifications in a tick-borne pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, cocultured with tick cells. Insect Mol. Biol. 1, 195-203.
    8. Chen, C., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1994. Cytogenetic characteristics of cell lines from Ixodes scapularis. J. Med. Entomol. 31, 425-434.
    9. Munderloh, U.G., Liu, Y., Wang, M., Chen, C. and Kurtti, T.J. 1994. Establishment, maintenance and description of cell lines from the tick Ixodes scapularis. J. Parasitol. 80, 533-543.
    10. Ewing, S.A., Munderloh, U.G., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1995. Ehrlichia canis in tick cell culture. In “Proceedings of the 76th Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases”, Chicago, USA, 13-14 November 1995. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, abstract no. 165.
    11. Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1995. Cellular and molecular interrelationships between ticks and prokaryotic tick-borne pathogens. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 40, 221-243.
    12. Goodman, J.L., Nelson, C., Vitale, B., Madigan, J.E., Dumler, J.S., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1996. Direct cultivation of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. New Eng. J. Med. 334, 209-215.
    13. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Andreadis, T.G., Magnarelli, L.A. and Mather, T.N. 1996. Tick cell culture isolation of an intracellular prokaryote from the tick Ixodes scapularis. J. Inv. Path. 67, 318-321.
    14. Munderloh, U.G., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M., Ge, N.L., Edwards, W.L. and Kurtti, T.J. 1996. Establishment of the tick (Acari: Ixodidae)-borne cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in tick cell culture. J. Med. Entomol. 33, 656-664.
    15. Munderloh, U.G., Madigan, J.E., Dumler, S., Goodman, J.L., Hayes, S.F., Barlough, J.E., Nelson, C.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1996. Isolation of the equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Ehrlichia equi, in tick cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34. 664-670.
    16. Niebylski, M.L., Peacock, M.G., Fischer, E.R., Porcella, S.F. and Schwan, T.G. 1997. Characterization of an endosymbiont infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, as a member of the genus Francisella. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 3933-3940.
    17. Noda, H., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1997. Endosymbionts of ticks and their relationship to Wolbachia spp. and tick-borne pathogens of humans and animals. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 63, 3926-3932.
    18. Policastro, P.F., Munderloh, U.G., Fischer, E.R. and Hackstadt, T. 1997. Rickettsia rickettsii growth and temperature-inducible protein expression in embryonic tick cell lines. J. Med. Microbiol. 46, 839-845.
    19. Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. Morphology and development of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in cultured Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) cells. J. Med. Entomol. 35, 788-797.
    20. Blouin, E.F., Saliki, J.T., Kocan, K.M. and Rodgers, S.J. 1998. Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale from tick cell culture as an immunogen for cattle. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 849, 253-258.
    21. Brown, W.C., Zhu, D., Shkap, V., McGuire, T.C., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M. and Palmer, G.H. 1998. The repertoire of Anaplasma marginale antigens recognized by CD4+ T-lymphocyte clones from protectively immunized cattle is diverse and includes major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) and MSP-3. Infect. Immun. 66, 5414-5422.
    22. Kopecky, J. and Stankova, I. 1998. Interaction of virulent and attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus strains in ticks and a tick cell line. Fol. Parassitol. 45, 245-250.
    23. Munderloh, U.G., Hayes, S.F., Cummings, J. and Kurtti, T.J. 1998. Microscopy of spotted fever rickettsia movement through tick cells. Microscop. Microanal. 4, 115-121.
    24. Rodgers, S.J., Saliki, J.T., Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. The development of a semi-automated latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to Anaplasma marginale using a cell culture-derived antigen. Ann. N.Y.Acad. Sci. 849, 282-292.
    25. Saliki, J.T., Blouin, E.F., Rodgers, S.J. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. Use of tick cell culture-derived Anaplasma marginale antigen in a competitive ELISA for serodiagnosis of anaplasmosis. Ann N.Y. Acad. Sci 849, 273-281.
    26. Barbet, A.F., Blentlinger, R., Yi, J., Lundgren, A.M., Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 1999. Comparison of surface proteins of Anaplasma marginale grown in tick cell culture, tick salivary glands, and cattle. Infect. Immun. 67, 102-107.
    27. Munderloh, U.G., Jauron, S.D., Fingerle, V., Leitritz, L., Hayes, S.F., Hautman, J.M., Nelson, C.M., Huberty, B.W., Kurtti, T.J., Ahlstrand, G.G., Greig, B., Mellencamp, M.A. and Goodman, J.L. 1999. Invasion and intracellular development of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in tick cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 2518-2524.
    28. Obonyo, M., Munderloh, U.G., Fingerle, V., Wilske, B. and Kurtti, T.J. 1999. Borrelia burgdorferi in tick cell culture modulates expression of outer surface proteins A and C in response to temperature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 2137-2141.
    29. Rurangirwa, F.R., Stiller, D., French, D. and Palmer, G.H. 1999. Restriction of major surface protein 2 (MSP2) variants during tick transmission of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale. Proc. Natl  Acad. Sci. USA 96, 3171-3176.
  • 2000s

    open-content-icon
    1. Bell-Sakyi, L., Paxton, E.A., Munderloh, U.G. and Sumption, K.J. 2000. Growth of Cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, in a tick cell line. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, 1238-1240.
    2. Bell-Sakyi, L., Paxton, E.A., Munderloh, U.G. and Sumption, K.J. 2000. Morphology of Cowdria ruminantium grown in two tick cell lines. In: Proceedings of the 3rd  International Conference “Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens: Into the 21st Century”, M. Kazimirova, M. Labuda, P.A. Nuttall (eds), Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp 131-137.
    3. Blouin, E.F., Barbet, A.F., Yi, J., Kocan, K.M. and Saliki, J.T. 2000. Establishment and characterization of an Oklahoma isolate of Anaplasma marginale in cultured Ixodes scapularis cells. Vet. Parasitol. 87, 301-313.
