Tick Cell and Tissue Culture Bibliography

This bibliography lists, in chronological order (alphabetically by year), publications pertaining to tick cell, tissue and organ culture.”

It is intended to be exhaustive, but if any reader knows of additional relevant publication(s) not listed here, please inform us by email to L.Bell-Sakyi@liverpool.ac.uk    

The Tick Cell Biobank Bibliography PDF (PDF) can be downloaded.

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    1. Weyer, F. 1952. Explantationsversuche bei Lausen in Verbindung mit der Kultur von Rickettsien. Cblatt Bakt. Parasitenk. Infektionskr. 159, 13-22.
    2. Rehacek, J. 1958. Preliminary report on tick tissue cultures. Acta Virol. 2, 253-254.
    1. Martin, H.M. and Vidler, B.O. 1962. In vitro growth of tick tissues (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, 1901). Exp. Parasitol. 12, 192-203.
    2. Rehacek, J. and Hana, L. 1964. Notes on tick tissue culture. Acta Virol. 5, 57-58.
    3. Rehacek, J. 1965. Preparation of tissue cultures from the tick Hyalomma dromedarii Koch. J. Med. Entomol. 2, 161-164.
    4. Rehacek, J. 1965. Cultivation of different viruses in tick tissue cultures. Acta Virol. 9, 332-337.
    5. Varma, M.G.R and Wallers, W. 1965. An improved method for obtaining, in vitro, uniform cell monolayer sheets from tissues of the tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae). Nature 208, 602-603.
    6. Yunker, C.E. and Cory, J. 1965. Effectiveness of refrigerated nymphs in tick tissue culture experiments. J. Parasitol. 51, 686.
    7. Yunker, C.E. and Cory, J. 1967. Growth of Colorado tick fever virus in primary tissue cultures of its vector, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acarina: Ixodidae), with notes on tick tissue culture. Exp. Parasitol. 20, 267-277.
    8. Rehacek, J., Brezina, R. and Majerska, M. 1968. Multiplication of rickettsiae in tick cells in vitro. Acta Virol. 12, 41-43.
    9. Rehacek, J. and Brzostowski, H.W. 1969. A tick tissue culture medium based on analyses of tick haemolymph. J. Insect Physiol. 15, 1431-1436.
    10. Rehacek, J. and Brzostowski, H.W. 1969. The utilization of amino acids and sugars by tick cells cultivated in vitro. J. Insect Physiol. 15, 1683-1686.
    11. Varma, M.G.R. and Pudney, M. 1969. Tick cell culture: a review of recent work. Proceedings of the II International Congress of Acarology, Budapest, 1967, p367.
    1. Hoffmann, G., Schein, E. and Jagow, M. 1970. Untersuchungen an exstirpierten und in der Kultur gehaltenen Zeckengeweben. Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 21, 46-61.
    2. Rehacek, J. 1971. Present status of tick tissue culture. In: Arthropod Cell Cultures and their Application to the Study of Viruses (Weiss, ed), pp 32-41, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
    3. Rehacek, J. 1971. Tissue cultures of blood-sucking arthropods and their use for the cultivation of viruses and Rickettsiae. Ann. Parasitol. Paris 46, 197-231.
    4. Hoffmann, G. 1972. Haltung babesieninfizierter Zeckengewebe in kunstlichem Nahrmedium. Z. Ang. Ent. 71, 26-34.
    5. Rehacek, J. 1972. Use of invertebrate cell culture for study of animal viruses and rickettsiae. In: Invertebrate Tissue Culture Vol II (Vago, ed), pp 279-320, Academic Press, New York.
    6. Eide, P.E. and Caldwell, J.M. 1973. A method for obtaining primary cultures of dispersed embryonic tissue from the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 66, 891-893.
    7. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1973. Culture of embryonic cells from the tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 10, 493-496.
