X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can provide both elemental and chemical state information on a wide range of sample types.
- Surface sensitive – outermost 1 to 10 nm of sample being analysed.
- Elemental composition
- Chemical state
- Depth profile – non-destructive (angle resolved XPS) or destructive using gas cluster ion source
- XPS imaging – lateral distribution of elements on a flat surface.