    4. Attoui, H., Stirling, J.M., Munderloh, U.G., Billoir, F., Brookes, S.M., Burroughs, J.N., de Micco, P., Mertens, P.P.C. and de Lamballerie, X. 2001. Complete sequence characterization of the genome of the St Croix River virus, a new orbivirus isolated from cells of Ixodes scapularis. J. Gen. Virol. 82, 795-804.
    5. de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J., Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 2001. Differential adhesion of major surface proteins 1a and 1b of the ehrlichial cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale to bovine erythrocytes and tick cells. Int. J. Parasitol. 31, 145-153.
    6. Jauron, S.D., Nelson, C.M., Fingerle, V., Ravyn, M.D., Goodman, J.L., Johnson, R.C., Lobentanzer, R., Wilske, B. and Munderloh, U.G. 2001. Host cell-specific expression of a p44 epitope by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. J. Infect. Dis. 184, 1445-1450.
    7. Kocan, K.M., Halbur, T., Blouin, E.F., Onet, V., de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J. and Saliki, J.T. 2001. Immunization of cattle with Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture. Vet. Parasitol. 102, 151-161.
    8. Simser, J.A., Palmer, A.T., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 2001. Isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia peacockii, in a Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, cell line. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 67, 546-552.
    9. Bekker, C.P.J., Bell-Sakyi, L., Paxton, E.A., Martinez, D., Bensaid, A. and Jongejan, F. 2002. Transcriptional analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of Cowdria ruminantium. Gene 285, 193-201.
    10. Bell-Sakyi, L., Paxton, E., Wright, P. and Sumption, K. 2002. Immunogenicity of Ehrlichia ruminantium grown in tick cell lines. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 28, 177-185.
    11. Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M., de la Fuente, J. and Saliki, J.T. 2002. Effect of tetracycline on development of Anaplasma marginale in cultured Ixodes scapularis cells. Vet. Parasitol. 107, 115-126.
    12. Blouin, E.F., de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J., Sauer, J.R., Saliki, J.T. and Kocan, K.M. 2002. Applications of a cell culture system for studying the interaction of Anaplasma marginale with tick cells. Anim. Hlth Res. Rev. 3, 57-68.
    13. Bugrysheva, J., Dobrikova, E.Y., Godfrey, H.P., Sartakova, M.L. and Cabello, F.C. 2002. Modulation of Borrelia burgdorferi stringent response and gene expression during extracellular growth with tick cells. Infect. Immun. 70, 3061-3067.
    14. Cossio-Bayugar, R., Wagner, G.G. and Holman, P.J. 2002. In vitro generation of organophosphate resistant Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) cell lines. J. Med. Entomol. 39, 278-284.
    15. Cossio-Bayugar, R., Barhoumi, R., Burghardt, R.C., Wagner, G.G. and Holman, P.J. 2002. Basal cellular alterations of esterase, glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, intracellular calcium, and membrane potentials in coumaphos-resistant Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) cell lines. Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 72, 1-9.
    16. de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J., Blouin, E.F., Saliki, J.T. and Kocan, K.M. 2002. Infection of tick cells and bovine erythrocytes with one genotype of the intracellular ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale excludes infection with other genotypes. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9, 658-668.
    17. de la Fuente, J., Kocan, K.M., Garcia-Garcia, J.C., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L. and Saliki, J.T. 2002. Vaccination of cattle with Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture and bovine erythrocytes followed by challenge-exposure with infected ticks. Vet. Microbiol. 89, 239-251.
    18. Kocan, K.M., de la Fuente, J., Blouin, E.F. and Garcia-Garcia, J.C. 2002. Adaptations of the tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, for survival in cattle and ticks. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 28, 9-25.
    19. Lohr, C.V., Brayton, K.A., Shkap, V., Molad, T., Barbet, A.F., Brown, W.C. and Palmer, G.H. 2002. Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 operon-associated proteins during mammalian and arthropod infection. Infect. Immun. 70, 6005-6012.
    20. Postigo, M., Bell-Sakyi, L., Paxton, E. and Sumption, K. 2002. Kinetics of experimental infection of sheep with Ehrlichia ruminantium cultivated in tick and mammalian cell lines. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 28, 187-193.
    21. Simser, J.A., Palmer, A.T., Fingerle, V., Wilske, B., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2002. Rickettsia monacensis sp. nov., a spotted fever group rickettsia, from ticks (Ixodes ricinus) collected in a European city park. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 68, 4559-4566.
    22. Woldehiwet, Z., Horrocks, B.K., Scaife, H., Ross, G., Munderloh, U.G., Bown, K., Edwards, S.W. and Hart, C.A. 2002. Cultivation of an ovine strain of Ehrlichia phagocytophila in tick cell cultures. J. Comp. Pathol. 127, 142-149.
    23. Almazan, C., Kocan, K.M., Bergman, D.K., Garcia-Garcia, J.C., Blouin, E.F. and de la Fuente, J. 2003. Identification of protective antigens for the control of Ixodes scapularis infestations using cDNA expression library immunization. Vaccine 21, 1492-1501.
    24. Barbet, A.F., Meeus, P.F.M., Belanger, M., Bowie, M.V., Yi, J., Lundgren, A.M., Alleman, A.R., Wong, S.J., Chu, F.K., Munderloh, U.G. and Jauron, S.D. 2003. Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infect. Immun. 71, 1706-1718.
    25. Blouin, E.F., Saliki, J.T., de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J. and Kocan, K.M. 2003. Antibodies to Anaplasma marginale major surface proteins 1a and 1b inhibit infectivity for cultured tick cells. Vet. Parasitol. 111, 247-260.
    26. de la Fuente, J., Kocan, K.M., Garcia-Garcia, J.C., Blouin, E.F., Halbur, T. and Onet, V. 2003. Immunization against Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a reduces infectivity for ticks. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 1, 285-292.
