Company  Project Description School Supervisor Project Title
  Low Carbon Eco-Innovatory (2016-2019) - Completed Projects      
5DHPG Microorganisms attach to surfaces and form a sessile functional consortium of microorganisms called a biofilm. Biofilms cause ubiquitous problems of high environmental and financial impact in engineered environments due to the detrimental effects they cause, in particular the reduced performance of a surface. For example, biofouling of a ship’s hull leads to an increase in fuel costs, due to increased drag the biofilm causes. Consequently this leads to a significant increase in the generation of GHGs.  School of Engineering Dr Raechelle D'Sa Control and Reduction of Biofouling Ssurface Modifications and 'Boosters' to Enhancing Antimicrobial Efficacy
CAL International The main concept behind this project is to enable in-situ low or zero-carbon fuel production, in the exact amount required by the user, by means of a small-scale, high frequency modular device.  Internal combustion engines are already able to operate using low or zero-carbon liquid fuels; however, very few OEMs have created these types of vehicles and only as showcase demonstrators or working concepts. Nothing has been made as a fully marketable product. This is due to a number of unique complexities relating to the on-board storage of low or zero-carbon fuels which makes them currently impractical at a mass consumer level.  The project outcome may potentially revolution the way we supply power to any device, from portable electronics to large vehicles. School of Engineering Dr Volfango Bertola Development of A Zero or Low Carbon Emission Fuel Generating Microfluidic Reactor
Coastal Engineering Improved development and implementation of sediment-based solutions to coastal erosion and flood risk will reduce reliance on traditional concrete and steel engineered structures which will have significant environmental benefits in terms of carbon emissions and energy use.  This project is investigating and developing an effective method for sensor deployment, including cross-shore arrays of buried pressure transducers and remote measurements to characterise shallow water wave modification, breaking, run-up and overwashing/overtopping during storms, and to quantify consequential changes in beach morphology.   The objective is to develop and optimize storm survey technologies to better understand coastal response to extreme events, enables a move away from emergency, CO2-intensive sea defences. School of Geography & Planning Dr Nicoletta Leonardi Coastal response to extreme storms: the role of infragravity waves
CSols Although the problem of CO2 emission of laboratories has been addressed explicitly during the past decades, laboratories still try to tackle this problem on their own. The efforts undertaken are quite randomized (e.g. switching off instruments, reducing consumables) and often not very efficient, while documentation of the actual outcome is rarely provided. The lack of a general solution to this problem can be mainly attributed to the absence of an appropriate technology enabling an efficient data collection and automated control of laboratory resources. The overall aim of the proposed project by CSols Ltd is therefore to develop an automated laboratory control system for a low carbon footprint by providing cutting edge technology designed to revolutionize the way that laboratory resources communicate with software applications.  School of Engineering Dr Yihua Hu Design of an Automated Control System to reduce the carbon footprint of laboratories
Egg Homes By analysing performance of the Egg Home’s high end housing development designs this project aims to develop a useable model, process and approach for the company to build homes to the Home Quality Mark (HQM). Egg Homes propose to create some of the most sustainable homes in the UK.  This requires a thorough investigation into the true holistic life cycle carbon impact including a review of the embodied and operational carbon of this development. The project will work alongside BRE to investigating the full life cycle impact of the house and the resultant HQM. School of Architecture Dr Stephen Finnegan Building sustainable homes to the BRE Home Quality Mark (HQM) - the true holistic impact
Farm Urban Aquaponics is a soil free intensive agriculture system combining elements of aquaculture and hydroponics, reducing inputs and waste, while providing high volumes of fish and vegetables. Aquaponics, at the domestic and community level, has the potential to massively reduce transport related carbon costs and promotes food supply resilience.  Agriculture is responsible for 10% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK, more than 10% of water use and over two thirds of UK land is currently under agricultural use. Despite 82% of the population living in urban areas, almost all food is grown outside of cities and transported in, with associated costs and emissions due to transport, storage, packaging and wastage en-route. This project will develop Farm Urban’s aquaponics products and technologies to determine the best practice for conducting aquaponics in a range of environments; facilitate growing in local communities and schools, small scale commercial systems within cafes and restaurants, and larger scale commercial enterprises. Institute of Integrative Biology Dr Iain Young Applying open source methodologies to optimise temperate aquaponic food production with a combination of laboratory and crowd-sourced data