    8. Rehacek, J. 1973. Maintaining of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, western subtype, in tick cells in vitro. In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp 439-443, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    9. Rehacek, J., Zupancicova, M., Brezina, R. and Urvolgyi, J. 1973. Use of primary tick tissue culture for propagation of rickettsiae of the RMSF group isolated in Slovakia. In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp 445-450, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    10. Varma, M.G.R. and Pudney, M. 1973. Culture of cells from the tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae). In: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Tissue Culture (Rehacek, Blaskovic and Hink, eds), pp135-141, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
    11. Andreasen, M.P. 1974. Multiplication of Cowdria ruminantium in monolayer of tick cells. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 82, 455-456.
    12. Andreasen, M.P. 1974. Heartwater a study of in vitro and in vivo cultivation of Cowdria ruminantium. PhD thesis, University of Copenhagen.
    13. Cunningham., I. 1974. The cultivation of trypanosomes in arthropod tissue culture. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
    14. David-West, T. 1974. Propagation and plaquing of Dugbe virus (an ungrouped Nigerian arbovirus) in various mammalian and arthropod cell lines. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 44, 330-336.
    15. Fujisaki, K., Kitaoka, S. and Morii, T. 1975. Hemocyte types and their primary cultures in the argasid tick, Ornithodorus moubata Murray (Ixodoidea). Appl. Ent. Zool. 10, 30-39.
    16. Varma, M.G.R., Pudney, M. and Leake, C.J. 1975. The establishment of three cell lines from the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their infection with some arboviruses. J. Med. Entomol. 11, 698-706.
    17. Guru, P.Y., Dhanda, V. and Gupta, N.P. 1976. Cell cultures derived from the developing adults of three species of ticks, by a simplified technique. Indian J. Med. Res. 64, 1041-1045.
    18. Rehacek, J. 1976. Tick tissue culture and arboviruses. In: Invertebrate Tissue Culture Applications in Medicine, Biology and Agriculture (Kurstak and Maramorosch, eds), pp 21-33, Academic Press, New York.
    19. Banerjee, K., Guru, P.Y. and Dhanda, V. 1977. Growth of arboviruses in cell cultures derived from the tick Haemaphysalis spinigera. Indian J. Med. Res. 66, 530-536.
    20. Bhat, U.K.M. and Yunker, C.E. 1977. Establishment and characterization of a diploid cell line from the tick, Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae). J. Parasitol. 63, 1092-1098.
    21. Hadani, A., Kaufman, W. and Barnett, S.F. 1978. Development of Nuttalia danii (Protozoa: Babesidae) within tick salivary glands cultured in vitro. J. Parasitol. 64, 501-503.
    22. Moulton, J.E. 1978. Preparation of primary cultures of tick cells. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39, 1558-1564.
    23. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1978. The growth of some arboviruses in tick cell lines. In: Tick-borne Diseases and their Vectors (Wilde, ed), pp490-496, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh.
    24. Bhat, U.K.M. and Yunker, C.E. 1979. Susceptibility of a tick cell line (Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann) to infection with arboviruses. In: Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses (Kurstak, ed), pp 263-275, Academic Press, New York.
    25. Bhat, U.K.M., Mahoney, D.F. and Wright, I.G. 1979. The invasion and growth of Babesia bovis in tick tissue culture. Experientia 35, 752-753.
    26. Kurtti, T.J. and Buscher, G. 1979. Trends in tick cell culture. In: Practical Tissue Culture Applications (Maramorosch and Hirumi, eds), pp 351-371, Academic Press, New York.
    27. Pudney, M., Varma, M.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1979. Establishment of cell lines from ixodid ticks. TCA Manual 5, 1003-1007.
    28. Pudney, M., Leake, C.J. and Varma, M.G.R. 1979. Replication of arboviruses in arthropod in vitro systems. In: Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses (Kurstak, ed), pp 245-262, Academic Press, New York.
    29. Yunker, C.E. and Meibos, H. 1979. Culture of embryonic tick cells (Acari: Ixodidae). TCA Manual 5, 1015-1017.
    1. Bell, L.J. 1980. Organ culture of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus with maturation of Theileria parva in tick salivary glands in vitro. Acta Trop. 37, 319-325.