    27. Mosqueda, J., Ramos, J.A., Salto, M. and Cossio-Bayugar, R. 2003. In vitro infection of Babesia bigemina kinetes to Boophilus microplus embryonic cells. Proc. V Int. Seminar Anim. Parasitol., Oct 1-3 2003, Merida, Mexico, pp240-247.
    28. Munderloh, U.G., Tate, C.M., Lynch, M.J., Howerth, E.W., Kurtti, T.J. and Davidson, W.R. 2003. Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. organism from white-tailed deer by tick cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 4328-4335.
    29. Baldridge, G.D., Burkhardt, N.Y., Simser, J.A., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2004. Sequence and expression analysis of the ompA gene of Rickettsia peacockii, an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 70, 6628-6636.
    30. Bell-Sakyi, L. 2004. Ehrlichia ruminantium grows in cell lines from four ixodid tick genera. J. Comp. Pathol. 130, 285-293.
    31. Bell-Sakyi, L. 2004. Epidemiology of heartwater in Ghana and growth of Ehrlichia ruminantium in tick cell lines. PhD thesis, Utrecht University.
    32. de la Fuente, J., Garcia-Garcia, J., Barbet, A.F., Blouin, E.F., and Kocan, K.M. 2004. Adhesion of outer membrane proteins containing tandem repeats of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) to tick cells. Vet. Microbiol. 98, 313-322.
    33. Garcia-Garcia, J., de la Fuente, J., Blouin, E.F., Johnson, T.J., Halbur, T., Onet, V.C., Saliki, J.T. and Kocan, K.M. 2004. Differential expression of the msp1α gene of Anaplasma marginale occurs in bovine erythrocytes and tick cells. Vet. Microbiol. 98, 261-272.
    34. Garcia-Garcia, J., de la Fuente, J., Bell-Eunice, G., Blouin, E.F., and Kocan, K.M. 2004. Glycosylation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its putative role in adhesion to tick cells. Infect. Immun. 72, 3022-3030.
    35. Garcia-Garcia, J., de la Fuente, J., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Halbur, T., Onet, V.C. and Saliki, J.T. 2004. Mapping of B-cell epitopes in the N-terminal repeated peptides of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and characterization of the humoral immune response of cattle immunized with recombinant and whole organism antigens. Vet. Immunol. Immunopath. 98, 137-151.
    36. Lawrie, C.H., Uzcategui, N.Y., Armesto, M., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Gould, E.A. 2004. Susceptibility of mosquito and tick cell lines to infection with various flaviviruses. Med. Vet. Entomol. 18, 268-274.
    37. Munderloh, U.G., Lynch. M.J., Herron, M.J., Palmer, A.T., Kurtti, T.J., Nelson, R.D. and Goodman, J.L. 2004. Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet. Microbiol. 101, 53-64.
    38. Senigl, F., Kopecky, J. and Grubhoffer, L. 2004. Distribution of E and NS1 proteins of TBE virus in mammalian and tick cells. Folia Microbiol. 49, 213-216.
    39. Simser, J.A., Macaluso, K.R., Mulenga, A. and Azad, A.F. 2004. Immune-responsive lysozymes from hemocytes of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis and an embryonic cell line of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, D.andersoni. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34, 1235-1246. 
    40. Varela, A.S., Luttrell, M.P., Howerth, E.W., Moore, V.A., Davidson, W.R., Stallknecht, D.E. and Little, S.E. 2004. First culture isolation of Borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 1163-1169.
    41. Baldridge, G.D., Burkhardt, N.Y., Herron, M.J., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2005. Analysis of fluorescent protein expression in transformants of Rickettsia monacensis, an obligate intracellular tick symbiont. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 71, 2095-2105.
    42. Baldridge, G.D., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2005. Susceptibility of Rickettsia monocensis and Rickettsia peacockii to cecropin A, ceratotoxin A, and lysozyme. Curr. Microbiol. 51, 233-238.
    43. Barbet, A.F., Agnes, J.T., Moreland, A.L., Lundgren, A.M., Alleman, A.R., Noh, S.M., Brayton, K.A., Munderloh, U.G. and Palmer, G.H. 2005. Identification of functional promoters in the msp2 expression loci of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Gene 353, 89-97.
    44. Bekker, C.P.J., Postigo, M., Taoufik, A., Bell-Sakyi, L., Ferraz, C., Martinez, D. and Jongejan, F. 2005. Transcription analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of three in vitro-cultured Ehrlichia ruminantium isolates. J. Bacteriol. 187, 4782-4791.
    45. Cossio-Bayugar, R., Miranda, E and Holman, P.J. 2005. Molecular cloning of a phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase gene from the tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35, 1378-1387.
    46. Garcia, S., Billecocq, A., Crance, J-M., Munderloh, U.G., Garin, D. and Bouloy, M. 2005. Nairovirus RNA sequences expressed by a Semliki Forest virus replicon induce RNA interference in tick cells. J. Virol. 79, 8942-8947.
    47. Kurtti, T.J., Simser, J.A., Baldridge, G.D., Palmer, A.T. and Munderloh, U.G. 2005. Factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of Rickettsia peacockii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari, Ixodidae). J. Invert. Path. 90, 177-186.
    48. Singu, V., Liu, H., Cheng, C. and Ganta, R.R. 2005. Ehrlichia chaffeensis expresses macrophage- and tick cell-specific 28-kilodalton outer membrane proteins. Infect. Immun. 73, 79-87.
    49. Tate, C.M., Mead, D.G., Luttrell, M.P., Howerth, E.W., Dugan, V.G., Munderloh, U.G. and Davidson, W.R. 2005. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etiologic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43, 3595-3601.
    50. Woldehiwet, Z. and Horrocks, B.K. 2005. Antigenicity of ovine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum grown in tick cells and ovine granulocytes. J. Comp. Pathol. 132, 322-328.