Halliday The project will involve the analysis, redesign and implementation of more environmentally sustainable manufacturing in Halliday’s factory. This will also lead to the development of a generic methodology for achieving more environmentally sustainable leagile manufacturing in other businesses. Halliday has established itself as a leader in the sustainable manufacturing of coffins, producing 26,00 coffins per year. It is Forest Stewardship Council certified as it sources wood, its principle raw material, sustainably. It has invested heavily in a biomass boiler to produce hot water and heat from wood waste, and it supports the Woodland Trust. This project will enable Halliday to expand its drive for high levels of sustainability into the design of its manufacturing operations. University of Liverpool Management School Dr Drake Sustainable and lean furniture manufacturing processes through green value stream maps
International Pheromone Systems Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecologically and environmentally sustainable approach that reduces the reliance on chemical pesticides to manage pest outbreaks. Insect semiochemicals are one such tool, utilising pheromones to reduce pests. This project aims to improve the performance of pheromone dispensers and persuade growers to adopt IPM practices.  Improved IPM and use of pheromone based devices will reduce the use of harmful pesticides and the carbon emissions associated with their production and application.   Institute of Integrative Biology Prof Rob Beynon The potential of protein binders as agents for the release of pheromones
Knowsley Safari The aim of the project is to develop a framework for KSP to enable them to develop the World’s First Zero Carbon Safari Park. The framework and process will then be shared amongst other safari parks to help demonstrate the process and actions required. School of Architecture Dr Stephen Finnegan The Worlds first zero carbon safari park - a new systematic framework
Labmotive Labmotive Ltd seeks to minimise the carbon footprint of remote sampling of specimens by developing a new organisation system for sample collection. This system should implement the carbon emission as an inherent optimisation parameter and adjust work routines such as sampling routes and times. As a centrepiece of this system, Labmotive provides a technology called Remote Sampler, which allows a centralised management team to give instructions to, and extract data from, handheld devices operated by employees out in the field. The challenge of the project is the design of a software algorithm for a new sampling schedule within the Remote Sampler software, which includes a dynamic optimisation model for pollution parameters to reduce carbon emission aiming for reduction of least 20% of the overall CO2 emission for each company applying Remote Sampler. Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Dr Terry Payne Reducing the carbon footprint for remote sampling of environmental samples
Q-Tech This project aims to realize a means of detecting emissions using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer for accurate measurement in the field.  Quantitative analysis of environmental samples is currently only possible using various ex-situ methods that involve extensive sample preparation including extraction, separation, and derivatisation.  By using the proposed portable miniature mass spectrometer system in-situ, however, Q-Tech’s clients could analyse samples on site in a few seconds with no sample preparation; reducing costs, expertise and facilities required, thereby enabling more effective and extensive monitoring and control of potential environmental emissions such as methane from landfill, thereby reducing erroneous emissions. Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Dr Simon Maher Development of a portable mass spectrometer for accurate carbon isotope measurement
Marlan Maritime Technology The key research challenge here is to complement Marlan’s radar-based products for monitoring coastal change in the intertidal zone and below the water line by examining the use of still photographs and light reflectance to produce digital elevation models of beaches and maps of their evolving grain size. The primary environmental benefits of the integrated radar system are safer and more resource-efficient port and shipping operations and will contribute to Marlan’s new product development aimed at optimizing traffic management for fuel efficiency and targeting maintenance interventions (e.g. routine pilotage and tug assistance, bathymetric surveys and dredging operations to maintain navigable channels). 