    2. Holman, P.J. and Ronald, N.C. 1980. A new tick cell line derived from Boophilus microplus. Res. Vet. Sci. 29, 383-387.
    3. Leake, C.J., Pudney, M. and Varma, M.G.R. 1980. Studies on arboviruses in established tick cell lines. In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 327-335, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    4. Munz, E., Reimann, M., Munderloh, U. and Settele, U. 1980. The susceptibility of the tick cell line TTC 243 for Nairobi sheep disease virus and some other important species of mammalian RNA and DNA viruses. . In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 338-340, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    5. Pudney, M. 1980. The use of arthropod cell cultures for the in vitro study of filariae (Onchocerca sp.). In: Invertebrate Systems In Vitro (Kurstak, Maramorosch and Dubendorfer, eds), pp 317-326, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
    6. Drolesky, R.E., Holman, P.J. and Wagner, G.G. 1981. Babesia bovis infection of a tick cell line studied by electron microscopy. In Vitro 17, 209.
    7. Hadani, A. 1981. In vitro development of Babesia and Theileria parasites in organs and tissues of ticks. In: Babesiosis (Ristic and Kreier, eds), pp225-266, Academic Press, New York.
    8. Holman, P.J. 1981. Partial characterization of a unique female diploid cell strain from the tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 18, 84-88.
    9. Holman, P.J., Drolesky, R.E. and Wagner, G.G. 1981. Ultrastructural characterization of a cell line from the tick Boophilus microplus. In Vitro 17, 209.
    10. Rahman, M.H. 1981. The culture of embryonic cells from the tick Hyalomma rufipes rufipes (Koch, 1844). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 75, 573-574.
    11. Tully, J.G., Rose, D.L., Yunker, C.E., Cory, J., Whitcomb, R.F. and Williamson, D.L. 1981. Helical mycoplasmas (spiroplasmas) from Ixodes ticks.  Science 212, 1043-1045.
    12. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J. and Meibos, H. 1981. Continuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). In Vitro 17, 139-142.
    13. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J., Gresbrink, R.A., Thomas, L.A. and Clifford, C.M. 1981. Tickborne viruses in western North America III. Viruses from man-biting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Oregon. J. Med. Entomol. 18, 457-463.
    14. Brown, S.E. and Knudson, D.L. 1982. Isozyme analyses of dipteran and acarine cell lines. In Vitro 18, 347-350
    15. Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1982. Tick cell culture: characteristics, growth requirements and applications to parasitology. In: Invertebrate Cell Culture Applications (Maramorosch and Mitsuhashi, eds), pp195-232, Academic Press, New York.
    16. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Samish, M. 1982. Effect of medium supplements on tick cells in culture. J. Parasitol. 68, 930-935.
    17. Munderloh, U.G., Kurtti, T.J., Maramorosch, K. 1982. Anopheles stephensi and Toxorhynchites amboinensis: aseptic rearing of mosquito larvae on cultured cells. J. Parasitol. 68, 1085-1091.
    18. Samish, M., Shkap, V., Pipano, E. and Bin, C. 1982. Cultivation of Besnoitia besnoiti in tick cell culture. J. Protozool. 29, 313.
    19. Bell, L.J. 1983. Development of Theileria in tick tissue culture. MPhil Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
    20. Drolesky, R.E., Holman, P.J., Craig, T.M., Wagner, G.G. and Mollenhauer, H.H. 1983. Ultrastructure of Babesia bovis sexual stages as observed in Boophilus microplus cell cultures. Res. Vet. Sci. 34, 249-251.
    21. Hess, W.R. 1983. The growth of African swine fever virus in arthropod cells. In: African Swine Fever, pp124-131. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
    22. Johnston, L.A.Y., Kemp, D.H. and Pearson, R.D. 1983. Feasibility of immunising cattle against Boophilus microplus. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. WAAVP, Perth, Australia, 1983, p77.
    23. Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1983. The effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone III on tick cells. J. Parasitol. 69, 1072-1078.