    51. Bastos, C.V., das Vasconcelos, M.M.C., Ribeiro, M.F.B. and Passos, L.M.F. 2006. Use of refrigeration as a practical means to preserve viability of in vitro-cultured IDE8 tick cells. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 39, 347-352.
    52. Felsheim, R.F., Herron, M.J., Nelson, C.M., Burkhardt, N.Y., Barbet, A.F., Kurtti, T.J. and  Munderloh, U.G. 2006. Transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. BMC Biotechnol. DOI: 1186/1472-6750-6-42.
    53. Garcia, S., A. Billecocq, J. M. Crance, M. Prins, D. Garin, and M. Bouloy. 2006. Viral suppressors of RNA interference impair RNA silencing induced by a Semliki Forest virus replicon in tick cells. J Gen Virol 87, 1985-1989.
    54. Kurtti, T.J., Felsheim, R.F., Mattila, J.T., Baldridge, G.D., Burkhardt, N.Y. and Munderloh, U.G. 2006. Stable transformation of a tick (Ixodes scapularis) cell line with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. Soc. In Vitro Biol. J. 42, 32-A
    55. Massung, R.F., Levin, M.L., Munderloh, U.G., Silverman, D.J., Lynch, M.J. and Kurtti, T.J. 2006. Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum strain AP-Variant 1 in a tick-derived cell line. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078, 541-544.
    56. Mattila, J.T., Baldridge, G.D., Felsheim, R.F., Burkhardt, N.Y., Munderloh, U.G. and  Kurtti, T.J. 2006. RNAi-mediated silencing of a DsRed2-expressing Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) cell line. In Vitro Biol. J. 42, 32-A
    57. Morimoto, S., Kurtti, T.J. and Noda, H. 2006. In vitro cultivation and antibiotic susceptibility of a Cytophaga- like intracellular symbiote isolated from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Curr. Microbiol. 52, 324-329.
    58. Noh, S.M., Brayton, K.A., Knowles, D.P., Agnes, J.T., Dark, M.J., Brown, W.C., Baszler, T.V. and Palmer, G.H. 2006. Differential expression and sequence conservation of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 gene superfamily outer membrane proteins. Infect. Immun. 74, 3471-3479.
    59. Pornwiroon, W., Pourciau, S.S., Foil, L.D. and Macaluso, K.R. 2006. Rickettsia felis from cat fleas: isolation and culture in a tick-derived cell line. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 72, 5589-5595.
    60. Senigl, F., Grubhoffer, L. and Kopecky, J. 2006. Differences in maturation of tick-borne encephalitis virus in mammalian and tick cell line. Intervirology 49, 239-248.
    61. Singu, V., Peddireddi, L., Sirigireddy, K.R., Cheng, C., Munderloh, U. and Ganta, R.R. 2006. Unique macrophage and tick cell-specific protein expression from the p28/p30-outer membrane protein multigene locus in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. Cell. Microbiol. 8, 1475-1487
    62. Zweygarth, E., Josemans, A.I., Spickett, A.M., Steyn, H.C., Putterill, J., Troskie, P.C., Mtshali, M.S., Bell-Sakyi, L., Shkap, V., Fish, L., Kocan, K.M. and Blouin, E.F. 2006. In vitro cultivation of a South African isolate of an Anaplasma sp. in tick cell cultures. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 73, 251-255.
    63. Bastos, C.V., Vasconcelos, M.M.C., Ribeiro, M.F.B. and Passos, L.M.F. 2007. In vitro maintenance of IDE8 cells using two types of bovine serum. Arq. Brasil. Med. Vet. Zootec. 59, 543-546.
    64. Bell-Sakyi, L., Zweygarth, E., Blouin, E.F., Gould, E.A. and Jongejan, F. 2007. Tick cell lines: tools for tick and tick-borne disease research. Trends Parasitol.  23, 450-457
    65. Cossio-Bayugar, R. and Miranda-Miranda, E. 2007. Heterologus gene expression in a cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell culture. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 6, 1214-1218.
    66. de la Fuente, J., Blouin, E.F., Manzano-Roman, R., Naranjo, V., Almazán, C., Perez de la Lastra, J.M., Zivkovic, Z., Jongejan, F. and Kocan, K.M. 2007. Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Genomics 90: 712-722.
    67. Ganta, R.R., Cheng, C., Miller, E.C., McGuire, B.L., Peddireddi, L., Sirigireddy, K.R. and Chapes, S.K. 2007. Differential clearance and immune responses to tick cell-derived versus macrophage culture-derived Ehrlichia chaffeensis in mice. Infect. Immun. 75, 135-145.
    68. Massung, R.F., Levin, M.L., Munderloh, U.G., Silverman, D.J., Lynch, M.J., Gaywee, J.K. and Kurtti, T.J. 2007. Isolation and propagation of the AP-Variant 1 strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a tick cell line. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45, 2138-2143.
    69. Mattila, J.T., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 2007. Phagocytosis of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, by cells of the ticks, Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor andersoni, infected with an endosymbiont, Rickettsia peacockii. J. Insect Sci. 7, 58, available online: insectscience.org/7.58.
    70. Mattila, J.T., Burkhardt, N.Y., Hutcheson, H.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 2007. Isolation of cell lines and a rickettsial endosymbiont from the soft tick Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae: Ornithodorinae). J. Med. Entomol. 44, 1091-1101.
    71. Mattila, J.T., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 2007. Rickettsia peacockii, an endosymbiont of Dermacentor andersoni, does not elicit or inhibit humoral immune responses from immunocompetent D. andersoni or Ixodes scapularis cell lines. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 31, 1095-1106.
    72. Munderloh, U.G., Yabsley, M.J., Murphy, S.M., Luttrell, M.P. and Howerth, E.W. 2007. Isolation and establishment of the raccoon Ehrlichia-like agent in tick cell culture. Vector-borne Zoonot. Dis. 7, 418-425. doi:10.1089/vbz.2007.0640
    73. Blouin, E.F., Manzano-Roman, R., de la Fuente, J. and Kocan, K.M. 2008. Defining the role of subolesin in tick cell culture by use of RNA interference. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1149, 41-44.