School of Engineering

Prof Andy Plater Monitoring changes in beach morphology: Coastal Analytics for enhancing resilience to climate change
Dendrite Labs Dendrite Labs offers powerful software solutions enabling an automated data extraction and control of laboratory resources.  The principle aim of the project is to use this advanced technology to provide an automated mechanism for laboratory control. This mechanism will be embedded in a Sim City – type laboratory simulation, created in collaboration with gamification experts of UoL’s Management School. The users will be able to interact with the simulation to optimize laboratory metrics, while getting clear directions on how to reduce the laboratory’s carbon footprint efficiently.   Dendrite Labs aims to install the control system in laboratories over the three years of programme duration, to verify and tune the algorithm. University of Liverpool Management School Dr Ronald Dyer Laboratory Simulation Application for a Reduced Carbon Footprint
Utromex Ultromex has developed a process for recovering aluminium and salt from what is currently a hazardous aluminium smelting waste stream. The remaining solids, non-metallic particles or ‘NMP’, can be made non-hazardous or inert using Ultromex’s technology. However, rather than landfill, Ultromex seeks to process and place the NMP in the most appropriate ‘value adding’ industry. This complete material reuse is the holy grail of aluminium smelting worldwide with circa 1 million tonnes of slag being generated each year. Ultromex has already identified some basic applications but further work is needed to develop marketable product specifications together with the required chemical process adjustments. Following this initial work the project needs to develop an industry standard for modelling and optimising NMP products for the aluminium industry.  School of Engineering Dr Jonathon Bridge Creating real value from aluminium smelter waste
Urban Splash The aim of the project is to develop a new model for Urban Splash to cost effectively develop future zero carbon prefabricated housing.  At present the true life cycle environmental impact of their new prefabricated housing developing (termed hoUSe) has not been assessed and once complete this can help inform future decision making on new developments.  The project is unique as most residential and non-residential developers do not consider the full life cycle impact of their developments and at present they do not have a model and/or process to follow to enable them to become zero carbon in a cost effective manner.   School of Architecture Dr Stephen Finnegan Creating cost effective zero carbon developments  – A new model and framework for Urban Splash
Mersey Fair Air This project aims to develop a process for converting existing vehicles to run on alkaline fuel cell technology supplied by their partner: Cygnus Atratus Enterprises Limited (CAE).  CAE lay claim that they have created a micro waste to energy system which will generate the required fuel for their fuel cells from waste.  This project will critically analyse the system, compare against the competitors and ensure that the optimum systems can be selected for installation in Liverpool to ensure the success of Mersey Fair Air. It will investigate the existing technologies used to produce green hydrogen and other fuels identified by the fuel cell supplier such as ethanol, methanol and ammonia.  The project will also investigate technologies and equipment that can be used to generate fuels from waste, in particular agricultural, industrial and food waste streams, at the point of source.   School of Engineering    
MM Sensors Based on the deployment of pressure gauges to monitor the rise and fall of the tide, the key research challenge here is to effectively complement radar-based technologies for monitoring coastal change in the intertidal zone and below the water line.  The research will examine the effectiveness of ground-truthing waterline reconstructions that are free from the confounding influence of wave breaking and run-up, which is a particular problem on shallow-sloping beaches.  This has significant environmental benefits in terms of carbon emissions and energy use.  In relation to improved efficiency of port navigation from the accurate provision of data on safe tidal levels for access, each 10-15 cm of inaccuracy in water depth, converts to approximately 20 minutes delay in either port entry or exit.  Over the year, this would covert to about 10 extra days of diesel use for every vessel affected School of EngineeringS Dr James Cooper Tidal Level Measurements for Coastal Resilience and Survey
LPW It is understood that Metal powder used for Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) degrades with repeated use. This results in large amounts of waste and re-shipping of materials around the globe, with associated impacts on carbon emissions.  Adoption of AM in high end, critical applications like Aerospace is hampered by the high cost of raw materials.  A large proportion of this cost can be attributed to powder waste as a poor understanding of degradation leads to excessive scrapping of powder, which has a high embodied CO2 content due to highly energy intensive manufacturing processes. The project will investigate the fundamental mechanisms that lead to powder degradation, evaluate solutions for monitoring the rate of degradation and evaluate end-of-life solutions for powder that is degraded beyond acceptable limits. The aim will be to reduce the environmental impact associated with scrapping powder. A solution which will enable on-site/in-situ monitoring of powder will reduce the carbon footprint created by shipping samples around the world for testing to re-certify used powder.  School of Engineering Dr Peter Fox Maximising the Utilisation of Powder for Metal Additive Manufacturing 