    24. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Stiller, D. 1983. The interaction of Babesia caballi kinetes with tick cells. J. Inv. Path. 42, 334-343.
    25. Bell, L.J. 1984. Tick tissue culture techniques in the study of arthropod-borne protozoa: the development of Theileria annulata in organ cultures of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. In: Acarology 6 Vol 2 (Griffiths and Bowman, eds), pp1089-1095, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester.
    26. Chunikhin, S.P., Khozinskaya, G.A., Stefutkina, L.E., Korolev, M.E. (1984). Mono- and mixed infection of explants of tissues of the ticks of the genus Hyalomma with viruses of tick-borne encephalitis and Povassan. Parazitologiya 18, 116-122.   
    27. Moss, S.R. and Nuttall, P.A. 1984. Isolation of orbiviruses and uukuviruses from puffin ticks. Acta Virol. 29, 158-161.
    28. Munz, E., Reimann, M. and Jager, H. 1984. Qualitative and quantitative detection of Nairobi sheep disease virus antigen by immunoperoxidase in BHK-, sheep kidney- and tick cell cultures. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 31, 231-239.
    29. Yunker, C.E., Cory, J. and Meibos, H. 1984. Tick tissue and cell culture: applications to research in medical and veterinary acarology and vector-borne disease. In: Acarology 6, Vol 2 (Griffiths and Bowman, eds), pp 1082-1088, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
    30. Khozinskaya, G.A., Chunikhin, S.P., Khozinsky, V.V. and Stefutkina, L.F. 1985. Variability of Powassan virus cultured in tissue explants and organism of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. Acta Virol. 29, 305-312.
    31. Samish, M., Louloudes, S.J., Vaughn, J.L., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1985. Promotion of tick cell growth by proline and fractions from tick eggs. Int. J. Parasitol. 15, 21-26.
    32. Wikel, S.K. 1985. Resistance to ixodid tick infestation induced by administration of tick-tissue culture cells. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 79, 513-518.
    33. Kamio, T., Mitsuhashi, J. and Fujisaki, K. 1986. Primary culture of developing adult tissue in a nymphal tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acarina: Ixodidae). Appl. Ent. Zool. 21, 394-398.
    34. Leake, C.J. 1987. Comparative growth of arboviruses in cell lines derived from Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and from the tick Boophilus microplus. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol II (Yunker, ed), pp 25-42, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    35. Munz, E., Reimann, M. and Mahnel, H. 1987. Nairobi sheep disease virus and Reovirus-like particles in the tick cell line TTC-243 from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: experiences with the handling of the tick cells, immunoperoxidase and ultrahistological studies. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 133-147, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    36. Nyindo, M., Shatry, A., Awiti, L.S., Chimtawi, M. and Hendricks, L.D. 1987. Leishmania donovani and L. major: cultivation in vitro in tick embryonic cell lines. Exp. Parasitol. 63, 240-242.
    37. Pudney, M. 1987. Tick cell lines for the isolation and assay of arboviruses. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 87-101, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    38. Rehacek, J. 1987. Arthropod cell cultures in studies of tick-borne togaviruses and orbiviruses in Central Europe. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 115-132, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    39. Samish, M., Shkap, V. and Pipano, E. 1987. Besnoita besnoiti: long term cultivation in tick cell lines. Exp. Parasitol. 64, 261-263.
    40. Schriefer, M.E., Beveridge, M., Sonenshine, D.E., Homsher, P.J., Carson, K.A. and Weidman, C.S. 1987. Evidence of ecdysteroid production by tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fat-body tissues in vitro. J. Med. Entomol. 24, 295-302.
    41. Yunker, C.E. 1987. Preparation and maintenance of arthropod cell cultures: Acari, with emphasis on ticks. In: Arboviruses in Arthropod Cells In Vitro Vol 1 (Yunker, ed), pp 35-51, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
    42. Yunker, C.E., Tully, J.G. and Cory, J. 1987. Arthropod cell lines in the isolation and propagation of tickborne spiroplasmas. Curr. Microbiol. 15, 45-50.