    74. de la Fuente, J., Blouin, E.F., Manzano-Roman, R., Naranjo, V., Almazan, C., Perez de la Lastra, J.M., Zivkovic, Z., Massung, R.F., Jongejan. F. and Kocan, K.M. 2008. Differential expression of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, in Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum infected host cells. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1149, 27-35.
    75. Esteves, E., Lara, F.A., Lorenzini, D.M., Costa, G.H.N., Fukuzawa, A.H., Pressinotti, L.N., Silva, J.R.M.C., Ferro, J.A., Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Daffre, S. 2008. Cellular and molecular characterization of an embryonic cell line (BME26) from the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38, 568-580.
    76. Kurtti, T.J. and Keyhani, N.O. 2008. Intracellular infection of tick cell lines by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Microbiology 154, 1700-1709.
    77. Kurtti, T.J., Mattila, J.T., Herron, M.J., Felsheim, R.F., Baldridge, G.D., Burkhardt, N.Y., Blazar, B.R., Hackett, P.B., Meyer, J.M. and Munderloh, U.G. 2008. Transgene expression and silencing in a tick cell line: A model system for functional tick genomics. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 963-968.
    78. Mitzel, D.N., Best, S.M., Masnick, M.F., Porcella, S.F., Wolfinbarger, J.B. and Bloom, M.E. 2008. Identification of genetic determinants of a tick-borne flavivirus associated with host-specific adaptation and pathogenicity. Virology 381, 268-276.
    79. Mosqueda, J., Cossio-Bayugar, R., Rodriguez, E., Falcon, A., Ramos, A., Figueroa, J.V. and Alvarez, A. 2008. Primary midgut, salivary gland, and ovary cultures from Boophilus microplus. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1149, 49-52.
    80. Nelson, C.M., Herron, M.J., Felsheim, R.F., Schloeder, B.R., Grindle, S.M., Chavez, A.O., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2008. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis. BMC Genomics 9, 364.
    81. Noh, S.M., Brayton, K.A., Brown, W.C., Norimine, J., Munske, G.R., Davitt, C.M. and Palmer, G.H. 2008. Composition of the surface proteome of Anaplasma marginale and its role in protective immunity induced by outer membrane immunization. Infect. Immun. 76, 2219-2226.
    82. Postigo, M., Taoufik, A., Bell-Sakyi, L., Bekker, C. P. J., de Vries, E., Morrison W. I. and Jongejan, F. 2008. Host cell-specific protein expression in vitro in Ehrlichia ruminantium. Vet. Microbiol. 128, 136-147.
    83. Ruzek, D., Bell-Sakyi, L., Kopecky, J. and Grubhoffer, L. 2008. Growth of tick-borne encephalitis virus (European subtype) in cell lines from vector and non-vector ticks. Virus Res. 137, 142-146.
    84. Seo, G., Cheng, C., Tomich, J. and Ganta, R.R. 2008. Total, membrane, and immunogenic proteomes of macrophage- and tick cell-derived Ehrlichia chaffeensis evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectometry and MALDI-TOF methods. Infect. Immun. 76, 4823-4832.
    85. Sunyakumthorn, P., Bourchookarn, A., Pornwiroon, W., David, C., Barker, S.A. and Macaluso, K.R. 2008. Characterization and growth of polymorphic Rickettsia felis in a tick cell line. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 74, 3151-3158.
    86. Yabsley, M.J., Murphy, S.M., Luttrell, M.P., Wilcox, B.R. and Ruckdeschel, C. 2008. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), but not rodents, are natural and experimental hosts for an ehrlichial organism related to “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”. Vet. Microbiol. 131, 301-308.
    87. Yoshii, K., Goto, A., Kawakami, K., Kariwa, H. and Takashima, I. 2008. Construction and application of chimeric virus-like particles of tick-borne encephalitis virus and mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 89, 200-211.
    88. Zweygarth, E., Josemans, A.I. and Steyn, H.C. 2008. In vitro isolation of Ehrlichia ruminantium from ovine blood into Ixodes scapularis (IDE8) cell cultures. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 75, 121-126.
    89. Bao, W., Kumagai, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Miura, K. and Rikihisa, Y. 2009. Four virB6 paralogs and virB9 are expressed and interact in Ehrlichia chaffeensis-containing vacuoles. J. Bacteriol. 191, 278-286.
    90. Bastos, C.V., Passos, L.M.F., Vasconcelos, M.M.C. and Ribeiro, M.F.B. 2009. In vitro establishment and propagation of a Brazilian strain of Anaplasma marginale with appendage in IDE8 (Ixodes scapularis) cells. Brazilian J. Microbiol. 40, 399-403.
    91. Bell-Sakyi, L., Ruzek, D. and Gould, E.A. 2009. Continuous cell lines from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 49, 209-219.
    92. Billeter, S.A., Diniz, P.P.V.P., Battisti, J.M., Munderloh, U.G., Breitschwerdt, E.B. and Levy, M.G. 2009. Infection and replication of Bartonella species within a tick cell line. Exp. Appl. Acarol. DOI 10.1007/s10493-009-9255-1
    93. de Abreu, L.A., Fabres, A., Esteves, E., Masuda, A., Vaz, I.S., Daffre, S. and Logullo, C. 2009. Exogenous insulin stimulates glycogen accumulation in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus embryo cell line BME26 via P13K/AKT pathway. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B 153, 185-190.
    94. Esteves, E., Bastos, C.V., Zivkovic, Z., de la Fuente, J., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Ribeiro, M.F.B., Passos, L.M.F. and Daffre, S. 2009. Propagation of a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale with appendage in a tick cell line (BME26) derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vet. Parasitol. 161, 150-153.