FUEd This project will underpin the product development of FUEd's vertical growing system (VGS).  VGSs is in it’s infancy but has the potential to offer a wide range of environmental benefits in relation to conventional food production techniques such as growing food without the use of fertilisers and with few pesticides; a significant source of agricultural GHG. It can use 90% less water than conventional agriculture and food can be grown within cities, by making efficient use of underused urban spaces through vertical growing within buildings and on roofs, significantly reducing the transportation, storage and wastage of food.  It can also enable carbon-neutrality by using renewable energy, such as solar, wind, biogas and geothermal to power the systems, and sustainable fish food in the form of worms, insects and algae. Institute of Integrative Biology Prof Scott Ferson A multidisciplinary approach to Global Food Security through education and technology.
  Low carbon Eco-Innovatory (2020-2023) - Current Projects      
Fifth Sector Ltd The aim of the project is to measure the carbon impact of the cultural sector of the City of Liverpool and develop an action plan to reduce it to zero. This PhD will be focused on developing an approach to (a) capturing cultural data across the city (b) creating a new process and framework to measure carbon impact (c) reporting the output to UK and international partners and (d) developing an action plan to help organisations and the city council reduce the impact to zero. This data collected through the study will be used by Liverpool City Council to determine the carbon impact of culture. Furthermore, it will help identify the actions necessary to reduce the impact and engender change across the city.  School of Architecture Dr Stephen Finnegan The carbon impact of the Liverpool cultural sector
Meta-Additive Ltd Low Energy/Emissions production of materials using additive manufacturing methodologies for the ironmaking process. The aim of this project is to replace this thermal agglomeration step with a new process which reduces Green House Gas (GHG) production reducing the environmental impact of this global industry whilst allowing optimisation of steel materials produced.

If the proposed system to be investigated is successful it will play a significant role in the reduction of global CO2 emissions.
School of Engineering Dr Kate Black Low Energy/Emissions production of materials using additive manufacturing methodologies for the ironmaking process
Zence Consultancy This project will develop a scalable low carbon service, to underpin the development of a green consultancy service, aimed at lowering carbon emissions and improving landscape and building spaces for organisations and urban communities.

This consultancy service will provide a range of support areas geared toward helping private, public and 3rd sector organisations lower their carbon, whilst realising economic and health benefits, including support in job and workforce creation. 
Psycology Dr Charlotte Hardman An Investigation into the Development of a Green Consultancy Service
Granby Workshop Recycled Ceramics: Innovations in the Production of Sustainable Architectural Surfaces.In this project we will undertake research in the emerging geology of secondary and recycled materials with the aim of actively diverting waste materials from landfill to develop a range of innovative ceramic clays and glazes made from 100% recycled materials for architectural application, exploring new exciting design and aesthetic possibilities. We will investigate and test material waste streams from a range of local manufacturers and industries to evaluate their aesthetic and technical properties in the composition of ceramics. School of Architecture Dr Rosa Urbano Gutierrez Recycled Ceramics: Innovations in the Production of Sustainable Architectural Surfaces
TMC Research New polymeric colour developer for thermally activated colour changing materials. The PhD project aims to address two key areas of colour change technology markets that have increasing environmental and associated energy concerns. These are derived from two commonly used chemistries 1) bisphenols for colour change effects, and 2) melamine/formaldehyde polymerisation for encapsulation through microcapsule formation. The market doe Department of Chemistry Prof Steve Rannard New polymeric colour developer for thermally activated colour changing materials
Feedwater Ltd The development of novel nanomaterial based, low carbon structures for improved infection control in water systems. Currently every unit of hot water in UK workplaces is required to be heated to at least 60C and should be dispensed at taps above 50C. The only alternatives to this energy consumption is to use biocides. Use of biocides allows reduction in temperature but in healthcare premises, hot water temperature must be maintained at 60C with tap temperatures >55C. Energy for this heating is derived mostly from gas or electricity sources.