    43. Homan, E.J. and Yunker, C.E. 1988. Growth of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses in poikilothermic cell systems. Vet. Microbiol. 16, 15-24.
    44. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G. and Ahlstrand, G.G. 1988. Tick tissue and cell culture in vector research. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5, 87-109.
    45. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Ahlstrand, G.G. and Johnson, R.C. 1988. Borrelia burgdorferi in tick cell culture: growth and cellular adherence. J. Med. Entomol. 25, 256-261.
    46. Samish, M., Pipano, E. and Hana, B. 1988. Cultivation of Anaplasma marginale from cattle in a Dermacentor cell line. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49, 254-256.
    47. Samish, M., Shkap, V., Bin, H. and Pipano, E.M. 1988. Cultivation of Besnoitia besnoiti in four tick cell lines. Int. J. Parasitol. 18, 291-296.
    48. Yunker, C.E., Byrom, B. and Semu, S. 1988. Cultivation of Cowdria ruminantium in bovine vascular endothelial cells. Kenya Vet. 12, 12-17.
    49. Willadsen, P. and Kemp, D.H. 1988. Vaccination with “concealed” antigens for tick control. Parasitol. Today 4, 196-198.
    50. Hidalgo, R.J., Jones, E.W., Brown, J.E. and Ainsworth, A.J. 1989. Anaplasma marginale in tick cell culture. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50, 2028-2032.
    51. Hidalgo, R.J., Palmer, G.H., Jones, E.W., Brown, J.E. and Ainsworth, A.J. 1989. Infectivity and antigenicity of Anaplasma marginale from tick cell culture. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50, 2033-2036.
    52. Homsher, P.J., Mason, S.N., Beveridge, M.J., Waters, L., Sonenshine, D.E. and Wolfinbarger, L. 1989. Studies on the molecular and cytological characterization of Dermacentor variabilis tick cells in culture. In: Progress in Acarology Vol 1 (Channabasavanna, G.P., Viraktamath, C.A. eds), Proceedings of the VII International Congress of Acarology, Bangalore, August 1986, pp45-52. Oxford & JBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi/E.J. Brill, Leiden. 
    53. Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1989. Formulation of medium for tick cell culture. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7, 219-229.
    54. Varma, M.G.R. 1989. Progress in the study of human and animal pathogens in primary and established tick cell lines. In: Invertebrate Cell System Applications Vol II (Mitsuhashi, ed), pp 119-128, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton.
    1. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1991. Continuous cell lines from the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. J. Parasitol. 77, 1006-1008.
    2. Booth, T.F., Gould, E.A. and Nuttall, P.A. 1991. Structure and morphogenesis of Dugbe virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) studied by immunogold electron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections. Virus Res. 21, 199-212.
    3. Litchfield, T.M., Mackenzie, C.D. and Varma, M.G.R. 1991. The conditions required for the maintenance of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in vitro. Acta Trop. 48, 293-304.
    4. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1992. Some new tick cell lines for propagation of animal pathogens. Proceedings 1st International Conference on Tick-borne Pathogens at the Host-Vector Interface, St Paul, Mn, 1992, p 84.
    5. Bell-Sakyi, L. 1992. Tick tissue culture and Theileria. In: Proceedings of the Second EEC Workshop on Orientation and Coordination of Research on Tropical Theileriosis (Singh and Varshney, eds), pp 76-81, NDDB, Anand.
    6. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Krueger, D.E., Johnson, R.C. and Schwan, T.G. 1993. Adhesion to and invasion of cultured tick (Acari: Ixodidae) cells by Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) and maintenance of infectivity. J. Med. Ent. 30, 586-596.
    7. Munderloh, U.G., Park, D.Y., Dioh, J.M., Fallon, A.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1993. Plasmid modifications in a tick-borne pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, cocultured with tick cells. Insect Mol. Biol. 1, 195-203.
    8. Chen, C., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1994. Cytogenetic characteristics of cell lines from Ixodes scapularis. J. Med. Entomol. 31, 425-434.