    95. Felsheim, R.F., Oliva Chavez, A.S., Palmer, G.H., Crosby, L., Barbet, A.F., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2009. Transformation of Anaplasma marginale, Vet. Parasitol. 167, 167-174.
    96. Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Valle, M.R., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G., Guerrero, F.D., Barrero, R.A. and Bellgard, M.I. 2009. Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Molec. Biol. 10, 26.
    97. Munderloh, U.G., Silverman, D.J., MacNamara, K.C., Ahlstrand, G.G., Chatterjee, M. and Winslow, G.M. 2009. Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia exhibits unique ultrastructural characteristics in mammalian endothelial and tick-derived cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1166, 112-119.
    98. Peddireddi, L., Cheng, C. and Ganta, R.R. 2009. Promoter analysis of macrophage- and tick cell-specific differentially expressed Ehrlichia chaffeensis p28-Omp genes. BMC Microbiol. 9, 99.
    99. Ribeiro, M.F.B., Bastos, C.V., Vasconcelos, M.M.C. and Passos, L.M.F. 2009. Babesia bigemina: In vitro multiplication of sporokinetes in Ixodes scapularis (IDE8) cells. Exp. Parasitol. 122, 192-195.
    100.  Schrauf, S., Mandl, C.W., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Skern, T. 2009. Extension of flavivirus protein C differentially affects early RNA synthesis and growth in mammalian and arthropod host cells. J. Virol. 83, 11201-11210.
    101. Socolovschi, C., Mediannikov, O., Raoult, D. and Parola, P. 2009. The relationship between spotted fever group Rickettsiae and ixodid ticks. Vet. Res. 40, 34.
    102. Uchiyama, T., Ogawa, M., Kishi, M., Yamashita, T., Kishimoto, T. and Kurane, I. 2009. Restriction of the growth of typhus group rickettsiae in tick cells. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15 (Suppl 2), 332-333.
    103. Zivkovic, Z., Blouin, E.F., Manzano-Roman, R., Almazan, C., Naranjo, V., Massung, R.F., Jongejan, F., Kocan, K.M., and de la Fuente, J. 2009. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale elicit different gene expression responses in cultured tick cells. Comp. Funct. Genomics Vol 2009, Article ID 705034, doi:10.1155/2009/705034
  • 2010s

    open-content-icon
    1. Baldridge, G.D., Burkhardt, N.Y., Labruna, M.B., Pacheco, R.C., Paddock, C.D., Williamson, P.C., Billingsley, P.M., Felsheim, R.F., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 2010. Low copy number plasmids are widely dispersed in Rickettsia species associated with blood-feeding arthropods and may have multiple origins. Appl. Env. Microbiol.  doi:10.1128/AEM.02988-09
    2. de la Fuente, J., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Zivkovic, Z., Naranjo, V., Almazan, C., Esteves, E., Jongejan, F., Daffre, S. and Mangold, A.J. 2010. Functional genomics and evolution of tick-Anaplasma interactions and vaccine development. Vet. Parasitol. 167, 175-186.
    3. Herrin, B., Mahapatra, S., Blouin, E.F. and Shaw, E.I. 2010. Growth of Coxiella burnetii in the Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 tick cell line. Vector-borne Zoonot. Dis. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0126
    4. Huang, B., Troese, M.J., Howe, D., Ye, S., Sims, J.T., Heinzen, R.A., Borjesson, D.L. and Carlyon, J.T. 2010. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH_0032 is expressed late during infection and localizes to the pathogen-occupied vacuolar membrane. Microbial. Pathogenesis 49, 273-284.
    5. Huang, B., Troese, M.J., Ye, S., Sims, J.T., Galloway, N.L., Borjesson, D.L. and Carlyon, J.T. 2010. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH_1387 is expressed throughout bacterial intracellular development and localizes to the pathogen-occupied vacuolar membrane. Infect. Immun. 78, 1864-1873.
    6. Lallinger, G., Zweygarth, E., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Passos, L.M.F. 2010. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines. Parasites Vectors 3:37.
    7. Mediannikov, O., Fenollar, F., Socolovschi, C., Diatta, G., Bassene, H., Molez, J-F., Sokhna, C., Trape, J-F. and Raoult, D. 2010. Coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural Senegal. PLOS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4(4) e654.
    8. Meyer, J.M., Kurtti, T.J., van Zee, J.P. and Hill, C.A. 2010. Genome organization of major tandem repeats in the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Chromosome Res. DOI 10.1007/s10577-010-9120-4
    9. Pedra, J.H.F., Narasimhan, S., Rendic, D., DePonte, K., Bell-Sakyi, L., Wilson, I.B.H. and Fikrig, E. 2010. Fucosylation enhances colonization of ticks by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Cell. Microbiol. 12, 1222-1234.
    10. Ramabu, S.S., Ueti, M.W., Brayton, K.A., Baszler, T.V. and Palmer, G.H. 2010. Identification of Anaplasma marginale proteins specifically upregulated during colonization of the tick vector. Infect. Immun. 78, 3047-3052.
    11. Sultana, H., Neelakanta, G., Kantor, F.S., Malawista, S.E., Fish, D., Montgomery, R.R. and Fikrig, E. 2010. Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces actin phosphorylation to selectively regulate gene transcription in Ixodes scapularis ticks. J. Exp. Med. 207, 1727-1743.
    12. Thepparit, C., Bourchookarn, A., Petchampai, N., Barker, S.A. and Macaluso, K.R. 2010. Interaction of Rickettsia felis with histone H2B facilitates the infection of a tick cell line. Microbiology 156, 2855-2863.