These temperatures are scalding hot in many situations and water is blended with cold water to reduce scalding risk.  Very significant energy reductions can be achieved by the proposed new means of nanomaterial based microbial control, with reduced use of blended water.
Department of Chemistry Dr Raechelle D'Sa The development of novel nanomaterial based, low carbon structures for improved infection control in water systems
Robotiz3D Towards an Autonomous Road Maintenance System (ARMS). The aim of this PhD project is to develop technologies for the autonomous detection and repair of cracks and potholes on UK roads; the proposed platform will remove, or at least drastically reduce, the human element of road inspection and maintenance, enhancing safety, while ensuring high quality standards in data collection and road repairs. The proposed system will require advances in several key areas, such as characterisation, deposition and navigation, and then their integration within a single autonomous platform.  School of Engineering Dr Sebastiano Fichera Towards an Autonomous Road Maintenance System (ARMS)
Base Energy The impact of the performace gap on the creation of Net Zero Carbon (NZC) homes in the UK. This PhD will be focused on how significant this performance gap difference is and what impact it will have on the creation of NZC homes in the future. Through the collection of design and real world data and the use of simulation, the researcher will provide a large number of recommendations for policy makers, house builders and designers to achieve NZC by 2050.  School of Architecture Dr Stephen Finnegan The impact of the performace gap on the creation of Net Zero Carbon (NZC) homes in the UK.
Green for Goods Reducing energy requirements and increasing profitability of hydroponic systems through optimised nutrient uptake and LED lighting efficiencies.  The overall aim of this project is to improve the efficiency and sustainability of our Hydroponic Living Wall Systems (HLWS), by improving crop growth and resilience in controlled environment hydroponic systems in the most environmentally and cost-effective way.  BSB Dr James Hartwell Reducing energy requirements and increasing profitability of hydroponic systems through optimised nutrient uptake and LED lighting efficiencies.  
Entrust Optimal Design and Operation of Utility-scale Solar PV and Storage System. The overall aims and objectives of the proposed collaborative project are for the research to lead to a sophisticated technical and financial model considering geolocation, technology type and integration, cost (construction and O&M), revenue streams, and policies as variables for optimal project design.

This model would be the first of its kind considering the integration of multi-disciplinary expertise to help solve the energy challenges of the future.  Integration of spatial expertise to identify the best engineering solution for utility-scale integrated Solar PV and storage developments will allow for the identification of the sustainability of the projects at the scoping stage. 
Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Dr Lin Jiang Optimal Design and Operation of Utility-scale Solar PV and Storage System
JP Concrete Carbon capturing segmental retaining walls with self-healing concrete (CAPTURING-WALLS). Low-carbon concrete production for JP Concrete aims to reduce the emissions footprint of cement use by approximately 20% through the incorporation of environment-friendly materials, with beneficial saving up to £250k annually in costs. An additional local example in the Liverpool City Region will be for a bridge and road embankment scheme, where a carbon saving could be made of 20% per kilometre by deploying self-healing concrete blocks instead of traditional materials. Also, with inclusion of sensors and data management that will prolong the asset lifetime, yielding additional carbon savings of 10% per kilometre can be made. School of Engineering Dr Luigi Di Sarno Carbon capturing segmental retaining walls with self-healing concrete (CAPTURING-WALLS)
Vermont Construction The research project DORESTIST focuses on the development of resilient and sustainable cladding panels for buildings which replace the use of Ethylene-Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) with innovative eco-friendly and durable materials. Such new materials are selected among either organic materials, e.g. industrialized hemp, which may be assembled as biodegradable plastics, or manufacturing materials, as for example ceramic-based components. Comparative analyses between viable materials are carried in terms of physical, mechanical and durability properties.  School of Engineering Dr Luigi Di Sarno (Engineering)  Development of nOvel REsilient and SustaInable claddIng panelS for building sysTems (DORESIST).
