Rock Deformation Laboratory

Our laboratory has built a worldwide reputation for excellence and is at the leading edge of research within experimental rock deformation. We can reproduce conditions from the brittle crust to the upper mantle to understand earthquakes to mountain building to mantle flow. We specialize in innovative design of equipment and experiments and most of our equipment was designed and built in Liverpool.

Rock Deformation Laboratory

Triaxial deformation apparatus TR1

  • Servo-controlled confining pressure <200 MPa
  • Servo-controlled pore pressure <200 MPa
  • Strain rates from 10-8 s-1 to 10-5 s-1
  • Temperature <200 degC 

Triaxial deformation apparatus TR2

  • Servo-controlled confining pressure <250 MPa
  • Servo-controlled pore pressure <200 MPa
  • Strain rates from 10-8 s-1 to 10-5 s-1
  • Temperature <200 degC
  • Acoustic measurements (8 electrical feed throughs with axial P and S wave measurements) 

Triaxial deformation apparatus TR3

  • Servo-controlled confining pressure <250 MPa
  • Servo-controlled pore pressure <200 MPa
  • Strain rates from 10-8 s-1 to 10-5 s-1
  • Argon gas confining medium
  • Temperature <800 degC 

Rotary shear apparatus

  • Fully confined ring shear sample assembly
  • Servo-hydraulic axial load actuator <700 kN
  • Fast-acting servo-hydraulic confining pressure <200 MPa
  • Upstream and downstream servo-controlled pore pressure <200 MPa
  • Displacement rates from 0.01 microns/s to 2m/s
  • Acoustic/electrical  measurements (15 electrical feed throughs) 

High-temperature hydrostatic apparatus

  • Servo-controlled confining pressure <200 MPa
  • Servo-controlled pore pressure <200 MPa-1
  • Temperature <800 degC 

Hydrostatic apparatus

  • Servo-controlled confining pressure <200 MPa
  • Servo-controlled upstream and downstream pore pressure control <200 MPa
  • Acoustic measurements (8 electrical feed throughs with axial P and S wave measurements) 

Uniaxial hydraulic press

  • Brazilian jig for tensile strength measurements
  • Acoustic measurements (axial P and S wave measurements)
  • Axial and radial strain gauge measurements 

Solid medium ‘Griggs’ apparatus

  • Confining pressure <2 GPa
  • Strain rates from 10-8 s-1 to 10-4 s-1
  • Temperature <1200 degC 

High temperature creep apparatus

  • Dead-loading creep apparatus design
  • High resolution displacement measurement via a double LVDT displacement cage
  • Temperature <1500 degC
  • Controlled atmosphere furnace; Argon gas, CO2 

High temperature horizontal tube furnace

  • Temperature <1700 degC
  • Controlled atmosphere furnace; Argon gas, CO2 

BET surface area analysis 

Helium pycnometer 

Rock preparation facilities

  • Coring
  • Flat-bed grinder
  • Rotary grinder
  • Large annular saw for cutting of delicate samples
  • Small, high precision, annular saw
  • Slow cutting saw with 2D goniometer 

Contacts

Gary Coughlan: coughlan@liverpool.ac.uk, tel. +44 151 7945149
Dan Faulkner: faulkner@liverpool.ac.uk, tel. +44 151 794 5169
Elisabetta Mariani: mariani@liverpool.ac.uk, tel. +44 151 7945180;