    13. Villar, M., Ayllon, N., Busby, A.T., Galindo, R.C., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M., Bonzon-Kulichenko, E., Zivkovic, Z., Almazan, C., Torina, A., Vazquez, J. and de la Fuente, J. 2010. Expression of heat shock and other stress response proteins in ticks and cultured tick cells in response to Anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock. Int. J. Proteomics 2010, 657261
    14. Woldehiwet, Z. 2010. In-vitro studies on the susceptibility of ovine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to antimicrobial agents and to immune serum. J. Comp. Pathol. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.01.005
    15.  Zivkovic, Z., Esteves, E., Almazan, C., Daffre, S., Nijhof, A.M., Kocan, K.M., Jongejan, F. and de la Fuente, J. 2010. Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale. BMC Genomics 11, 186, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/186
    16. Engel, A.R., Mitzel, D.N., Hanson, C.T., Wolfinbarger, J.B., Bloom, M.E. and Pletnev, A.G. 2011. Chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus is attenuated in Ixodes scapularis ticks and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Vector-borne Zoonot. Dis. 11, 665-674.
    17. Gaumann, R., Ruzek, D., Muhlemann, K., Strasser, M. and Beuret, C.M. 2011. Phylogenetic and virulence analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus field isolates from Switzerland. J. Med. Virol. 83, 853-863.
    18. Huang, B., Ojogun, N., Ragland, S.A. and Carlyon, J.A. 2011. Monoubiquitinated proteins decorate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 64, 32-41.
    19. Kuriakose, J.A., Miyashiro, S., Luo, T., Zhu, B. and McBride, J.W. 2011. Ehrlichia chaffeensis transcriptome in mammalian and arthropod hosts reveals differential gene expression and post transcriptional regulation. PloS ONE 6(9): e24136. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024136
    20. Liu, L., Narasimhan, S., Dai, J., Zhang, L., Cheng, G. and Fikrig, E. 2011. Ixodes scapularis salivary protein P11 facilitates migration of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the tick gut to salivary glands. EMBO Reports 12, 1196-1203.
    21. Najm, N-A., Silaghi, C., Bell-Sakyi, L., Pfister, K. and Passos, L.M.F. 2011. Detection of bacteria related to Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in tick cell lines. Parasitol. Res. DOI 10.1007/s00436-011-2509-y.
    22. Pritt, B.S., Sloan, L.M., Johnson, D.K.H., Munderloh, U.G., Paskewitz, S.M., McElroy, K.M., McFadden, J.D., Binnicker, M.J., Neitzel, D.F., Liu, G., Nicholson, W.L., Nelson, C.M., Franson, J.J., Martin, S.A., Cunningham, S.A., Steward, C.R., Bogumill, K., Bjorgaard, M.E., Davis, J.P., McQuiston, J.H., Warshauer, D.M., Wilhelm, M.P., Patel, R., Trivedi, V.A., Eremeeva, M.E. (2011). Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009. N.Engl. J. Med. 365, 422-429.
    23. Silaghi, C., Kauffmann, M., Passos, L.M.F., Pfister, K. and Zweygarth, E. 2011. Isolation, propagation and preliminary characterisation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the tick cell line IDE8. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 2, 204-208.
    24. Thepparit, C., Sunyakumthorn, P., Guillotte, M.L., Popov, V.L., Foil, L.D. and Macaluso, K.R. 2011. Isolation of a rickettsial pathogen from a non-hematophagous arthropod. PloS ONE 6(1): e16396. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016396
    25. Tucker, A.M., Driskell, L.O., Pannell, L.K. and Wood, D.O. 2011. Differential proteomic analysis of Rickettsia prowazekii propagated in diverse host backgrounds. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 77, 4712-4718.
    26. Alberdi, M.P., Dalby, M.J., Rodriguez-Andres, J., Fazakerley, J.K., Kohl, A. and Bell-Sakyi, L. 2012. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 3, 137-146.
    27. Alberdi, M.P., Nijhof, A.M., Jongejan, F. and Bell-Sakyi, L. 2012. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 3, 349-354. doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.10.020
    28. Bell-Sakyi, L., Kohl, A., Bente, D.A. and Fazakerley, J.F. 2012. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses. Vector-Borne Zoonot. Dis. 12, 769-781.
    29. Cabezas Cruz, A., Zweygarth, E., Ribeiro, M.F.B., da Silveira, J.A.G., de la Fuente, J., Grubhoffer, L., Valdes, J.J. and Passos, L.M.F. 2012. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats. Parasites Vectors 5, 291.
    30. Dedonder, S.E., Cheng, C., Willard, L.H., Boyle, D.L. and Ganta, R.R. 2012. Transmission electron microscopy reveals distinct macrophage- and tick cell-specific morphological stages of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. PloS One 7(5), e36749.
    31. Lasmar, P.V.F., de Carvalho, A.U., Filho, E.J.F., Bastos, C.V., Ribeiro, M.F.B. (2012). Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. 21, 112-117.
    32. Mediannikov, O., Subramanian, G., Sekeyova, Z., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Raoult, D. 2012. Isolation of Arsenophonus nasoniae from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovakia. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 3, 366-369.
    33. Offerdahl., D.K., Dorward, D.W., Hansen, B.T. and Bloom, M.E. 2012. A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines. PloS ONE 7(10). E47912.
    34. Oliva Chavez, A.S., Felsheim, R.F., Kurtti, T.J., Ku, P-S., Brayton, K. and Munderloh, U.G. 2012. Expression patterns of Anaplasma marginale msp2 variants change in response to growth in cattle, and tick cells versus mammalian cells. PloS ONE 7(4), e36012.
    35. Passos, L.M.F. 2012. In vitro cultivation of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in tick cell lines: a review. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. Jaboticabal 21, 81-86.
    36. Rezende, J., Rangel, C.P., Cunha, N.C. and Fonseca, A.H. 2012. Primary embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense ticks as a substrate for the development of Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40). Braz. J. Biol. 72, 577-582.