Ideal Modular Homes ReSiliEnt DesigN for SustaINable HiGh-Rise MODular Construction (SENSING-MOD). The project SENSING-MOD focuses on the design of a new cladding system optimized for modular construction that utilizes a material or manufacturing process that either generates less CO2 emissions or utilizes less plastic that other cladding available on the market. The project would be unique in that the final outcomes would be specifically for modular construction systems which are already pushing for de-carbonisation in the construction sector.  School of Engineering Dr Adam Mannis ReSiliEnt DesigN for SustaINable HiGh-Rise MODular Construction (SENSING-MOD)
PSW Integrity Monitoring of Ageing Steel Bridges for Lifetime Extension and Resilience Enhancement (MOST-RESILIENT). Steel bridges are subjected to deterioration due to ageing, as well as corrosion, fatigue of materials, extreme environmental loads, and unexpected impacts. As a result, damage to the bridge superstructure or substructure may occur, such as cracking, delamination, loss of cross section, foundation settlement and others. In a low-carbon economy, it is thus urgent to provide reliable maintenance programmes that can positively impact the lifetime and residual capacity of such existing steel bridges. School of Engineering Monitoring of Ageing Steel Bridges for Lifetime Extension and Resilience Enhancement (MOST-RESILIENT)
Tayhope Green hydrogen generation by fire-flooding depleted oilfields: assessment of the geoscience aspects. Most oilfields have at least 50% of reserves remaining at the end of the field’s life. This PhD will involve a desk-based and modelling study of the geoscience aspects of extracting green hydrogen and carbon sequestration at depleted oilfields.   Earth, Ocean & Ecological Sciences Prof Richard Worden Green hydrogen generation by fire-flooding depleted oilfields: assessment of the geoscience aspects
Titan Electric Advancing Net Zero Geo-Engine Technology for Future Energy Resource Extraction. The Geo-Engine technology can in principle be used to provide net zero power for the existing North Sea gas fields, completely eliminating the need for the current 50 MW diesel generators that each rig uses (note that such power generators account for 3% of UK carbon emissions). More importantly, the Geo-Engine technology is an energy transition enabler with a significant CO2 sequestration potential, with CO2 found either as a natural contaminant in the gas flow or from the on-site generation of blue hydrogen.  School of Engineering Dr Sebastian Timme Advancing Net Zero Geo-Engine Technology for Future Energy Resource Extraction
C-Sure Materials design and manufacture of the high-pressure components within an advanced engineered Geo-Engine. This PhD will focus on developing innovative alternative materials and manufacturing processes that will tolerate increase in the pressure, leading to the harvesting of additional energy with the ERS. This will create both increased energy recovery from ERS giving rise to high efficiencies, an expansion in the ability of the UK to manufacture such systems, and an increase in the knowledge and skills within the UK. School of Engineering Dr Karl Whittle Materials design and manufacture of the high-pressure components within an advanced engineered Geo-Engine.
Flowonthego Interpreting and forecasting coastal hydrodynamics to reduce carbon in shipping and coastal protection.  This will (i) create safer and more economical shipping routes which can help reduce the carbon footprint and carbon emissions created from large shipping vessels when docking import and (ii) help reduce materials for engineering structures used to mitigate flood risk and coastal erosion. School of Engineering Dr Jonny Higham Interpreting and forecasting coastal hydrodynamics to reduce carbon in shipping and coastal protection