I have been researching the impacts of the internet and digital media on language and culture since 1990. My PhD thesis (1993) is a large-scale linguistic comparison of speech, writing and interpersonal interaction. Starting with a focus on digital media and interpersonal interaction, other work has covered analyses of gender differences in computer-mediated communication, gender and computer gaming, email and letter writing and science in the mass media. I have also explored issues of gender and technology use, workplace ICT use, politics online, ICT use in relation to policing, and the role of digital technologies in arts and culture. Since 2004, I have focused on projects that address issues of digital inclusion and exclusion. In 2017, I seconded to the UK Government’s Department of Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) to act as research lead for the Digital Culture team, helping to develop the first UK “Digital Culture” policy. I am also a member of the Greater Manchester City Region Mayoral Digital Inclusion Action Network, a formal advisor to DCMS, and an academic lead on the DCMS Media Literary Task Force. I am currently completing a research project to explore a "Minimum Digital Living Standard” for UK households.