    37. Saramago, L., Franceschi, M., Logullo, C., Masuda, A., da Silva Vaz, I., Farias, S.E. and Moraes, J. 2012. Inhibition of enzyme activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus triosephosphate isomerase and BME26 cell growth by monoclonal antibodies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, 13118-13133.
    38. Uchiyama, T. 2012. Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae. Frontiers Microbiol. 3, 30.
    39. Woldehiwet, Z. and Yavari, C. 2012. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep. J. Comp. Pathol.146, 116-121.
    40. Ayllon, N., Villar, M., Busby, A.T., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Bonzon-Kulichenko, E., Galindo, R.C., Mangold, A.J., Alberdi, P., Perez de la Lastra, J.M., Vazquez, J. and de la Fuente, J. 2013. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits apoptosis and promotes cytoskeleton rearrangement for infection of tick cells. Infect. Immun. 81, 2415-2425.  
    41. Barry, G., Alberdi, P., Schnettler, E., Weisheit, S., Kohl, A., Fazakerley, J.K. and Bell-Sakyi, L. 2013. Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 59, 319-338.
    42. Bell-Sakyi, L., and Attoui, H. 2013. Endogenous tick viruses and modulation of tick-borne pathogen growth. Frontiers Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 3, 25.
    43. Cabezas-Cruz A., Vancova, M., Zweygarth, E., Ribeiro, M.F.B., Grubhoffer, L. and Passos, L.M.F. 2013. Ultrastructure of Ehrlichia mineirensis, a new member of the Ehrlichia genus. Vet. Microbiol. 167, 455-458.
    44. Cheng, C., Nair, A.D.S., Indukuri, V.V., Gong, S., Felsheim, R.F., Jaworski, D., Munderloh, U.G. and Ganta, R.R. 2013. Targeted and random mutagenesis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis for the identification of genes required for in vivo infection. PLoS Pathog 9(2): e1003171.
    45. De Abreu, L.A., Calixto, C., Waltero, C.F., Della Noce, B.P., Githaka, N.W., Seixas, A., Parizi, L.F., Konnai, S., da Silva Vaz, I., Ohashi, K and Logullo, C. 2013. The conserved role of the AKT/GSK3 axis in cell survival and glycogen metabolism in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus embryo tick cell line BME26. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830, 2574-2582.
    46. Dyachenko, V., Geiger, C., Pantchev, N., Majzoub, M., Bell-Sakyi, L., Krupka, I. and Straubinger, R.K. 2013. Isolation of canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from clinical blood samples using the Ixodes ricinus cell line IRE/CTVM20. Vet. Microbiol. 162, 980-986.
    47. Ferrari, F.A.G., Goddard, J., Moraru, G.M., Smith, W.E.C. and Varela-Stokes, A.S. 2013. Isolation of “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in embryonic cells of naturally infected Amblyomma maculatum (Ixodida: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 50, 1118-1125.
    48. Gomes, H., Romeiro, N.C., Braz, G.R.C., de Oliveira, E.A.G., Rodrigues, C., da Fonseca, R.N., Githaka, N., Isezaki, M., Konnai, S., Ohashi, K., da Silva Vaz, I., Logullo, C. and Moraes, J. 2013. Identification and structural-functional analysis of cyclin-dependent kinases of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76128.
    49. Hammac, G.K., Ku, P-S., Galletti, M.F., Noh, S.M., Scoles, G.A., Palmer, G.H. and Brayton, K.A. 2013. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain. Vaccine 31, 3617-3622.
    50. Kahlon, A., Ojogun, N., Ragland, S.A., Seidman, D., Troese, M.J., Ottens, A.K., Mastronunzio, J.E., Truchan, H.K., Walker, N.J., Borjesson, D.L., Fikrig, E. and Carlyon, J.A. 2013. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Asp14 is an invasin that interacts with mammalian host cells via its C terminus to facilitate infection. Infect. Immun. 81, 65-79.
    51. Kenniel, R., Shkap, V., Leibovich, B., Zweygarth, E., Pfister, K., Ribeiro, M.F.B. and Passos, L.M.F. 2013. Cross-protection between geographically distinct Anaplasma marginale isolates appears to be constrained by limited antibody responses. Transboundary Emerg. Dis. 60 (Suppl. 2), 97-104.
    52. Lorusso, V., Gruszka, K.A., Majekodunmi, A., Igweh, A., Welburn, S.C., Picozzi, K. (2013). Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum ticks, Uganda and Nigeria. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19, 1705-1707.
    53. Madani, T.A., Abuelzein, E.M.E., Bell-Sakyi, L., Azhar, E.I., Al-Bar, H.M.S., Abu-Araki, H., Hassan, A.M., Masri, B.E. and Ksiazek, T.G. 2013. Susceptibility of tick cell lines to infection with Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever virus. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 107, 806-811.
    54. Oltean, B.M., Ernst, M., Renneker, S., Bakheit, M.A., Seitzer, U. and Ahmed, J. 2013. Whole antigenic lysates of Ixodes ricinus, but not Der-p2 allergen-like protein, are potent inducers of basophil activation in previously tick-exposed human hosts. Transboundary Emerg. Dis. 60 (Suppl. 2), 162-171.
    55. Tate, C.M., Howerth, E.W., Mead, D.G., Dugan, V.G., Luttrell, M.P., Sahora, A.I., Munderloh, U.G., Davidson, W.R., Yabsley, M.J. (2013). Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 4, 110-119.
    56. Yoshii, K., Yanagihara, N., Ishizuka, M., Sakai, M. and Kariwa, H. 2013. N-linked glycan in tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein affects viral secretion in mammalian cells, but not in tick cells. J. Gen. Virol. 94, 2249-2258.
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    58. Antunes, S., Merino, O., Mosqueda, J., Moreno-Cid, J.A., Bell-Sakyi, L., Fragkoudis, R., Weisheit, S., Perez de la Lastra, J.M., Alberdi, P., Domingos, A. and de la Fuente, J. 2014. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection. Parasites Vectors 7, 42.
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