X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can provide both elemental and chemical state information on a wide range of sample types.

  • Surface sensitive – outermost 1 to 10 nm of sample being analysed.
  • Elemental composition
  • Chemical state
  • Depth profile – non-destructive (angle resolved XPS) or destructive using gas cluster ion source
  • XPS imaging – lateral distribution of elements on a flat surface.
Typical XPS spectra (topmost panel), bottom panels show XPS images of Si oxide, element Si and an overlaid image, where the Si oxide signal is plotted in red, and the elemental Si signal is plotted in green
Typical XPS spectra (topmost panel), bottom panels show XPS images of Si oxide, element Si and an overlaid image, where the Si oxide signal is plotted in red, and the elemental Si signal is plotted in green. XPS images supplied courtesy of Kratos Analytical.