    9. Munderloh, U.G., Liu, Y., Wang, M., Chen, C. and Kurtti, T.J. 1994. Establishment, maintenance and description of cell lines from the tick Ixodes scapularis. J. Parasitol. 80, 533-543.
    10. Ewing, S.A., Munderloh, U.G., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1995. Ehrlichia canis in tick cell culture. In “Proceedings of the 76th Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases”, Chicago, USA, 13-14 November 1995. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, abstract no. 165.
    11. Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1995. Cellular and molecular interrelationships between ticks and prokaryotic tick-borne pathogens. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 40, 221-243.
    12. Goodman, J.L., Nelson, C., Vitale, B., Madigan, J.E., Dumler, J.S., Kurtti, T.J. and Munderloh, U.G. 1996. Direct cultivation of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. New Eng. J. Med. 334, 209-215.
    13. Kurtti, T.J., Munderloh, U.G., Andreadis, T.G., Magnarelli, L.A. and Mather, T.N. 1996. Tick cell culture isolation of an intracellular prokaryote from the tick Ixodes scapularis. J. Inv. Path. 67, 318-321.
    14. Munderloh, U.G., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M., Ge, N.L., Edwards, W.L. and Kurtti, T.J. 1996. Establishment of the tick (Acari: Ixodidae)-borne cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in tick cell culture. J. Med. Entomol. 33, 656-664.
    15. Munderloh, U.G., Madigan, J.E., Dumler, S., Goodman, J.L., Hayes, S.F., Barlough, J.E., Nelson, C.M. and Kurtti, T.J. 1996. Isolation of the equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Ehrlichia equi, in tick cell culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34. 664-670.
    16. Niebylski, M.L., Peacock, M.G., Fischer, E.R., Porcella, S.F. and Schwan, T.G. 1997. Characterization of an endosymbiont infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, as a member of the genus Francisella. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 3933-3940.
    17. Noda, H., Munderloh, U.G. and Kurtti, T.J. 1997. Endosymbionts of ticks and their relationship to Wolbachia spp. and tick-borne pathogens of humans and animals. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 63, 3926-3932.
    18. Policastro, P.F., Munderloh, U.G., Fischer, E.R. and Hackstadt, T. 1997. Rickettsia rickettsii growth and temperature-inducible protein expression in embryonic tick cell lines. J. Med. Microbiol. 46, 839-845.
    19. Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. Morphology and development of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in cultured Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) cells. J. Med. Entomol. 35, 788-797.
    20. Blouin, E.F., Saliki, J.T., Kocan, K.M. and Rodgers, S.J. 1998. Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale from tick cell culture as an immunogen for cattle. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 849, 253-258.
    21. Brown, W.C., Zhu, D., Shkap, V., McGuire, T.C., Blouin, E.F., Kocan, K.M. and Palmer, G.H. 1998. The repertoire of Anaplasma marginale antigens recognized by CD4+ T-lymphocyte clones from protectively immunized cattle is diverse and includes major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) and MSP-3. Infect. Immun. 66, 5414-5422.
    22. Kopecky, J. and Stankova, I. 1998. Interaction of virulent and attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus strains in ticks and a tick cell line. Fol. Parassitol. 45, 245-250.
    23. Munderloh, U.G., Hayes, S.F., Cummings, J. and Kurtti, T.J. 1998. Microscopy of spotted fever rickettsia movement through tick cells. Microscop. Microanal. 4, 115-121.
    24. Rodgers, S.J., Saliki, J.T., Blouin, E.F. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. The development of a semi-automated latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to Anaplasma marginale using a cell culture-derived antigen. Ann. N.Y.Acad. Sci. 849, 282-292.
    25. Saliki, J.T., Blouin, E.F., Rodgers, S.J. and Kocan, K.M. 1998. Use of tick cell culture-derived Anaplasma marginale antigen in a competitive ELISA for serodiagnosis of anaplasmosis. Ann N.Y. Acad. Sci 849, 273-281.
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