Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a European intergovernmental process which aims to establish a European standard in higher education and to create a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) based on international co-operation and academic exchange.

About the Bologna Process

The broad objectives of the process include:

  • to facilitate mobility of students, graduates and higher education staff;
  • to prepare students for their future careers and for life as active citizens in democratic societies and to support their personal development;
  • to offer broad access to high-quality higher education based on democratic principles and academic freedom.

One of the recommendations of Bologna is the implementation of an overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA, comprising three cycles of Higher Education (Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate) which is based on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and typically has the following number of credits associated to each level:

  • First cycle - typically 180-240 ECTS credits
  • Second cycle - typically 90-120 ECTS (with a minimum 60 credits at the level of the second cycle)
  • Third cycle - no typical credit allocations stipulated